热带地理 ›› 2015, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (6): 883-889.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002782

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

20世纪30年代珠江三角洲平原河网结构重建及最大槽蓄容量

侯 鑫,潘 威   

  1. (陕西师范大学 西北历史环境与经济社会发展研究院GIS实验室,西安 710062)
  • 出版日期:2015-11-05 发布日期:2015-11-05
  • 通讯作者: 潘威(1981―),男,上海宝山人,博士,主要从事历史自然地理研究,(E-mail)panwei@snnu.edu.cn。
  • 作者简介:侯鑫(1990―),男,陕西汉中人,硕士研究生,主要从事历史自然地理研究,(E-mail)houxin@snnu.edu.cn
  • 基金资助:

    国家自然科学基金青年项目(41401223);教育部人文社科科学青年基金(12YJC770077);中国科学院黄土与第四纪地质国家重点实验室开放基金课题(SKLLQG1415)

Reconstruction of River Network Structure in the Pearl River Delta Plain and Its Max Channel Storage Capacity during 1930s

HOU Xin,PAN Wei   

  1. (Center for Historical Environment and Socio-Economic Development in Northwest,China Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research,Shaanxi Normal University,Xi’an 710062;China)
  • Online:2015-11-05 Published:2015-11-05

摘要:

基于1954年美国陆军制图局编制的中国地形图、1930―1934年日军参谋本部所绘中国地形图、广东省水文志和研究区各县县志等历史文图资料,重建研究区20世纪30年代的河网模型,对传统农业末期平原河网水系进行高精度复原,计算其最大槽蓄容量并分析其区域特点。结果表明:1)20世纪30年代珠三角河网(除干流河道)的最大槽蓄容量为6.78亿~20.75亿m3,其极值为20.75亿m3,平均值为13.38万m3/km2。其中1级河道最大槽蓄容量占总量的33.5%~49.1%,对于整个河网的容蓄洪水能力及水资源调度能力影响更大。与现阶段不同,传统农业时代末期(20世纪30年代)珠三角河网的槽蓄容量与河网密度呈正相关,槽蓄容量的大小受河网密度的影响较为明显。2)20世纪30年代珠三角河网的形成与传统时期的农业开发有着密切的关系,当时的河网水系是自然发育与该时期围田业对其开发、围垦的共同结果,围田开发的兴修堤围、挑挖河道等活动对于河网的扩展及其最大槽蓄容量的增加具有客观上的促进作用。

关键词: 河网结构, 最大槽蓄容量, 珠三角

Abstract:

Based on the China topographic maps compiled by US Army Map Service in 1954, maps made by Japanese Military Headquarters from 1930 to 1934, hydrology chronicles of Guangdong and local records of every counties in research area, by reconstructing river network models of research area in the 1930s and with high precision recovering the plain river network and river systems during the last phase of traditional agriculture, its max channel storage capacity was to be calculated and preliminary analysis about regional characteristics could be obtained. Results indicate that: 1)The max storage capacity of the Pearl River Delta (excluding the main river channel) in the 1930s was ranging from 6.78×108 m3 to 20.75×108 m3, with an extremum being 20.75×108 m3 and average value being 13.38×104 m3/km2. Accounting for 33.5%~49.1% of the total channel storage capacity, the first grade watercourse had a far greater impact on flood capacity of the entire river and scheduling ability of water resources. Different from the present stage, the channel storage capacity of the Pearl River Delta at the last phase of traditional agricultural era (the 1930s) was positively correlated with drainage density. And it is obvious that the size of the channel storage capacity was affected by drainage density. 2) The formation of the Pearl River Delta in the 1930s had a close relationship with the agricultural development in traditional period. The river water system at that time was an outcome of natural development and diked field in traditional era. Building bunds, digging and dredging rivers and other ways of field development objectively promote the expansion of the river and increase in the max channel storage capacity.

Key words: river network structure, max channel storage capacity, the Pearl River Delta