Table of Content

    05 September 2023, Volume 43 Issue 9 Previous Issue   
    Research Progress on Wave-Beach-Dune Interactions
    Wei Tian, Yuxiang Dong
    2023, 43 (9):  1665-1677.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003729
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    Searching the key words' wave-beach-dune interactions' in Web of Science, nearly 100 domestical and overseas publications since the 1980s have been analyzed and reviewed. This stuyd summarizes major advances at different temporal-spatial scales. The issues of integration between them are clarified by sorting the conceptual models and categorizing development stages. Additionally, research opportunities and challenges are identified. Studies on wave-beach-dune interactions have been initiated since 1980s and developed through the following three stages: theory proposed and improved, expansion of study areas, and in-depth exploration. The conceptual models have been developed from simple to reliable models across a range of micro-, meso-, and macro-scales. Studies were initially conducted by taking advantage of only field survey and bathymetry maps. Nowadays, collaborated technology and methods have been applied in studying coastal landforms through in-situ field monitoring, wind tunnel trial, 3S technologies, and numerical simulation. Study areas extended and expanded from southeast Australian coasts to Europe, South and North America, and Asian coasts. Although plenty of relevant reports have been published, some issues exist. Owing to their highly temporal-spatial heterogeneity, it is difficult to find a universal conceptual model for the worldwide coastal dune systems. At the micro-scale, as the complex process of wave-tide hydrological and aeolian dynamic imposed on surfzone-beach-dune and limitation of monitoring data utility, the existing theoretical model cannot completely reveal the mechanism of the terrestrial-marine interface and beach-dune landform response and feedback to wind dynamics. At the mesoscale, many mechanisms of dune response to storm surges have been proposed, but few are from the perspective of the surfzone-beach-dune as a whole system. More case studies based on observation are needed, which will benefit in-depth exploration. Furthermore, more long-term monitoring and refined models are required to build the bridge between fundamental process-response dynamics (events scale) and medium-long-term landforms topography changes and evolution. At the macroscale, given the alongshore sediment transport and supply, sea level rise rate, and landward and seaward sediment transport, prediction models of coastal geomorphological changes induced by sea level rise should be tested and supported by multi-temporal-spatial observation and monitoring data. Future studies will continue collaborating the historical reports and site monitoring techniques with high-resolution images interpretation to comprehensively understand the relationships between dynamic-response process and landforms geomorphology evolution by integration of environmental variables and surfzone, beach, and dune landforms investigation. The numerical simulation will reveal the mechanisms of wave-beach-dune interactions across micro-, meso-, and macro-scales and redefine theoretical concepts.

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    Coastal Zone Special Planning of an Estuary City: A Case Study of Guangzhou City, Guangdong Province
    Jianjun Wang, Xinzhao Dai, Shouxu Chen, Shenxi Cao
    2023, 43 (9):  1678-1688.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003740
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    Coastal zone special planning is an important part of the territory spatial planning system in coastal cities. In the coastal zone of estuary cities, river and sea intersect, multiple spatial elements overlap, and the contradiction between development and protection is prominent. Therefore, discussing the entirety of coastal special planning for estuary cities has great theoretical and practical value. To address the technical difficulties facing the estuary city coastal zone special plan, including the delineation of the coastal zone, overall planning of the estuary and coastal space, and coordination of the planning management systems, we proposed solutions targeted to these matters in Guangzhou. (1) Method of delineating the scope of the coastal zone: We combined the delineation criteria proposed by the superior plan with the results of the shoreline revision survey to make an initial delineation of the coastal zone. Then, we connected the management units and social management boundaries along the coast of the overall territorial space plan and the specific features on the landward side to delineate the land boundary. We took all sea areas and islands in Guangzhou as the scope of the sea area study. (2) Spatial pattern construction idea of "overall structure + development unit." The overall structure is based on the "two spatial internal" red lines of the sea and ecological protection red line of the land area, the urban development boundary. The dual evaluation results and other spatial baseline schemes were used to determine the spatial scope, and the land and sea development unit was based on the integrity of the ecosystem, with development and utilization of the correlation to the comprehensive delineation. (3) Spatial control program of "multi-dimensional research and judgment + classification and control." For the nearshore sea area and coastline, two types of space were set up as control measures, respectively. At the nearshore sea area, in accordance with the development and protection of zoning to establish control objectives and response rules, the coastline was subdivided into the four types of production protection coast, production operations coast, living waterfront, and ecological protection for the implementation of the zoning classification of differentiated control measures. (4) Comprehensive management system design of "municipal coordination, planning first, and industrial access." First, the municipal government establishes a leading group for marine work. Second, the requirements of higher policies and planning are implemented and preparation for special planning for coastal zones and detailed planning for coastal areas is promoted. Third, industrial access standards implemented by zoning are established based on the retreat line of coastal buildings. Compared with other coastal cities, the preparation of special coastal zone planning of estuarine cities should pay more attention to the overall and partial hierarchical coordination, the categorical control of land and sea multiple spaces, and the oversight, guidance and constraint of cross-departmental management rules, so as to enrich the technical system of coastal zone special planning and promote the effective implementation of the land-sea integrated strategy in estuarine coastal areas.

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    Assessment of Multi-Spectral Imagery and Machine Learning Algorithms for Shallow Water Bathymetry Inversion
    Zhaofan Wang, Zicheng Ma, Zhongzhao Xiong, Tiancheng Sun, Zanhui Huang, Dinghui Fu, Liang Chen, Fei Xie, Cuirong Xie, Si Chen
    2023, 43 (9):  1689-1700.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003742
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    The eastern coastal zone of Hainan Island is an important scenic belt and concentrated area of tourism resources in Hainan Province. Due to natural factors such as sea level rise and human factors such as coastal reclamation, the ecosystem in this area is highly sensitive. Water depth data are crucial for the protection and management of the coastal ecosystem. Satellite remote sensing data combined with machine learning algorithms have become an important means of shallow water depth inversion. However, few studies evaluate shallow water depth inversion for different remote sensing data, water environmental conditions, and algorithms. Taking the Wanning Sea area as an example, three scenes of Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 data with different water environmental conditions were selected to apply water depth inversion. The Sentinel-2 data were collected on February 11th, 2022, with some suspended matter and poor water transparency in the nearshore water, and the image exhibited band-like reflectance anomalies caused by waves. The Landsat-8 data were collected on July 16, 2019, and June 28th, 2021. Both scenes had better water transparency than the Sentinel-2 data, and relatively less suspended matter in the nearshore water. Compared to the Landsat-8 data collected on June 28th, 2021, the image of Landsat-8 data collected on July 16th, 2019, showed stronger wave features in the nearshore water. A 1:25,000 maritime chart of the Potou Port and Dazhou Island (C1516171) area released by the China Maritime Safety Administration was collected to obtain 588 measured water depth data points in the study area. Among these, 295 randomly selected data points were used as training data for the remote sensing water depth inversion, and the remaining 293 data points were used as testing data to evaluate the accuracy of the inversion models. A total of three machine learning methods, including Random Forest regression, Support Vector Machine, and Partial Least Squares Regression, were used for water depth inversion experiments, and their accuracy was evaluated. The results indicated that the Landsat-8 data (20190716) with the best water transparency and weakest wave effect achieved the highest accuracy in water depth inversion. In the water depth range of 0-40 m, the R2 was 0.814, and the MAE, RMSE, and MAPE were 3.39 m, 4.31 m, and 0.366, respectively. In the water depth range of 0-20 m, the R2 was 0.874, and the MAE, RMSE, and MAPE were 2.24 m, 3.24 m, and 0.449, respectively. The RF algorithm obtained relatively high accuracy in the entire water depth range, while the SVM and PLSR algorithms displayed advantages in some shallow water depth inversions. The spatial resolution of optical remote sensing images is not an absolute positive correlation with the accuracy of water depth inversion. The hydrological characteristics of the water bodies in the remote sensing images have a significant impact on water depth inversion accuracy. Factors such as water transparency, suspended matter concentration, and seawater waves will affect the inversion accuracy. In the process of using optical remote sensing data for shallow water depth inversion, data with high water transparency and calm water conditions should be selected for modeling and inversion. The results have certain reference value for data source and algorithm selection in shallow water depth inversion based on multispectral remote sensing data.

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    The Technological Change Mechanism of Port-Vicinity Enterprise: The Theoretical Analysis Based on Evolutionary Economic Geography
    Nan Li, Yi Yang
    2023, 43 (9):  1701-1711.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003738
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    The environment of a port city can shape the technological behavior of port-vicinity enterprise and then can influence their innovation performance. Conversely, the technological change of port-vicinity enterprise can determine the transformation and upgrade toward diversification of the port city. The limitation of the current research is that it could not be refined to port enterprises from the regional or industrial level and could not fit the dynamic trajectory of technological change of port-vicinity enterprises. Benefiting from the "evolutionary turn" of economic geography in recent years, the target of evolutionary economic geography, which fuses temporal and spatial factors, is to understand the historical process of economic evolution; hence, evolutionary economic geography is the appropriate platform to analyze this topic. This study integrates the main perspectives of evolutionary economic geography, including generalized Darwinism, complexity theory, and path dependence, to explain the behavior characteristics of port-vicinity enterprises such as technology search and selection, path locking, and so on. An evolutionary analysis framework was constructed for the technological change mechanism of port-vicinity enterprises and demonstrated the applicability and value space of evolutionary economic geography on this theme. The findings conclude the following: 1)Observed from the perspective of generalized Darwinism, the heterogenous port-vicinity enterprises have different technology selection mechanisms in market competition, and the technological change is similar to the biological population evolution. The entry and exit of enterprises and technology reset of existing enterprises contribute jointly to the spatiotemporal evolution of port-vicinity enterprises' technology. 2)Under the premise of bounded rationality, the technological change of port-vicinity enterprise was conducted by local search, the preferable innovation performance could be achieved on the certain position between cognitive proximity and distance. For complex technology networks and different technology paths, port-vicinity enterprises need to adapt and make constant trade-offs to promote the diversified technological path of the port city. With the gradual progress of the port life cycle, the type of distribution and technical level of port-vicinity enterprises will change greatly, leading to the unbalanced development of port cities. (3) The path dependence of port-vicinity enterprises' technological change is a series of temporary equilibrium. The evolution of the technological path of such enterprises can be divided into four stages and face three obstacles (functional, cognitive, and institutional locking). The embeddedness of technological change of port-vicinity enterprises leads to spatial dependence. The windows of locational opportunity of emerging industries will be mainly grasped by port cities with greater inclusiveness and diversity. Past port activities may have strengthened the dependence on heavy chemical industry, locking port cities in the low technology path; therefore, the formation of a new technological path needs the combined action of internal and external forces.

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    Evolution of Industry-University-Research Cooperative Innovation Network and Influencing Factors of Innovation Performance in China's Marine Industry
    Jianke Guo, Dongcui Tian, Kai Hu
    2023, 43 (9):  1712-1725.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003741
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    Taking the marine industry as the breakthrough point, based on the data of joint patent application of marine industry in the last 20 years, this study analyzes the cooperative network of different stages using complex network analysis. This approach reveals the evolution process, spatial structure, and influencing factors of network innovation performance of China's marine industry. The results reveal the following: (1) The cooperative network in 2000-2001 does not have the characteristics of complex networks. From 2002 to 2019, the "small world" and scale-free characteristics of the cooperation network gradually became obvious, indicating that China's marine industry had formed an organic connection of industry-university-research cooperation network since 2002. Before 2008, the network expansion speed was slow and the network structure gradually loosened. From 2009 to 2016, the network expansion speed accelerated and the network was optimized. After 2017, the network expanded rapidly and inter-agency cooperation was efficient. Taking 2008 and 2016 as dividing points, the network was divided into embryonic, exploration, and rapid development stages. The cooperative network has exhibited a loose, dual-core multilateral radiation structure, and has gradually evolved into a single-core topology with China Offshore Oil Group Co., Ltd. (2) In the evolution process of cooperative innovation networks, universities have always been an important network resource transfer hub and have control of most resources. With the enhancement of the dominant position of innovation, state-owned enterprises' ability to control resources has greatly improved, gradually occupying the core position of the network. Under the influence of policy promotion, market selection, and practical needs for the transformation and development of the marine industry, an industry-university-research cooperation network has been formed, with the enterprise-enterprise cooperation mode as the core and the enterprise-research cooperation mode and school-enterprise cooperation mode as the focus. (3) Under the impetus of coastal cities, the number of patents with which inland cities cooperate increased the fastest. The main body of industry-university-research innovation is concentrated in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta. Beijing occupies the core position of the urban innovation network with an absolute advantage. The urban cooperative network is characterized by an "umbrella" structure and has obvious "heavy tail" characteristics. This shows that the development of marine science and technology mainly depends on the cooperation and innovation between coastal cities and a small number of inland cities, such as Beijing and Wuhan, affected by geographical distance and urban economic development level. (4) Impulse response analysis reveals that network scale, marine industry GDP, and scientific research personnel input can positively promote the innovation performance of cooperative networks. The research institutions, universities, and enterprises in the innovation subjects can stimulate the innovation output of the network and the importance of the three decreases in turn. Network density and small-world quotient are negatively correlated with network innovation output.

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    Bird Diversity of Maofeng Mountain Forest Park in Guangzhou
    Fuchun Tong, Zewei Zheng, Jiali Lin, Zijun Huang, Xuanzong Yang, Mufan Wu, Xiaoling Zhang, Yihua Xiao
    2023, 43 (9):  1726-1737.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003674
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    Birds are excellent indicators of ecosystems and environmental conditions because they are responsive to habitat change and have important ecological functions. When birds are dependent on habitat functioning in specific ways, the population trends of birds can provide insights into ecosystem function. We conducted monthly bird surveys and monitored birds in Maofeng Mountain Forest Park from November 2020 to March 2022 by combining line transect and camera-trapping methods. These results help estimate bird community structure, bird diversity, and habitat influence. The study area was divided into three types of habitat according to vegetation type and human interference. In addition, 6 line-transects and 30 infrared cameras were used in this study. A total of 2,253 independent images were collected with up to 3,561 camera days during the study period. A total of 143 bird species belonging to 16 orders and 46 families were recorded in this study. Among these species, 18 are second-class national protected species, eight are listed in Appendix II of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species, and 10 are key protected wild animals in Guangdong Province. Pycnonotus jocosus, Pycnonotus aurigaster, Alcippe morrisonia, and Zosteropssimplex were the dominant species in forest parks. Accipiter trivirgatus, Pitta nympha, Garrulax canorus, and Lophura nycthemera, which are rare and threatened species, were found in the forest park. Based on the residential habitats of these species, the dominant 80 species (proportion:55.94%) were in the Oriental biogeographical realm. The widespread species and the Palaearctic species had 32 (proportion: 22.38%) and 31 species (proportion: 21.68%), respectively. Ninety species of resident birds were dominant among all types of birds in the forest park. The main ecological type, with 132 species, was forest birds. In terms of eating types, most birds were insectivorous and omnivorous, with 67 species (proportion: 46.85%) and 46 species (proportion: 32.17%), respectively, suggesting that Maofeng Mountain Forest Park is an important site for forest bird communities. In terms of habitats, we also found that the Shannon-Wiener index, Simpson index, and Margalef index of birds were highest in forest habitats and lowest in road habitats. The Pielou evenness index of birds showed no significant differences among the habitats. In terms of seasons, the Shannon-Wiener and Margalef indices of birds were highest in spring and lowest in summer. Nevertheless, the Pielou evenness and Simpson indices of birds were not significantly different among the four seasons. The Pielou evenness index was similar to the Simpson index. Moreover, a general linear mixed model was used for the analysis, which showed that the richness and abundance index of birds were significantly correlated with changes in habitats and seasons. In summary, there were different kinds of habitats, abundant forest bird resources, stable bird community structures, and high bird diversity in Maofeng Mountain Forest Park. Birds with a more stable structure and higher diversity in the forest habitat imply that decreased human interference promotes bird inhabitation. This study provides basic data for biodiversity monitoring and assessment in Maofeng Mountain Forest Park and its surrounding forests.

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    Investigation on the Conservation Consciousness of an Important Pollination Insect: Stingless Bee in Hainan Tropical Rainforest National Park
    Xin Chen, Shan Zhao, Linming Li, Huazhou Wu, Zhe Zhang, Jinglin Gao, Shijie Wang
    2023, 43 (9):  1738-1746.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003732
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    Stingless bees (Hymenoptera: Meloponini) play a significant ecological role in tropical and subtropical regions. They have good utilization value in pollination, medicinal applications, and industrial raw materials. However, the habitats of stingless bees have experienced fragmentation owing to anthropogenic interventions in the natural environment. Consequently, this disruption precipitated a substantial decline in both population abundance and species diversity, placing them at risk of endangerment. Recognizing this scenario, implementing measures to safeguard and judiciously exploit the stingless bee population has become imperative because it has a profound impact on the harmonized advancement of domains encompassing agriculture, medicine, and ecological diversity. From July 2020 to June 2021, comprehensive questionnaire surveys were methodically conducted. The methods employed included participatory interviews and random interception sampling techniques, culminating in a dataset of 291 validated questionnaires. These surveys indicated that the denizens of the communities surrounding the national park predominantly comprise ethnic groups such as Li and Miao. These groups continue to rely primarily on traditional natural resources for their sustenance and livelihood. However, their awareness of the importance of conserving the stingless bee population remains conspicuously deficient. Among the residents displaying the willingness and capacity to contribute to stingless bee conservation efforts, their inclinations appear to be influenced by factors such as prior experience in beekeeping, comprehension of stingless bee products, and demand for beekeeping techniques. Analysis of the survey results underscores a conspicuous gap in the fundamental understanding of the value of stingless bees and their products. Among the community residents, 64.04% lacked this essential comprehension. Furthermore, 91.67% of community residents did not engage in stingless bee breeding activities, and 39.06% were unwilling to learn beekeeping techniques. These findings underscore multifaceted issues within the community pertaining to legal and regulatory frameworks for stingless bee conservation, the popularization of science regarding stingless bees, stingless bee breeding techniques, and other aspects. These inadequacies pose substantial impediments to the sustainable development of stingless bee resources in Hainan Tropical Rainforest National Park. Given these challenges, conservation of stingless bees within the Hainan Tropical Rainforest National Park has emerged as an enduring and pivotal undertaking. In the promotion process, a strategy that encompasses enhanced science communication and public consciousness campaigns is essential. Fostering a positive public disposition towards conservation efforts, encouraging autonomous participation by residents in the conservation of stingless bees, and fostering a balanced coexistence between managed breeding and the protection of wild populations are vital approaches to ensuring the sustainability of stingless bee resources.

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    The Impact of Urban Green Space on Mental Wellbeing: Research Progress and Recommendations
    Ye Liu, Jiarui He, Ruoyu Wang, Zhigang Li
    2023, 43 (9):  1747-1759.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003733
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    The provision of a high-quality ecological environment is essential for the quality of life of residents. As an important component of the urban ecological environment, the relationship between urban green spaces and public health requires further investigation. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the Chinese and international literature on how urban green spaces affect mental well-being. First, it introduces different approaches of measuring the use of and exposure to urban green spaces. The most commonly used indicators for measuring the use and exposure to urban green spaces include Surrounding Greenness, Access to Green Spaces, Green Viewing Rate and Green Space Quality and Usage Satisfaction. The main advantages of Surrounding Greenness are wide spatial coverage, long timespan, and low cost; however, the accuracy of measuring exposure is relatively low. Researchers have extensively used access to green spaces. Because the bird's-eye perspective cannot fully reflect resident perceptions of park green spaces, scholars have used the green view ratio, which has the advantages of wide coverage, low cost, easy access, and small data deviation. Greenspace quality and usage satisfaction are also important measurement indicators, and their main advantages are low operational difficulty and the ability to reflect residents' subjective evaluations more accurately. It then elucidates the "environmental stress reduction-restoration-instoration" mechanisms underlying the effect of urban green spaces on mental well-being. Specifically, urban green spaces can affect the mental health of residents by reducing the harm arising from heat and pollution, restoring capacity, and building capacity. Green spaces alleviate environmental pressure by purifying air, reducing noise, and alleviating the heat island effect, thereby promoting residents' mental well-being. People can alleviate their psychological stress and restore their ability to control attention by viewing green spaces, thereby protecting their mental health and providing a favorable and convenient venue for residents to conduct physical activities and socialize with their neighbors, which is beneficial to their mental wellbeing. Subsequently, it illustrates the moderating effect of opportunities to use urban green spaces, motivation to use urban green spaces, and ease of using urban green spaces on mental wellbeing from a "socio-ecological" perspective. Finally, it indicates that the current body of literature has several limitations and that future research agendas should be centered on research content, data, perspectives, and methods. Specifically, (1) for research content, the effect of green spaces on the mental well-being of different social and cultural groups is poorly understood. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the analysis of the sociocultural mechanism of the effect of urban green spaces to enrich the existing research framework. (2) Most previous studies used one method to measure the level of greenspace exposure or usage. It is advisable to use a variety of methods to measure the level of greenspace exposure or usage both subjectively and objectively. (3) From a research perspective, most previous studies have used a research paradigm based on local and static analysis, failing to solve the Uncertain Geographic Context Problem (UGCoP). Therefore, it is necessary to adopt a human-centered perspective and accurately measure the impact of green space exposure on residents' mental well-being in their residential neighborhoods, workplaces, and other activity spaces. (4) Researchers need to solve the problem of residential self-selection when investigating the effect of urban green spaces on mental well-being and explore nonlinear complex relationships using advanced methods such as machine learning.

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    Spatial-Temporal Characteristics and Relations with Economy of Suicide Phenomenon in China from 2000 to 2018
    Shengsheng Gong, Chunming Li, Kemei Xiao
    2023, 43 (9):  1760-1776.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003743
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    Suicide is a serious negative social phenomenon. In this study, we used Python technology to obtain suicide death data from a network and applied mathematical statistical and geographic spatial analyses to study the spatial-temporal characteristics of suicide deaths and the relationship between suicide rate and economic development in China from 2000 to 2018. Following conclusions were drawn from the results. (1) The number of suicide deaths in China is on the rise. Within a year, the high-incidence period of suicide deaths is from May to June, whereas the low-incidence period is from February to March. Within a month, the 1st, 10th, and 20th days have the highest incidences of suicide deaths. Within a day, 77.2% of the suicide deaths occur from 06:00 to 19:00, and 09:00 and 15:00 were the peak times in which suicide deaths take place. (2) A total of 90.98% of the suicide deaths occur in southeast China. The suicide rate is higher in the southeast than in the northwest, higher in the south than in the north, and decreases gradually from east to west. At county level, a relatively high suicide rate is seen in regions spanning from Great Khingan Mountains to Yunnan Guizhou Plateau, from Qinling-Dabashan Mountains to Dabie Mountains, and from the coast of northern Jiangsu to Hainan Island. (3) Most areas in China present a low-grade suicide rate. However, low-grade areas appeared to change to high-grade areas during the period 2000–2018. The hotspots of suicide deaths spread from east to west, except for the Beijing–Tianjin–Tangshan area, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta, which have always been suicide hotspots. (4) The spatial and temporal characteristics of suicide deaths in China are closely related to economic development, and on a city scale, the suicide rate has a significant positive correlation with the per capita GDP and urbanization rate. The impact of economic factors on suicide rate is greater on the southeast coast than on the northwest inland. An important conclusion from this study is that the gap between the rich and poor is a key factor, leading to psychological imbalance and suicidal behavior in the poor; therefore, only the new development path based on common prosperity is the road for people to reach happiness and health. In addition, in this study, we prove that network suicide data, obtained using the web-crawler technology (Python), not only have the same consistency and credibility as sampling statistics but also have a better spatiotemporal resolution, with a temporal resolution of one hour and spatial resolution of a county. Therefore, by analyzing this spatiotemporal dataset, we can scientifically extract the time differences in suicide deaths at quarterly, monthly, daily, and hourly scales and the spatial differences in suicide deaths at regional, provincial, and county scales. In the future, network suicide data may become an important data source for suicide research, and the use of the Internet to monitor suicidal behavior may become an important method of suicide intervention.

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    Spatiotemporal Evolution of the Matching Relationship between the Elderly Population and Facilities for the Elderly: A Case Study of Guangzhou
    Liuqing Zhou, Tingting Zhou, Li Wang, Bo Wang
    2023, 43 (9):  1777-1786.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003739
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    As places providing professional living care, facilities for the elderly (hereafter abbreviated as "facilities") are playing an increasingly important role in China's old-age service system. Evidence suggests that older adults who receive living care from nearby facilities enjoy better health outcomes than those who move to facilities over long distances. Therefore, a higher level of matching between the elderly population and facilities is crucial for improving service efficiency and facility support. Taking Guangzhou as a case study, this study collected data on the population census and facilities from 2000 to 2020. The data were used to analyze the spatiotemporal evolution of the elderly population, facilities, and their matching relationships, focusing on microscale units (i.e., sub-districts and towns). The results show that the uneven spatial distribution of both the elderly population and facilities is becoming more evident. Specifically, there is a stable "high-low-middle" sphere structure of the elderly population distribution. While the central areas are already home to an aged society, suburban areas have a relatively low level of population aging owing to the concentration of the modern service industry and strategic emerging industries that attract the working-age population. Accordingly, the level of population aging in outskirts is between those of the central and suburban areas. Compared to the consistent sphere structure of the elderly population distribution, the number of facilities has evolved from an even distribution to a polarized distribution that decreases stepwise from the inside to the outside. Although populations in both areas have aged rapidly, the number of facilities have increased considerably in the central areas, whereas limited growth has occurred in the outskirts. Second, from a global perspective, although the matching relationship between the elderly population and facilities has improved, the level remains low. Specifically, the Gini coefficient of the elderly population and facilities decreased from 0.62 in 2000 to 0.54 in 2020. However, even by 2020, 30% of the elderly population was able to enjoy living care from nearly 60% of facilities; instead, approximately 10% of the elderly population was not well covered by facilities. Third, from a local perspective, improvement in the matching relationship between the elderly population and facilities did not occur equally across Guangzhou. Specifically, although most sub-districts and towns have witnessed an improvement from a low level of "mismatch" to a medium level of "match," these sub-districts and towns are mainly distributed in Tianhe and Huangpu. Generally, even by 2020, few sub-districts and towns reached a high level of "match" relationship between the elderly population and facilities. The percentage of these subdistricts and towns, which are mainly concentrated in the central areas and are located near Baiyun and Panyu, has slowly increased from 25.4% in 2000 to 32.4% in 2020. Finally, some policy measures regarding the spatial planning of facilities have been independently proposed for the central areas, suburban areas, and outskirts based on the specific spatiotemporal evolution characteristics of the matching relationship between the elderly population and facilities during the last two decades.

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    Everyday Life and Social Space Evolution of Culture-Led Regeneration Based on Field Theory: A Case Study of Pingjiang and Xietang Districts in Suzhou
    Yihan Liu, Tianke Zhu, Xiaojin Cao
    2023, 43 (9):  1787-1799.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003734
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    As an important driving force to stimulate urban development, cultural consumption is often implanted into traditional streets, breaking the original homogeneous field environment and gradually promoting the dissolution and differentiation of social relations. In the context of cultural oriented urban renewal, it is significant to explore the evolution of social space during the renewal process, which is of great importance for their sustainable development. In the field theory, Bourdieu's "nonbinary opposition" view has a high degree of theoretical application adaptability with the historical districts that gather cultural consumption and daily life in sharp contrast. The integration of daily life theory also provides a means for analyzing the subject's behavior and field construction, which is a supplement to the existing research on cultural oriented urban renewal. Combined with the theory of everyday life practice, this study established a social space analysis framework based on field theory and explored the mechanism of social space evolution in the field of cultural consumption and everyday life. Taking Pingjiang road and Xietang street districts in Suzhou as case studies, this study used qualitative methods of participatory observation and in-depth interview. The results reveal the following: 1) Different locations lead to significant differences in the historical and cultural accumulation of districts and the cost of space regeneration, which also determines the plasticity and typicality during the renewal development itself. Historical districts located in the center of the ancient city have accumulated a large number of typical historical and cultural capital in the long-term stable environment. In contrast, districts located in new urban areas may be more vulnerable to being damaged and influenced in the process of modern urban development. 2) The development foundation of the districts will have an impact on the decision-making. The governance transmits their practical intentions through system, planning, and other decisions, and their intervention timing and implementation strength may directly affect the direction and practical results of strategic discipline. 3) Renovation promotes the reconstruction and organization of the social space inside the districts, and is divided into two fields: everyday life and cultural consumption. Consequently, two situations exist between the fields in these two cases: intertwined balance and mutual stripping. Retaining the Aboriginal everyday life field does not necessarily lead to an "either or" conflict outcome, and it can even enhance the creativity of everyday life initiatively or passively. However, the separation of Aboriginal may inevitably lead to common consumption or elitism. Reflecting on the spatial practices of the historical districts in Suzhou, there is no unified renewal paradigm that can be applied to all historical districts. The capital accumulation formed under different development environments will limit the decision-making and renewal path. Additionally, during the renewal period, the continuous debugging according to the stage effect makes the district renewal a dynamic change that cannot be completely predicted for a long time. However, activating the community attribute of districts during urban regeneration is not only the core driving force to maintaining the flavor of life and continue local culture but also an important competitiveness to stimulate cultural consumption with real situational experience. Therefore, practicing orientation with humanism, and promoting the positive evolution of social space to realize the symbiosis of cultural consumption and everyday life should be the proper meaning of urban renewal in cultural oriented historical districts.

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    Analyzing the Self-Organized Evolution of Informal Spaces in Urban Villages: Reflections from Shenxiang Village in Suzhou
    Jie Cheng, Haoze Li, Yong Wang
    2023, 43 (9):  1800-1808.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003735
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    Informal spaces in urban villages represent a spatial chimera of socio-economic activities arising from driving social demands. Investigating the evolution and inherent rules of such spaces can provide direction and strategies for good governance. This study analyzes the process and outcomes of the self-organized evolution of informal spaces by considering their self-organizational characteristics. Herein, the Shenxiang village, which is a typical mature urban village in Suzhou, was considered as an example. We adopted qualitative research methods, such as questionnaire surveys and semi-structured interviews. The agglomeration and formation of informal spaces in Shenxiang is the consequence of self-organized evolution. This can be attributed to the interaction of internal and external environments, which is influenced by the socio-cultural concepts of local villagers and relationships among external groups. Based on the main body of spatial organization, the self-organized evolution of informal spaces in urban villages was divided into the following stages: "individual-oriented self-creation," "relationship-oriented self-expansion," and "social capital-oriented self-evolution." Furthermore, the spatio-temporal characteristics and self-organizational-evolution mechanisms of these informal spaces were analyzed at each stage. The findings are as follows: (1) During the evolution of informal spaces, the main body of spatial organization expands from "village people" to "rural people" and "insiders." This is the consequence of self-organized evolution between villagers and alien groups. In urban villages, the evolution and reconstruction of informal spaces is caused by the expansion and variation in social relations. (2) During the self-organization and evolution of informal spaces, the relationship network is crucial in strengthening trust and building consensus, spanning blood relationships in the "self-creation" stage and geographical and industrial relationships in the "self-evolution" stage. The informal spatial self-organization of urban villages relies on the sub-social structure constructed by the original relationship network, which perpetuates the consensual regional culture, conceptual consciousness, and living habits, and enhances the cohesiveness and centripetal force of self-organization. This study aimed to gain deeper insights into informal spaces in urban villages, formulate a theoretical framework for their governance, and analyze the order and rules of internal self-organization. We believe that such informal spaces are self-balanced and relatively independent informal economies that facilitate a symbiotic relationship between local villagers and external groups. The transformation and optimization of informal spaces in urban villages is a potential challenge. The guiding approach for optimization promotes the following: forming informal space communities in urban villages, respecting and stimulating their self-organization order, adhering to the mutual unity principle of self-organization and external organizations, combining the external impetus and internal development capabilities of the system, and adopting bottom-up consultation actions to balance the group interest more efficiently. To promote the governance of informal spaces in urban villages, it is crucial to adhere to the logic and rules of their self-organization.

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    The Impact of Urban Community Renewal on Residents' Subjective Well-Being: An Empirical Study Based on Typical Communities in Nanjing
    Zhen Wang, Min Zhang
    2023, 43 (9):  1809-1822.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003736
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    Urban community renewal is committed to improving the material, socioeconomic, and cultural environments of the community and satisfying people's pursuit of a better life. However, there are various contradictions and problems in the process of urban renewal practice, which restrict the positive effects of community renewal, including the improvement of residents' happiness. Therefore, this study focuses on the impact of the community renewal process on residents' well-being, focusing on old communities with special social, historical, and cultural backgrounds in China. Taking a typical community in Nanjing as an example, based on data such as field research and questionnaire interviews, a structural equation model is used to construct a multidimensional framework. The influence of environmental changes brought about by community renewal on residents' subjective well-being is discussed from the two dimensions of material and social environment. The study draws three main conclusions: (1) In the dimension of material environment, community renewal significantly improves the subjective well-being of residents by effectively improving the material environment of the community. In addition, community renewal, as a proactive intervention on environmental conditions, promotes residents' community participation, and then improves their well-being through a mediating effect. (2) In the dimension of social environment, community renewal directly improves residents' subjective well-being by increasing community cohesion and trust. Adopting a community-centered, bottom-up approach to community renewal can improve community cohesion, enhance residents' resilience and well-being, as well as their willingness to give back to the community. The interactive mode of community belonging and identity, followed by the mediating effect of community cohesion and neighborhood interaction can stimulate community participation and indirectly improve subjective well-being. Good neighborhood interaction enables residents to establish behavioral attitudes that care about public affairs and interests. Neighborhood interaction also bring about information sharing, and the sharing of participation channels and effects can also drive more people to participate in community construction, thereby enhancing their sense of well-being. (3) The personal attributes of residents also have an impact on subjective well-being. Among the control variables in this study, health, age and income had a positive and significant effect on well-being. Self-rated health has the most significant positive impact on subjective well-being, followed by age and income. From the perspective of community social capital, this study explores the optimization of the social environment through the mediating role of community participation in the process of urban community renewal and community physical environment transformation. By understanding the emotional experiences and neighborhood evaluations of residents in the process of participating in community construction, the impact path of urban community renewal on their subjective well-being is revealed. This research will help to provide a basis for community renewal from different levels such as community renewal planning and management, social organization and promotion of community renewal, and so on. Such an approach will help realize the comprehensive optimization and improvement of the physical and social environment of the community, enhance the social capital of the community and the active participation of residents, reduce the negative impact of the renewal process, and improve the resident identity and sustainability of the renewal.

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    Spatiotemporal Variations and Driving Force of Green Buildings in Guangzhou, China
    Manhua Lin, Wanna Zhang, Rongbao Zheng, Kefei Zhao, Qi Zhong, Lijie Lin
    2023, 43 (9):  1823-1834.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003737
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    Green buildings are characterized by energy saving and emissions reduction. To achieve the goals of peak emissions and carbon neutrality, large-scale development of green buildings contributes to relieving the pressure of resource shortage and environmental degradation. The extant literature on China's green buildings has mainly focused on standards and rating systems. With regard to the rapid growth of green buildings, research has increasingly focused on the development patterns and mainly concentrated on the nationwide or regional scales. It is essential to study the spatial and temporal patterns of green buildings and explore their dynamics in urban China within a particular city. Taking Guangzhou as a case study, this study comprehensively explored the spatial and temporal patterns of green buildings which were awarded the Chinese Green Building Evaluation Standard or LEED certification from 2008 to 2021, and further identified main factors in terms of market, economy, environment, and resources driving such patterns with the aid of ArcGIS spatial analysis and GeoDector. It was found that: (1) Temporally, the growth of green buildings demonstrates a policy-driven trend of rising first and then descending. (2) Spatially, there are significant differences in green buildings project, construction area, and types in terms of green office, residential, and other public buildings. The green buildings in the city center of Guangzhou have considerable differentiation and complex levels. The high-level green buildings are primarily concentrated in Tianhe, Zengcheng, and Huangpu Districts, while the low-level green buildings are mostly located in Conghua, Panyu, and Nansha Districts. (3) The spatiotemporal patterns of green buildings exhibited the following features: The gravity center of green buildings moved northward and then southward;. The range of distribution has continuously expanded. The developing trend in Guangzhou present northwest-southeast direction with gradually enhanced directionality. (4) With regard to the driving forces, resource factors are the primary driving force in the development of green buildings, followed by economic, market, and environmental factors. Specifically, among the three types of green buildings commercial, residential, and office, resource factors are the most important driving force in developing green commercial and residential buildings, while market factors deeply affect the spatial variation of green office buildings. Notably, environmental factors also play a key role in green residential buildings. From the perspective of geography in the spatiotemporal dimension, this study systematically reveals the evolution and determinants of green buildings in China. The findings provide scientific evidence for governmental decision-makers and urban planners in green buildings, new insights into green buildings development and enrich the theoretical framework of green buildings.

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    Research on Mr. Zeng Zhaoxuan's Academic Life Path and Academic Tree
    Bing Yang, Zhengsheng Zhang, Hongfu Chen
    2023, 43 (9):  1835-1842.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003731
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    Mr. Zeng Zhaoxuan was a famous geographer, geomorphologist, and educator in China and one of the first winners of the "geographical science achievement award" of the Chinese Geographical Society. He developed theories such as the stage development theory of flowing water topography and stage model of coral island development, and academic terms such as "stone egg" "collapse hill" "alluvial Delta" and "Danxia landform". His achievements filled the research gaps in the fields of landscape geography, historical geomorphology, and human geography. The research fields involved many disciplines such as geography, geomorphology, geology, ocean, biology, history, human, local chronicles, and cities. This study deeply analyzes his academic works, adopts the life path method of time geography to establish the academic life path according to the time latitude, and combines the academic tree method to construct his academic landscape. During his 60 years of teaching and scientific research, Mr. Zeng made indelible contributions to China's geographical science research and geographical education. First, he actively engaged in education and compiling teaching materials. While teaching and educating people, Mr. Zeng compiled a number of teaching materials for colleges and universities with wide influence. He wrote and published Geomorphology with Mr. Yan Qinshang, which won the first prize for excellent teaching materials from the State Education Commission in 1988. The textbook is easy to teach and learn, simple, and easy to understand; its research content covers a wide range, and the selected materials and achievements are novel. It is considered "shallow, broad, and new". He also compiled many teaching materials such as Comprehensive Physical Geography, Fundamentals of Geomorphology and Principles of Geomorphology. Second, he participated in the national scientific investigation work and successively participated in mountain investigations in Taiwan, geomorphic division and coastal investigation in Guangdong, investigation of Shiwandashan, investigation of karst areas in Southwest Guangxi, and a comprehensive investigation of the Pearl River Delta. Third, he dared to express his opinions, open up and innovate, and actively wrote academic papers. In scientific research, Mr. Zeng defied public opinions and actively published papers whenever he met different opinions, and expressed his unique views. He had profound knowledge, broad interests, sharp thinking, and worked hard work. He was an innovative and productive outstanding scholar.

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