热带地理 ›› 2021, Vol. 41 ›› Issue (4): 734-745.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003369

• 空间治理 • 上一篇    

美国休闲渔业资源空间分布与多中心治理

王娟a,b(), 王柯心a(), 杨晨b   

  1. a.中国海洋大学,管理学院,山东 青岛 266100
    b.中国海洋大学,海洋发展研究院,山东 青岛 266100
  • 收稿日期:2021-01-15 修回日期:2021-04-11 出版日期:2021-08-13 发布日期:2021-08-13
  • 通讯作者: 王柯心 E-mail:wjjasmine@163.com;13336169575@163.com
  • 作者简介:王娟(1978—),女,山东青岛人,副教授,博士,研究方向为区域经济与旅游发展战略,(E-mail)wjjasmine@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家社科基金一般项目(20BJY199);中国海洋发展研究会重点研究项目(CAMAZD201913);山东省社科规划优势学科项目(19BYSJ20)

Spatial Distribution and Polycentric Governance of Recreational Fishery Resources in the United States: A Case Study of Florida

Juan Wanga,b(), Kexin Wanga(), Chen Yangb   

  1. a.School of Management, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China
    b.Institute of Marine Development, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266100, China
  • Received:2021-01-15 Revised:2021-04-11 Online:2021-08-13 Published:2021-08-13
  • Contact: Kexin Wang E-mail:wjjasmine@163.com;13336169575@163.com

摘要:

休闲渔业是美国最受欢迎的户外活动之一,在发展过程中为美国创造了巨大的经济和社会效益,并形成多主体参与的治理机制。文章在分析美国休闲渔业发展现状的基础上,运用最邻近指数、缓冲区分析、泰森多边形和关联维数测度,对佛罗里达州休闲渔业资源分布特征进行空间分析。结果显示,美国休闲渔业形成以淡水为主、咸水为辅的发展格局,其中佛罗里达州休闲渔业资源呈现集聚式、非均衡分布特征,80%的垂钓点位于海岸线20 km以内,各垂钓点之间形成紧密的关联作用。联邦政府、地方政府、行业组织和休闲渔业参与者之间形成的多中心治理模式,能够匹配美国休闲渔业大区域分散、小区域集聚的空间分布特征,适应参与主体多样化、需求差异化的发展需要。有鉴于此,针对中国休闲渔业存在的问题,提出应通过借鉴美国“自下而上”的多中心治理机制,建设服务型政府、行业协会灵活增权以及休闲渔业企业融合创新等措施,推动中国休闲渔业科学管理和高质量发展。

关键词: 休闲渔业, 空间分析, 多中心治理, 美国

Abstract:

Recreational fishery is one of the most popular outdoor activities in the United States. During its development, it has created huge economic and social benefits for the United States and formed a governance mechanism with polycentric participation. Based on the analysis of the current development of recreational fisheries in the United States, this study used the nearest neighbor index, buffer analysis, Tyson polygon and related dimension measurements to spatially analyze the distribution characteristics of recreational fishery resources in Florida. The results demonstrated that the recreational fisheries in the United States have formed a development pattern with fresh water as the mainstay and saltwater as the supplement. Among them, the recreational fishery resources in Florida are characterized by agglomeration and uneven distribution. More precisely, 80% of the recreational fishing sites are located within 20 km of the coastline and close to each other. In its long course of historical development, the United States has formed a flexible power operation mechanism, featuring decentralization and cooperation between the central government and local governments. Large areas scattered, small regional agglomeration spatial patterns have been used to adapt to the large area, and state governments, industry associations, and other bodies have created the main body participation of the polycentric governance mechanism to match the market characteristics of main body participation of the federal government. One of the purposes of polycentric governance is to improve management efficiency. The vast geographic area of the United States and the scattered pattern of large areas of recreational fishery resources increase the cost of management resource allocation and scheduling. Therefore, flexible, multi-level governance models are needed to improve governance effectiveness. Another goal of polycentric governance is to meet the distinctive needs of diverse audiences and provide diversified public services. The characteristics of the recreational fisheries market in the United States, where freshwater is the mainstay and saltwater is supplemented, and the distribution pattern of 'small areas gather, large areas disperse' require multiple governance entities to coordinate their overall development of recreational fisheries, while considering local development needs and characteristics. Accordingly, recreational fisheries in the region are developed to reduce the pressure on the local environment and improve the coordinated development capabilities of related industries. In view of this, this article addresses the problems of China's recreational fisheries and proposes to promote recreational fishery scientific management and high-quality development using a 'from bottom to top' polycentric governance mechanism, the establishment of a service-oriented government, the flexible empowerment of industry associations, and the integration and innovation of recreational fishery enterprises.

Key words: recreational fisheries, spatial analysis, polycentric governance, the United States

中图分类号: 

  • F326.4