热带地理 ›› 2018, Vol. 38 ›› Issue (4): 465-474.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003062

• 论文 • 上一篇    下一篇

怒江流域云南段生物多样性保护地人为干扰分析

周建国a,b,李新旺b,胡金明a,b,杨飞龄a,b,刘 锋a,b,邱 成a,b   

  1. (a.云南省国际河流与跨境生态安全重点实验室;b.云南大学 国际河流与生态安全研究院,昆明 650091)
  • 出版日期:2018-07-05 发布日期:2018-07-05
  • 通讯作者: 胡金明(1973―),男,博士,教授,主要研究方向为自然地理学,(E-mail)hujm@ynu.ecu.cn。
  • 作者简介:周建国(1994―),男,安徽安庆人,硕士研究生,主要研究方向为生物多样性保护,(E-mail)849070764@qq.com。
  • 基金资助:
    云南省应用基础研究基金(2015FA011);国家自然科学基金(41461018、41701110)

Human Disturbance of Biodiversity Conservation Areas in the Nujiang River Basin in Yunnan Province

ZHOU Jianguoa,b,LI Xinwangb,HU Jinminga,b,YANG Feilinga,b,LIU Fenga,b,QIU Chenga,b   

  1. (a.Yunnan Key Laboratory of International Rivers and Transboundary Eco-security;b.Institute of International Rivers and Eco-security, Yunnan University,Kunming 650091,China)
  • Online:2018-07-05 Published:2018-07-05

摘要: 基于乡镇单元选取具有代表性的人为干扰社会经济指标,计算怒江流域云南段2005、2010、2015年各乡镇人为干扰指数(HDI-Human Disturbance Index),分析了怒江流域云南段乡镇单元、已建自然保护区和相关保护优先区的人为干扰强度变化。结果表明:2005年以来,研究区乡镇HDI整体呈增长趋势,低和较低HDI乡镇数量减少但整体HDI增长,中度和较高HDI乡镇数量和整体HDI都增加,高HDI乡镇数量增加不大但整体HDI增幅最大;各级自然保护区人为干扰强度都呈增加趋势,国家自然保护区增幅最大达到较低人为干扰强度,省级自然保护区一直为较低人为干扰强度,县级自然保护区处于中度人为干扰强度,需加强永德大雪山、龙陵小黑山、临沧澜沧江、南捧河4个自然保护区所涉中度及以上HDI乡镇的人为干扰管理,避免人为干扰压力的大幅增加;研究区分布的3类保护优先区人为干扰强度缓慢增长,至2015年基本为低或较低人为干扰状态,有优化的空间和潜力;建议在怒江流域云南段上游增设碧罗雪山自然保护区,在下游考虑已建自然保护区外部空间扩展和自然保护区斑块间的生态廊道构建,在其他中度或较高HDI乡镇可根据保护需求开展迁地保护或自然保护小区建设。

关键词: 人为干扰, 怒江流域, 保护区, 生物多样性保护

Abstract: This study selected six socio-economic indicators to calculate the Human Disturbance Index (HDI) in 2005, 2010 and 2015 for towns, and then existed Nature Reserve and Priority Conservation Area (PCA) in the Nujiang River Basin in Yunnan (NRBY). We classified HDI in five levels: slight, light, moderate, severe, and extreme. Results showed since 2005, NRBY towns’ HDI overall increased; the numbers of slight and light HDI towns decreased, but moderate, severe and extreme HDI towns increased. The HDI of National, Provincial and County NRs overall increased since 2005 and separately reached light, light and moderate levels in 2015. Around or even within some NRs (Yongde Snow Mountain, Longling Xiaoheishan, Lincang Lancang River, Nanpeng River), there were some moderate or even extreme HDI towns, where human disturbances should be controlled to avoid further increase of these NRs’ HDI. The HDI of three types of PCAs in NRBY showed slow increasing and remained slight or light HDI level in 2015. According to the spatial patterns of existed NRs, PCAs, township HDI status in NRBY, we proposed three kinds of modes to optimize existed NRBY NRs’ system: establishing new NR in Biluo Snow Mountain in upstream part of NRBY, expanding existed NRs or establishing ecological corridors among the different patches of existed NRs in the downstream part of NRBY, carrying on ex-situ conservation or establish small nature reserves within the moderate or extreme HDI towns in the midstream part of NRBY.

Key words: Human Disturbance Index, Nujiang River Basin, nature reserves, Biodiversity conservation