热带地理 ›› 2013, Vol. 33 ›› Issue (6): 756-765.

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

明代朝贡贸易体制下澳门的兴起及其与广州的关系

李燕   

  1. 广州市社会科学院 广州 510410
  • 出版日期:2013-12-01 发布日期:2013-12-01
  • 基金资助:
    国家自然科学基金项目(41271164);教育部人文社会科学研究项目基金(09YJAZH105);广东省自然科学基金项目(S2011010002712)

The Rising of Macao and Relations with Guangzhou under the Particular Tribute Trade Policy in the Ming Dynasty

LI Yan   

  • Online:2013-12-01 Published:2013-12-01

摘要: 明中后期澳门的兴起既是历史选择的一次偶然,也是明代特殊海外贸易政策下的必然结果。文章从明代朝贡贸易和市舶司制度的兴衰入手,探讨澳门兴起的动力机制和主要影响因素,特别是在澳门兴起过程中广州所起的作用以及两者的经济互动。同时,基于明代全国视角下的海外贸易与港口分布的总体格局,综合分析澳门、广州以及隆庆以后的月港这3个在明代后期开放的港口,探讨三者在功能、性质、贸易对象等方面的异同点,进一步论证澳门的兴起在很大程度上受益于明代朝贡贸易体制对海外贸易和港口发展的束缚。正是由于广州在明代后期对外通商的垄断性和不完整性,澳门才能以广州外港的性质互补,从而成为当时最大的东西方国际贸易体系之枢纽。

关键词: 广州, 澳门, 经济互补, 朝贡贸易, 明代

Abstract: The rising of Macao in the Middle and Later Periods of the Ming Dynasty was an inevitable outcome since the Ming Government carried out very special foreign trade policy, although Macao was selected by Portuguese occasionally after they went through many changes. The paper tries to explore as a very tiny area why Macao could become a very important port of transshipment in the east-west trade at that time based on the particular tribute trade in the Ming Dynasty, and specially focuses on the influence of Guangzhou and economic relations between Macao and Guangzhou. In addition, the study analyzes the similarities and differences of Macao, Guangzhou and Yuegang, which were the only three open ports in the Later Periods of the Ming Dynasty, from the perspective of national trade. It is believed that the rising of Macao was largely benefited from the restrictions of Tribute Trade Policy of the Ming Dynasty to private foreign trade and traditional port development. Furthermore, Guangzhou had advantage in national foreign trade but shortage in some port functions, that helped Macao to establish the biggest international trade framework in the world at that time to play a role equivalent to an outer port of Guangzhou.

Key words: Guangzhou, Macao, economic complement, Tribute Trade, the Ming Dynasty