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  • Jiao'e Wang, Enyu Che, Fan Xiao
    Tropical Geography. 2024, 44(5): 771-782. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003870

    Air cargo is an important component of transportation and plays a vital role in the efficient allocation of high-quality resources on global and regional scales. Air cargo contributes significantly to regional economic development by strengthening inter-regional cooperation and resource integration. However, air cargo geography has received relatively less attention from the research community. Existing studies have analyzed the spatial pattern of air cargo using a limited cross-sectional data from selected years, lacking an analysis of its influencing factors. Based on spatial statistics and panel data of air cargo, this study explores the evolution process and characteristics of China's air cargo pattern on a 20-years time scale and quantitatively reveals its key influencing factors. The research findings are as follows: 1) Air cargo in China has transitioned from the rapid development stage to the stable development stage in the past 20 years; 2) Air cargo volume in China is mainly concentrated in the eastern region, and in the past 20 years, China's air cargo center of gravity has been generally located at the junction of Anhui, Henan, and Hubei provinces, showing a spatial displacement trend from Henan to Anhui to Hubei; 3) The pattern of air cargo network in China remains relatively stable, forming a rhombic structure with Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Shenzhen as the core; 4) Air cargo development in China is influenced by factors such as urban scale, industrial structure, and ground transportation development. Among them, urban economy, transportation, warehousing, postal and telecommunications industry, and technological investment have a significant positive impact on air cargo volume, whereas the wholesale and retail trade industries have a significant negative impact. For air logistics hubs, the influencing factors are consistent with those of the entire sample airport. However, for non-aviation logistics hubs, population size and research and technology services have a significant positive impact, whereas ground transportation accessibility has a significant negative impact. This study enriches the long-term time-series analysis and quantitative research content in the field of air cargo and has significance for the development of air transportation geography and the construction of a strong civil aviation industry in China.

  • Qitao Wu
    Tropical Geography. 2024, 44(5): 783-793. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003875

    Owing to historical reasons, the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA) features a unique "one country, two systems" institutional framework. Facilitating the integration and connectivity of transportation among Hong Kong, Macao, and the Mainland is crucial for the high-quality development of the GBA. Previous studies about borders have primarily focused on national (supranational) or administrative boundaries within a country's territory. However, studies on the unique institutional differences in the GBA are insufficient. Additionally, most studies do not perform dynamic border effects measurements using big traffic flow data. This study utilizes toll-collection data from highways in the GBA for 2021 and 2023, as well as cross-border traffic data, to construct a traffic-flow network for the GBA. Complex network analysis and border-effect measurement methods are employed to investigate the spatial structure of the GBA traffic-flow network and its dynamic changes in border effects. The results indicate that, in terms of the overall spatial structure of traffic flow in the GBA, the network exhibits a unique "dual-core edge" structure, with the Guangzhou-Foshan, and Shenzhen-Dongguan-Huizhou regions serving as dual cores. In contrast, the overall coverage and connectivity strength of the passenger-flow network are higher than those of the freight-flow network. Regarding the dynamic changes in the spatial structure of traffic flow from Hong Kong and Macao, the coverage and density of the traffic-flow network in 2023 are significantly higher than those in 2021. Traffic flows from Hong Kong and Macao have begun to extend beyond the border toward the northern regions, thus accelerating the integration of transportation within the GBA and forming a spatial pattern of "cross-strait connectivity and all-area interconnection." However, because of their peripheral positions in the traffic network and the presence of border effects, the importance of Hong Kong and Macao in the GBA traffic-flow network remains relatively weak. Based on the dynamic measurement results of border effects, the obstruction coefficients between Hong Kong and the Mainland, as well as between Macao and the Mainland, are significantly higher than those between various counties within the Mainland. The obstruction coefficients for passenger vehicles are generally lower than those for freight vehicles. Following the outbreak of the pandemic, the obstruction coefficients of the GBA traffic-flow network have increased dynamically, thus indicating a reduction in obstructive border effects. This study expands the quantitative research framework of border effects in traffic-flow networks, thus promoting integrated transportation development in the GBA and facilitating its integration development goals.

  • Pengjun Zhao, Tong Zhao, Mengzhu Zhang, Ting Xiao
    Tropical Geography. 2024, 44(5): 820-837. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003867

    The impact of international geopolitics on transportation network patterns is an important topic in economics and transportation geography. Previous studies have often overlooked the diversity of domestic crude oil transportation among countries due to limitations in statistical data, focusing mainly on national-level node selection. Additionally, the evolution of network characteristics is predominantly analyzed through long-term descriptive approaches, lacking specific contextual analyses of network evolution. This study investigates changes in the maritime crude oil transportation network along the Belt and Road Initiative (BRI) routes against the backdrop of the Russia-Ukraine conflict, offering new evidence for research in this field. Using AIS(Automatic Identification System) ship trajectory big data and complex network analysis methods, this study analyzes the overall characteristics, node importance, core-periphery structure, and clustering of the maritime crude oil transportation network along the BRI routes from 2019 to 2022. Furthermore, it examines the impact of maritime network changes on the stability of crude oil imports to China. Our findings reveal several key points. 1) The closeness, strength, and accessibility of network connections between ports show an initial increase followed by a decreasing trend. The direction of the overall network characteristic changes in the periods 2019-2020 and 2020-2022 are opposite, with a greater magnitude in the latter period. In recent years, particularly following the Russia-Ukraine conflict, the scale-free nature of the network has continuously increased, accompanied by an increase in the concentration of crude oil shipping connections. This concentration, notably evident towards export destinations, reflects a shifting pattern in the crude oil supply demand landscape, spatially manifested as China replacing some of its crude oil shipping connections with the Middle East, thus reducing its reliance on Russian crude oil shipments. 2) The comprehensive importance of export ports has become more prominent, with a slight decrease followed by a significant increase in recent years. The importance of ports in Russia's Far East region has notably increased, reflecting a shift in Russia's crude oil export center eastward after the Russia-Ukraine conflict. The network structure transitioned from single-core to multi-core to single-core with export ports occupying more central layers. 3) Initially, there was a continuation of the core-periphery and clustering structures, but later, there was significant structural reorganization. In 2020, the core-periphery structure and clustering in terms of core ports, geographical distribution, and cluster size were largely the same as corresponding clusters in 2019; however, by 2022, a noticeable structural reorganization emerged. 4) Changes in maritime networks significantly and heterogeneously affect China's crude oil import stability. At the network level, import stability initially increases and then decreases, with the decline in the later period far exceeding that in the earlier period. At the port level, compared to ports around Bohai Bay and the Yangtze River Delta, ports along the southeastern coast, Pearl River Delta, and southwestern coast were more affected by the Russia-Ukraine conflict in terms of crude oil import stability. China responded to the risk of instability in its crude oil import network against the backdrop of the Russia-Ukraine conflict by adjusting its sources and proportions of imports from different ports. This study provides scientific evidence for a deeper understanding of the impact of geopolitical events on China's oil imports and the formulation of national energy security strategies.

  • Tao Li, Leibo Cui, Jiao'e Wang, Huiling Chen
    Tropical Geography. 2024, 44(5): 838-849. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003868

    With the rapid development of urban regionalization and networking of high-speed transport, intercity travel has increasingly played a key role in China's economic and social development and socioeconomic functional connections. However, amidst global change and uncertainty, the event disturbance-oriented theory and empirical research on intercity travel is still insufficient to improve the ability of transportation systems to cope with disturbances. Since uncertainty is prevalent in transport operations, improving Intercity Travel Behavior Resilience (ITBR) and grasping the spatiotemporal pattern of demand-side intercity travel fluctuation to restrain risk is essential for resilient transport construction. Based on related theories and analysis methods of spatial interaction and intercity travel, this study refines the definition of ITBR. A measurement model of ITBR was constructed based on long-term intercity travel data and the general properties of disturbance events. Furthermore, COVID-19 disturbance was used as a case study to reveal the adaptive pattern of intercity travel and the spatiotemporal pattern of ITBR over three years. The results show that the evaluation of ITBR based on seasonal and holiday trends reveal spatiotemporal patterns of intercity travel fluctuations influenced by disturbance events. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on intercity travel is as follows: peak of the national pandemic > peak of the Omicron variant > peak of the multipoint fluctuation. The intensity of intercity travel decreased linearly with an increase in distance, and intercity travel during the three stages is lost by 0.86, 1.03, 1.15 percentage points, respectively, with an increase of 50 km. The average intercity travel distances of residents in these three stages were shortened by 52.55, 65.31, and 105.16 km, respectively. The value of ITBR decreased from the multipoint fluctuation period to the national pandemic period because of the Omicron outbreak. Overall, ITBR showed a gradual increasing trend during the study period. Meanwhile, ITBR in these three stages was characterized by obvious spatial differentiation and regional agglomeration. Compared to existing research, this study further expands existing research focusing on intra-city travel behavior resilience by exploring ITBR on the regional scale.

  • Changsheng Xiong, Yuyao Hu, Bo Zhou, Xue Liu, Qiaolin Luan
    Tropical Geography. 2024, 44(5): 938-950. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003862

    High-Speed Rail (HSR) stations can influence the expansion of the surrounding construction land. However, relevant studies face three main limitations: influence scope estimation lacking a theoretical foundation, less focus on whether the impacts of HSR stations on construction land expansion vary, and misjudgment of the drivers of HSR stations on construction land expansion. To address these research questions, this study first conducts a literature review to theoretically analyze the influence of HSR stations on the surrounding construction land expansion and then identifies the ideal curve for the influence distance of HSR on construction land expansion based on location theory and distance decay theory. Using the 24 stations of the Hainan Roundabout Railway (HRR) as an example, we revealed differences in the influence of various HRR stations on construction land expansion through GIS technology, buffer analysis, and nonlinear fitting to quantitatively analyze the expansion of construction land around HRR stations, identifying the impact range and direction of different HRR stations on the expansion of construction land. Building on the identification of heterogeneous impact results, the study further employed Geodetector to analyze the factors and reasons for the differentiated results of construction land expansion around different HRR stations from four dimensions: attributes of the socioeconomic environment, location conditions, HRR station attributes, and natural conditions. The results show that: (1) after the construction and operation of each HRR station, the surrounding construction land has expanded; the Hainan Eastern Ring HSR (the East Ring) has increased 1.70 km2 around each station per year and the Hainan Western Ring HSR (the West Ring) has increased 1.25 km2 around each station per year. (2) The changing trend of construction land expansion around 20 of 24 HRR stations conforms to the ideal curve, with the impact range of construction land expansion concentrated within 0.5-3.5 km, and the influence intensity of impact ranging from 0.06 to 6.64 km2. (3) The impact directions of construction land expansion around 20 HRR stations are mainly in three types of directions: "HSR-main urban area," "HSR-town center," and "HSR-scenic spot." This is because the expansion of construction land around HRR stations is not only influenced by the spillover effects of the stations, but also by the traction effect of the main urban areas, town centers, or tourist areas where the HRR stations are located. The stations along the East Ring of Hainan mainly expanded towards the main urban areas, whereas the stations along the West Ring of Hainan mainly expanded towards town centers. (4) Differences in the scope of the influence of each HRR station on the surrounding construction land expansion were mainly related to several variables, ordered as follows: socioeconomic environment, location conditions, attributes of the HRR station, and natural conditions. The GDP density of the towns where the HRR stations were located had the highest impact intensity at 0.51, followed by population density at 0.49, whereas the average elevation had the lowest impact intensity at 0.12. This study analyzed the mechanism and ideal curve of construction land expansion around HSR stations, establishing a logical basis for studying the spillover effects of HSR stations. In addition, this study analyzes the various impacts of HSR stations on the expansion of surrounding construction land and the reasons for these differences, providing a scientific basis for the current operation and future location of HSR stations. This study also offers methodological insights into the impacts of other infrastructures on the expansion of construction land in surrounding areas.

  • Shan Li, Lin Zhang, Jianjun Li, Tingting Chen, Jintang Chen
    Tropical Geography. 2024, 44(4): 569-582. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003848

    Built environments have complex effects on the public's physical and mental health. Revealing the mechanisms and pathways through which the urban built environment influences public health can provide a basis for optimizing built environments. This helps avoid issues, such as environmental pollution, lack of social interaction, and insufficient physical activity, ultimately contributing to the enhancement of public health. Western academia has a more established foundation for research, whereas domestic endeavors are currently in the exploratory phase. A comparative analysis of relevant domestic and international studies can help elucidate the developmental trajectory of research in this field, identify common issues and characteristics, and guide the direction for advancing domestic research. Therefore, based on the Web of Science and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases, this study systematically reviewed 658 English and Chinese studies published from 2000 to 2022 in the fields of urban and rural planning, geographic sciences, health medicine, and environmental psychology, focusing on the impact of the built environment on public health. Utilizing "Citespace" software, this study conducted a quantitative analysis and systematic review of the theoretical framework, study topics, and emerging trends in the research. The findings revealed disparities between Western and Chinese academies in terms of theoretical innovation, study groups, and research content. Specifically, international studies have pioneered theoretical perspectives, such as social welfare and environmental justice. Guided by these theories, researchers have explored the mechanisms through which the built environment affects public health in diverse population groups. Although domestic studies exhibit a relative lack of theoretical innovation, their primary focus has been the introduction and empirical application of Western theories in the Chinese context. These studies often concentrate on the transmission paths of the impacts on the older and women groups through static empirical evidence, lacking dynamism in their approaches. Furthermore, drawing upon the previously stated theoretical underpinnings, methodological approach, and research content, this paper summarized the analytical framework of "Built Environment Elements, Mediated Impacts, and Public Health." It meticulously examined the differential effects of three spatial elements—green space, land use, and road traffic—on public health. This study provides a detailed analysis of the mechanisms involved, highlighting the ecological and psychological benefits arising from exposure to and interactions with green spaces. It also analyzes how judiciously designed and compact land use patterns shape travel preferences, reduce travel distances, mitigate reliance on motor vehicles, and enhance the frequency of individual activities. Furthermore, the study outlines the ramifications for optimizing the road network system and transitioning travel modes to ameliorate traffic pollution, alleviate traffic pressure, and mitigate pedestrian injuries, among other variables. The purpose of this study was to systematically comprehend the current status and disparities in domestic and international research concerning the impact of the built environment on public health and to explore a series of health issues triggered by the built environment from the perspective of urban planning, with the hope of promoting health geography in China, offering guidance for future academic directions, and prompting local management authorities to formulate precision policies addressing public health challenges.

  • Meimei Wang, Yin Wang, Aiming Liu, Yunxuan Dong, Jinhuang Mao
    Tropical Geography. 2024, 44(4): 583-595. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003860

    China is currently entering a stage of high-quality development, with urban development and governance facing systematic reconstruction of internal and external conditions, showing clear differences and the complex superposition of multi-stage development. The steady progress of urbanization has facilitated significant changes in the population structure of Chinese cities. It is expected that the population and industries will further converge to urban agglomerations and big cities, indicating basic multicenter and network patterns. Therefore, analyzing the negative population growth risks of urban agglomerations at different development stages is crucial. This study examined the cities of 19 urban agglomerations in China by adopting the data of the seventh population census, employing the optimized fuzzy logic method, building a complex network of population flow with ArcGIS and MATLAB platforms, and using the intensity of population flow and the registered population fertility rate to represent exogenous and endogenous growth, respectively. The negative population growth evaluation index system was constructed with five indicators: child ratio, aging rate, average family size, population density, and sex ratio. The risk index of negative population growth was measured using the fuzzy logic method, and the growth mechanism of negative population growth risk in urban agglomerations in China was analyzed using the spatial measurement method. (1) The negative population growth risk of growing urban agglomerations was influenced by both exogenous and endogenous growth, with exogenous growth having a greater impact. (2) The dynamic mechanism of negative population growth risk in large urban agglomerations is exogenous growth, whereas that of nurturing urban agglomerations is endogenous growth. (3) According to the risk of negative population growth in China's urban agglomerations and its influencing factors, negative population growth in 19 urban agglomerations can be divided into eight types. 1) The state of population growth of expanding urban agglomerations can be divided into two types, with the middle reaches of the Yangtze River and Chengdu-Chongqing urban agglomerations as one type; the capital city has a low risk of negative population growth, while other cities have a high risk of negative population growth. The Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei city clusters are the same, with the capital and other cities having a relatively low risk of negative population growth. 2) The status of large urban agglomerations can be divided into two types: Shandong Peninsula, Central Plains, Guanzhong Plain, and Beibu Gulf urban agglomerations. The capital city has a low risk of negative population growth, whereas other cities have a high risk of negative population growth. The risk of negative population growth in capital cities and other cities is relatively low. 3) The state of population growth of cultivated urban agglomerations can be divided into four types: the Harbin and Changsha urban agglomerations and the central and southern Liaoning urban agglomerations, which have a high risk of negative population growth. Meanwhile, the northern slope of the Tianshan Mountain City cluster and the Hubao Eyu City cluster have low risk of negative population growth. The risk of negative population growth is low in the provincial capital city and high in the other cities, while endogenous growth is positive in the provincial capital city and negative in the other cities. In the Jinzhong City, Central Guizhou City, and Central Yunnan City groups, the risk of negative population growth is low in provincial cities and high in other cities. Endogenous growth shows that the capital city and other cities have positive growth. In conclusion, this study posits that upgrading urban agglomerations should consider the spatial balance of population distribution, large urban agglomerations should fulfill their role in "blocking the flow" of big cities, and nurturing urban agglomerations should "consolidate human capital." This study presents a comprehensive and in-depth analysis of the negative population growth risk and its impact mechanisms in different development stages of urban agglomerations. This can provide a decision-making reference for the formulation of scientific and reasonable population and economic policies in various urban agglomerations and plays a significant role for maintaining a long-term stable population, economy, and social growth in the region.

  • Yawen Yang, Jinlong Gao
    Tropical Geography. 2024, 44(4): 608-620. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003849

    Local entrepreneurialism provides an important theoretical perspective for the study of economic growth-oriented local governance after the 1980s. This theory originated in the revival of economic liberalism following the Western economic crisis. Influenced by global urbanization and deregulation, cities have been redefined as important scales of spatial governance. Local governments have abandoned "managerialism," which emphasizes regional equilibrium, and turned to "entrepreneurilism", which emphasizes local wealth accumulation, weakening the welfare state system and emphasizing absolute gain. Since the economic reform was launched in 1978, China has experienced a transition from state socialism, conceptualized as a triple process of decentralization, marketization, and globalization. The logic of local government behavior underwent profound changes during the transition. Local governments are increasingly showing behavioral characteristics that originally belonged to enterprises. These local governmental acts create the economic miracle and unique spatial phenomenon of the "Chinese paradigm," widely called "local entrepreneurialism." With the critical period of urbanization, exploring effective ways to improve local governance capabilities has become an important topic of concern for all sectors of society. Sorting out the rise and development of the theory about local entrepreneurialism, this paper seeks to construct an analysis framework for local entrepreneurialism in China by integrating the notions of strategy, discourse, and fashion. Furthermore, this paper proposes the "Chinese characteristics" of local entrepreneurialism by reviewing specific strategies adopted by local governments with multiple identities or acting as different roles, namely the owner of public (land) resources, the user of administrative resources, the urban manager, and the allocator of development rights. Therefore, the following conclusion were drawn: (1) Compared with the extensive participation in the Western system, China's local entrepreneurialism involves more administrative intervention, and all localities play a leading role in local entrepreneurial practice by virtue of their monopoly rights. (2) Although decentralization reform endows local governments with certain powers and responsibilities, state intervention still exists. The goal of an entrepreneurial strategy is to safeguard state powers. (3) In the new stage, the connotation and external form of local entrepreneurialism are expanding. Economic growth is no longer the primary theme of local development. How to pay attention to efficiency and fairness has become an important topic at present, and we argue that the sustainability of local entrepreneurial strategies and their impact on rural governance might be key research directions for future studies. This study aimed to provide a reference for the transformation of governance in this new era.

  • Yun Yi, Bohua Li, Yindi Dou, Peilin Liu
    Tropical Geography. 2024, 44(4): 635-647. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003854

    Traditional village culture is an important part of rural culture as well as a precious heritage and historical memory of the Chinese nation, and its effective inheritance and sustainable development have attracted much attention. However, traditional village culture is often in a disadvantaged position in the process of urban-rural cultural exchanges, and the cultural adaptation problem of traditional village residents creates difficulties for the integration of urban-rural culture and the development of traditional cultural inheritance in China. In the context of traditional village conservation and tourism development, the cultural adaptation of traditional village residents is related to the resolution of the contradiction among traditional village development and conservation, the realization of the residents' good life, and the realization of the creative transformation and innovative development of traditional culture. Based on the literature on cultural adaptation, case summaries, and long-term field research experiences, this study clarifies the practical objectives of the cultural adaptation of tourism-driven traditional village residents, refines the process mechanism of their cultural adaptation by combining dimensions and processes, and explores the integration path of cultural adaptation based on positive psychology. The results show that first, the process mechanism of cultural adaptation of the residents of tourism-driven traditional villages can be investigated by combining the context of the evolution of urban-rural relationships in China and the U-curve theory of cultural adaptation. During the period of foreign culture entry, residents' external actions are actively cooperative, although their internal perceptions show foreign culture biases and development opportunity expectations. During the period of cultural clash and adjustment, conflicts and contradictions in daily life and behavioral expressions of residents are frequent, causing negative internal psychological emotions and cultural assimilation. The goal of the cultural integration period is that after a series of conflicts, residents will actively cooperate in their external behavior, and will be able to pass on their culture and seek progress. In terms of internal perceptions, residents will have increased psychological satisfaction, cultural confidence, and positive and open cultural perceptions. Further, borrowing from the research concept of positive psychology, we created a positive social organization system with three aspects: government macro-control, coordination of multiple groups, and a preventive supervision mechanism; a positive personality trait system with three aspects: cross-cultural interaction skills, ownership concept, and flexible and open cultural cognition; and a positive emotional experience system with three aspects: cultural identity, positive gaze of visitors, and community care. Based on the above systems, corresponding countermeasures to be taken at different stages of the cultural adaptation process are proposed to construct an integrated path of cultural adaptation for residents of traditional villages. This study explores the process mechanism and integration path of cultural adaptation of traditional village residents to deepen the interactive logic of locality and cultural adaptation, and provides a scientific reference for community governance and conservation practices in traditional villages, supporting traditional village locality protection and urban-rural integration.

  • Shengjiang Yan, Yu Xie, Houyun Zhou
    Tropical Geography. 2024, 44(4): 673-684. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003861

    Wind speed is an important parameter reflecting the climate and environmental conditions on the Earth's surface. It is also a pivotal factor influencing wind energy, a renewable and clean energy source. The mechanisms exerting influence on the surface wind speed over China, which have been mentioned in previous studies, include the temperature difference between the high and low latitudes of China, surface drag force, and climatic factors such as the Arctic Oscillation (AO), Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD), which has attracted increasing attention during the past two decades, is an important climatic factor that exerts a significant influence on the climate and environment in the areas surrounding the Indian Ocean and globally. However, to date, it has not been reported whether the IOD is a climatic factor that significantly affects surface wind speed in China. Coastal South China is one of the most economically developed areas in China, and wind energy is becoming an important energy source in this area. An investigation of the relationship between the IOD and wind speed variations in coastal South China and their connecting mechanisms would contribute substantially to the understanding of the controlling mechanisms of climatic and environmental variations in coastal South China as well as to the planning of sustainable development in this area. Based on observations of surface wind speed in coastal South China, reanalysis data from the National Center of Environment Prediction (NCEP) and the National Center of Atmospheric Research (NCAR), research on the IOD over the last two decades, the effects of IOD activities on surface wind speed in coastal South China, and the controlling mechanisms were investigated using statistical analyses and atmospheric circulation variations. The results indicate that, regardless of the temporal or spatial scale, variations in the surface wind speed in coastal South China show significant positive correlations with the dipole mode index (DMI), which is a proxy for IOD activity. An increase in the DMI index (indicating a strengthening of IOD activity) corresponds to a decrease in the surface wind speed in coastal South China, and vice versa. This suggests that, in addition to the factors suggested in previous studies, which include the temperature difference between high and low latitudes, AO, PDO, and ENSO, IOD activity is also one of the most important factors affecting surface wind speed variation in coastal South China. The influence of IOD activity was weaker than that of the temperature difference between high and low latitudes. However, it played a more important role in the surface wind speed variation in this region than the AO, PDO, and ENSO. Strengthening of the IOD activity would enhance two anti-cyclones in the northwest Pacific and Bengal Bay, east of the Indian subcontinent, and, in turn, contribute to the reduction of surface wind speed variation in coastal South China. More serious global warming and increasing greenhouse gas emissions will further strengthen IOD activity in the future. Consequently, a greater decline in surface wind speed is expected in coastal South China, necessitating attention to sustainable wind energy use in this region.

  • Jialong Wu, Hongju Li, Ting Deng, Sihua Luo, Jie Hu, Zijian Zhang, Chengyu Niu, Kai Wang, Yan Jiang, Shaoqing Su
    Tropical Geography. 2024, 44(3): 379-392. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003836

    The protection of historical and cultural heritage sites is the main focus of land space planning and use control. Its protection and utilization are important for promoting the revitalization of rural culture and building a pattern of historical and cultural protection, and are essential for the research on comprehensive land consolidation in recent years. The historical trail of South China is a linear cultural heritage site of Guangdong's historical development. Exploring the connotative relationship between comprehensive land consolidation and the protection and utilization of linear cultural heritage is conducive to enhancing their synergy and superposition. This study begins with a connotation analysis and trend analysis of comprehensive land consolidation and linear cultural heritage protection and utilization, taking the connecting line of the Gutian section of the ancient Meiguan historical trail of the Southern China historical trail in Guangdong Province as an example to explore the working relationship between comprehensive land consolidation and the protection and utilization of linear cultural heritage. It proposes a comprehensive land consolidation path for linear cultural heritage protection and utilization. Results showed that: 1) The problems faced by the protection of historical trails were closely related to the goal and content of comprehensive land consolidation; 2) The protection of historical trails and the comprehensive land consolidation could be integrated into the implementation of land space planning, rights and interests protection, policy incentives, public participation and landscape coordination to jointly promote the enhancement of land space value; 3) Focusing on the dimensions of development orientation, planning layout, engineering design, overall planning funds and service operation, it is necessary to constantly innovate the path of comprehensive land improvement across the region, and comprehensively promote the protection and utilization of rural cultural heritage. Guangdong Province can fully utilize the platform tools of comprehensive land consolidation in the protection of South China historical trail, achieve the connection and integration of ancient cultural protection and utilization with land consolidation projects, and establish a mutual feedback relationship in work, innovate and establish a working mechanism for the integration and development of comprehensive land consolidation and historical trail protection, which is conducive to the synergistic effect of rural revitalization and historical and cultural protection, better service and support for rural revitalization and high-quality development.

  • Jirong Yang, Chaozhi Zhang
    Tropical Geography. 2024, 44(3): 393-402. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003837

    Promoting community engagement is a key issue in the sustainable development of protected natural areas. Enhancing the local residents' sense of place identity contributes to their willingness to protect the ecological environment and increases their support for ecotourism development. The role of knowledge in addressing ecological issues is widely recognized, and tourism, which focuses on knowledge production and dissemination, is gradually emerging as an alternative choice for innovative and sustainable ecotourism development in protected natural areas. However, the effect of knowledge on place identity has not been sufficiently addressed. This study employed a qualitative research method and considered Danxia Mountain, a protected area, as a case study to analyze the transformation of knowledge underlying tourism products during the transition from sightseeing tourism to study tourism. Furthermore, it explored how the behavior of community residents in learning and disseminating new knowledge contributes to the reconstruction of their local identities. The findings showed that the knowledge of resource classification and evaluation of sightseeing tourism generated a paradoxical place identity, whereas the scientific and local knowledge about Danxia Mountain for tourism reconnected community residents to the place and established a place identity. The formation and changes of local residents' place identity are the result of the interactive process of knowledge's definition of place differences and the behaviors of learning and disseminating knowledge. Specifically, there are three aspects to consider: 1) Place differences and place meanings stemming from knowledge discourse. The knowledge of a place defines its differences and assigns meaning to it. Moreover, the type of knowledge of a place can change, triggering the reconstruction of the place identity of local residents. 2) Place identity arises from the learning, internalization, and construction processes of local residents in relation to place differences and meanings within the knowledge framework. This is achieved through transforming diverse individuals' experiences and feelings about a place, where meaningful and comprehensible identities are formed, leading to a diversified sense of place identity based on individual experiences. 3) Identity performance in the process of knowledge dissemination and sharing socializes individual place identities and establishes a collective place identity. This research combines knowledge as the discourse defining place differences and the behavioral interactions of using knowledge, which expands the understanding of the process and mechanisms of place identity and can provide a more comprehensive explanatory framework for establishing place identity in social-place-individual interaction. It also provides practical guidance for cultivating local residents' place identity through knowledge-based study tourism, which requires incorporating the knowledge of community residents into the heritage site's knowledge system as well as community residents as active participants in the learning and dissemination of knowledge in the context of study tourism, which is essential for fostering a sense of place identity.

  • Qiong Sun, Yuxiang An, Lin Li, Li Wang
    Tropical Geography. 2024, 44(3): 442-455. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003835

    The continuous increase in the number of middle-aged and elderly people in China has provided important opportunities for the development of China's tourism industry. Ecotourism—a green, healthy, and high-quality tourism method—is particularly popular among middle-aged adults. Social media use has been widely integrated into the consumption decisions of middle-aged and elderly Chinese tourists. It is of great significance to clarify the impact of social media on tourism consumer behavior among China's elderly middle class, especially on rising ecotourism consumption. This study conducted in-depth interviews with 26 elderly middle-class ecotourists in China, abstracted the impact path based on grounded theory, and constructed a set of impact path models of social media on the consumer behavior of elderly ecotourism in China's middle class. This study found that, because social media has the characteristics of information and communication, its impact on the ecotourism consumer behavior of China's elderly middle class mainly involves five factors: social media information utility, social media support, social media impact, self-value realization, and spiritual needs satisfaction. These five elements do not exist in isolation but are interrelated and mutually influencing. Among them, social media can help fully display ecotourism information, plus its own brand building, reputation, and other factors. Moreover, social media information utility, social media impact, and social media platform support can help stimulate the willingness of China's elderly middle class to promote the occurrence of consumer behavior. With the support of social media, a good ecological tourism consumption experience will help realize the self-worth of China's elderly middle class and meet their spiritual needs. The realization of self-worth and satisfaction of spiritual needs will further strengthen the impact of social media on the willingness of China's elderly middle class to engage in ecotourism. First, this study shows that China's elderly middle class can conveniently access destination-related health and historical and cultural knowledge through social media, thus strengthening the ecological tourism motivation of this special group. Second, social media have strengthened the emotional bond between China's elderly middle class and others, helping them meet their social and spiritual needs. Third, poetic dwellings are a prominent feature of the elderly middle class in ecotourism, which differs from other forms of tourism under the influence of social media. This study systematically summarizes and combs the influence path of social media on the consumer behavior of ecotourism in China's elderly middle class by using grounded theory for the first time, and expounds on the important influencing factors, which can provide a reference for future research and practice. Concurrently, this article focuses on the impact of social media on the ecotourism consumer behavior of China's elderly middle class and proposes that the realization of self-value and satisfaction of spiritual needs is an important result of their participation in ecotourism behavior under the influence of social media.

  • Yue Gong, Jiyang Cao
    Tropical Geography. 2024, 44(3): 480-491. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003841

    The floating population is at the bottom of the urban housing classes. In recent years, housing class of floating population has become differentiated, affecting new-type urbanization and affordable housing development. This study discusses the characteristics of the floating population's housing class and the influencing factors and mechanisms of its formation. It uses the Latent Class Analysis model to classify housing classes and obtains five classes: multiple houses in inflow and hukou (household registration) areas, one house in the inflow area, one or multiple houses in hukou areas, village houses in hukou areas, and the houseless class. Further analysis shows that: (1) The housing purchase behavior of the floating population in cities is aligned with the urbanization process; most of the floating population with non-agricultural hukou is in the middle and upper housing classes, whereas most of the floating population with agricultural hukou is in the middle and lower classes. (2) The spatial differentiation of the housing class of the floating population follows a north-south pattern. The multiple houses in inflow and hukou areas and one-house in the inflow area classes are mostly distributed in the northern, central, and western parts of China, and are in small- and medium-sized cities. Most one or multiple houses in hukou areas and houseless classes are concentrated in large cities in southeastern and southern China. (3) In addition to socioeconomic, institutional, migration, and regional factors significantly impact housing classes. Compared with the floating population with non-agricultural hukou, the floating population with agricultural hukou is constrained by the market and hukou system, and is easily excluded from the housing market and the affordable housing system. Members in state-owned enterprises and the members of the Communist Party of China still have an advantage in housing stratification, while non-SOEs migrants' disadvantages are worsened. In addition, geographical factors maintain the characteristics of migrants' housing class in inflow areas. (4) Power persistence, market transformation, and housing filtration are mechanisms that form housing classes and spatial patterns. The urban housing welfare policy has made it difficult for the floating population to benefit from housing reform, which has reinforced the differentiation of the housing class. Meanwhile, market transformation differentiates income and education levels of the floating population, affecting their housing class. The differences in urban housing policies and markets in different regions affect migrants' housing choices, resulting in housing filtering in geographical regions, and finally forming the north-south pattern of migrants' housing class. China should expedite reforming the hukou system, implement differentiated affordable housing development based on regions, and allocate more affordable housing to basic public service providers in cities. This study reveals the situation and mechanism of housing differentiation among the floating population, provides empirical support for affordable housing policies, promotes citizenship of the floating population, and facilitates new-type urbanization.

  • Bin Gu, Kunyan Wu, Sheng Tang, Tianyi Zhou, Yanli Wang
    Tropical Geography. 2024, 44(3): 505-519. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003845

    Using the Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration as the research area, this study comprehensively uses an interlocking network model and social network analysis to construct a network based on the headquarters branch data of digital economy listed enterprises in 2005, 2010, 2015, and 2020 to analyze the digital economy correlation pattern of the Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration. The results show that from 2005 to 2020, the number of digital economy listed companies' headquarters and branches in the Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration has grown rapidly. The radiating influence of headquarters has gradually expanded, and cross-city connections among digital economy companies have strengthened. Shenzhen and Guangzhou have become the engines of digital economy development and the control centers of the correlation network. The overall correlation structure of the urban agglomeration transformed from a single triangle consisting of Guangzhou-Zhuhai-Shenzhen and the connecting cities in 2005 to a double triangle structure consisting of Guangzhou-Foshan-Shenzhen and Guangzhou-Zhuhai-Shenzhen and the connecting cities in 2020. The network density increased, the asymmetry weakened, and the agglomeration subgroups shifted from a single regional center to multiple regional centers. From an industrial perspective, there are significant disparities among the different sectors of the digital economy. Network connections were strongest in the information transmission, software, and information technology service industries, weakest in finance, and moderate in manufacturing. The dual-core status of Shenzhen and Guangzhou is prominent, whereas Zhaoqing and Jiangmen are on the network periphery. This study examines the formation and evolution of the digital economy network of the Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration from the perspective of corporate organizational connections, identifies the positions and roles of each city in the correlation network, analyzes the correlation pattern and evolution path of the digital economy, and expands the study of digital economy correlation from an industry perspective, revealing industry differences in the digital economy correlation of urban agglomerations. The characteristics of the regional digital economy correlation can be summarized based on the results of this study and the existing research. First, the degree of regional digital economy correlation continuously increases during the development of the digital economy, and the overall network connection is strengthened. Second, differentiation emerges in the digital economy correlation network, forming core and peripheral cities and displaying spatial distribution imbalances. This study also found that policy guidance may promote the formation of multiple centers in the region and contribute to the balanced development of the correlation network. Finally, the regional digital economy correlation exhibits industry differences due to industry foundations and development characteristics. To promote sustained and healthy development of the digital economy in the Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration, it is necessary to further enhance inter-city digital economy cooperation, better leverage the radiating driving effects of core cities, such as Shenzhen and Guangzhou, improve digital economy development policies and infrastructure in peripheral cities, and promote coordinated development of the overall digital economy in the urban agglomeration. Comprehensive planning of the industry layout is necessary in subdivided industries to promote balanced development across all sectors and form a concerted effort in digital economy development. These measures can also serve as a reference for other areas in developing digital economies.

  • Wang Liao, Xiaoshu Cao, Tao Li, Xingchuan Gao
    Tropical Geography. 2024, 44(2): 195-211. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003819

    High-quality air service is important for achieving high-quality aviation development. As the primary customers of air travel services, passengers are the most important evaluators of the service. Therefore, research on their air travel choices is key for promoting the coordination of multi-airport regions. Based on stochastic utility psychological perception theories, this study discusses the impact of the key dimension of airport service quality on air travel choices using the structural equation model-logit model. The results show that air travel choice is not a simple linear extension of behavioral intentions as there are two key dimensions of airport service quality: First, mandatory service processing is inevitably the most time-consuming and tedious process for passengers at airports. This waiting time is perceived as a sign of low airport service capability, whereas the level and quality of service provided by staff in this process is an intangible factor for passengers. This in turn affects the level of passengers' ratings of airport services, especially for business travelers. Therefore, airports need to recognize the time and resource constraints of passengers and work with airlines to streamline the check-in process, ensure security control, and reduce waiting time. One solution is to use shared self-service devices or automated robots that allow any passenger of any airline or flight to check-in and check-out on the same device. Second, while facilities, equipment, and environment are not universal considerations for passengers, differences in passenger perceptions are evident between airport types. Within multi-airport regions, the facilities, equipment, and environment of major airports are above passengers' psychological expectations, while auxiliary or other airports need to pay more attention to this service, which illustrates that the improvement of airport service quality requires changes to unidimensional and monolithic thinking but also focus on passengers' overall perception of service experience from a multidimensional perspective, as well as consideration of the spatial and temporal characteristics of different airport types in the multi-airport region to make targeted improvements. Moreover, passengers do not have an obvious preference for particular airlines, but low-cost airlines still hold a certain appeal for passengers when they take off from regional airports, which also means that low-cost airlines ' entry into the market has anti-risk properties for regional airports. Within the limits of China's aviation controls, the presence of low-cost carriers can still improve the chances of an airport being chosen. Therefore, different airport types within the same multi-airport region often need to compete differently to achieve regional synergistic development. To enhance airport service quality, it is essential to fine tune service quality standards, based on airport's types. The improvement of airports' performance should include a phased integration of assessments of service experience settings. Airports should adopt differentiated spatial designs for their service functions based on the goal of airport integration, with a view to achieving optimal management at minimal cost while being able to effectively guide passengers in their air travel choices.

  • Lirong Hu, Shenjing He, Shiliang Su
    Tropical Geography. 2024, 44(2): 226-235. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003824

    In China, the equal accessibility of social infrastructure, especially public housing and healthcare, has become a prominent concern in solving the problems of rapid but uneven growth-oriented urbanization in the post-reform era. However, few studies have focused on the accessibility of various healthcare resources to different types of public housing using different transport modes. Utilizing Internet map services, this study first calculated the travel time from talent, economically affordable, and public rental housing to hospitals using three transport modes—walking, public transport, and driving—in Shenzhen, China. Subsequently, the optimized two-step floating catchment area method (2SFCA) was employed to comprehensively evaluate the accessibility of healthcare resources to public housing and explore differences in healthcare accessibility among different populations. The results reveal that: (1) Public housing is located far away from healthcare resources, with 15% of public housing unable to access AAA hospitals within 30 minutes by car, and only 10% able to access ordinary hospitals within 15 minutes. (2) Accessibility of healthcare resources to public housing exhibits spatial heterogeneity, gradually declining from special to non-special economic zones. (3) Talent housing experiences the best accessibility, followed by affordable and public rental housing. (4) Public transportation and walking exhibit greater spatial variation in accessibility than driving. Theoretically, the current public housing accessibility in Shenzhen reflects the common problems of public housing accessibility throughout the country. In the process of promoting the equal accessibility of basic public services, focus on its accessibility should be emphasized. This study proposes an optimized 2SFCA by introducing a Gaussian distance decay function, establishing a multilevel search radius, considering supply and demand-side competition effects, and using real-time traffic big data. Our methodological framework simultaneously considers differences among various types of public housing, hospitals with different service capacities, and diverse travel modes. This provides a new research perspective for a comprehensive and thorough understanding of the equal accessibility of basic public services.

  • Facheng Gao
    Tropical Geography. 2024, 44(2): 248-257. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003768

    Using fieldwork, this study investigated the endogenous issues of fishermen's livelihood vulnerability on Naozhou Island, Guangdong. Existing literature shows that current studies focus on external factors such as the resource reduction, climate impact, policy changes, and fishermen's mode of operation to explore the vulnerability of fishermen's livelihoods to reveal the resource-based impacts of fishermen's livelihood difficulties and to explain the impacts of exogenous factors on fishermen's livelihoods. However, to some extent, these studies have neglected fishermen's internal problems and failed to understand fishermen's perspective on whether the improvement of capital can offset fishermen's production inputs and improve their production relations. The study on Naozhou island found that the existing studies have ignored the endogenous problems of the fishermen's livelihood vulnerability; in the era of collective economy, each fisherman's family had a small boat, but the fishermen joined together to work for the "state" on a big boat. Currently, the market economy has ordered this type of cooperative relationship to disappear. Owing to the characteristics of marine fishing operations, everyone must help each other in cases of difficulties when going to sea. In the same boat, the crew members may be immediate or distant family members to avoid malicious harm. However, if production tools require high investment and fishery resources are scarce, cooperation is no longer important. Whoever has more money to purchase large ships has a greater opportunity to control the scarce fishery resources, which is essentially the change in production tools that led to a breakdown in production relations. Although fishermen still talk about traditional relatives' contact, the situation of "As soon as the ship arrives, there is nothing left" has made fishermen realize that competition is the essence of relationships in their fishing villages. Fishermen's mobility, combined with the outflows and reflows created by various realities at the time of the survey, further demonstrates that fishermen, as the labor force, are not able to participate in the market competition of labor factors, nor are they able to get rid of the fishing skills inherited from their parents. They want to leave behind their status as fishermen but have to rely on the status of fishermen for basic labor security. All of these aggregate into endogenous forces, ranging from the inputs of fishermen's production tools and their own skills to the ambiguity of their age and identity. This constitutes an endogenous mechanism for the vulnerability of fishermen's livelihoods, which offers a disincentive effect of institutional arrangements on fishermen's withdrawal from marine production and exacerbates the predatory exploitation of marine resources fueled by modern consumer markets. Consequently, it is difficult to determine the effectiveness of marine ecological protection policies. Research has shown that, based on Marx's theory of Productivity and Relations of Production, the vulnerability of fishermen's livelihoods is inherent in their own insurmountable rapid increase in productivity and their failure to establish relations of production that are adapted to the needs of productivity, which creates tensions in human–sea relations. Therefore, to solve the vulnerability of fishermen's livelihoods, it is necessary to start from the cultural specificities of fishermen, reform their relations of production from the inside out, update their skills, establish effective organizations, and gradually alleviate the tensions in human–sea relations to construct a community with a shared future for mankind and the ocean.

  • Xiaohui Hu, Tanchen Lin, Tianyao Zhang, Xuliang Zhang
    Tropical Geography. 2024, 44(2): 269-279. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003830

    The construction of specialty towns is positioned as an important breakthrough and down-to-the-ground path in the implementation of China's new-type urbanization strategy. It highlights the roles of place-based industrial specialization and agglomeration economics. In this process, the Chinese government plays a supportive and guiding role in enabling and aligning multiple actors to engage with to build new platforms for innovation and entrepreneurial activities that integrate the functions of production, living, and ecology. The specialty towns construction strategy is aimed at promoting people-based urbanization and the regional ability of endogenous development. Given the "top-down" and standardization-led nature of the specialty towns policy program, implementation and practices at the local level are both challenging and problematic. This paper adopts perspectives and concepts from evolutionary economic geography and agglomeration economics to explore the antecedents and mechanisms of urbanization. It emphasizes the geographical spatiality of the program in local implementation. Taking 134 provincial specialty towns of Zhejiang province as research cases, the paper refers to a mixed set of methodologies of on-site, interview-based fieldwork; an online survey; and a document analysis to identify the historical foundations, industry attributes, and development objectives of the specialty towns. It also generates a typology of the 134 specialty towns, as well as a typological guideline regarding policy intervention for the broader implementation of specialty towns in China. Three main types of specialty towns are identified in our study: The first type is built on the basis of state-led, sci-tech industrial parks/new towns, whose development aims are oriented toward the development of new industrial paths. The second type is based on firm-led specialized markets located in small administrative towns that support the upgrading and renewal of existing local traditional industries. The third type is featured by the local presence of place-specific natural or sociocultural resources, and it is based on scenic spots. It is oriented to the development of the tourism economy. In conclusion, this study promotes the incorporation of evolutionary economic geography perspectives into the policy implementation of specialty towns and calls for taking the concepts of history, space, and place into account for a better understanding of these towns. By so doing, future policy methods will not be standardized, quota-based, and top-down.

  • Renrong Xiao, Pengjun Zhao, Zhangyuan He, Ge Li
    Tropical Geography. 2024, 44(2): 350-364. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003828

    Port geography is an important aspect of transportation geography. To reveal the context and characteristics of port geography research in China, we selected 24 high-quality Chinese journals published by The Geographical Society of China and China Society of Natural Resources. 552 papers related to Port Geography from these journals between 1982 and 2022 were analyzed, the results showed that research on Port geography in China has been through initial, exploration, rapid development, and research perspective transformation stages. This field has five main themes: hinterland studies, the systems, networks, and development of ports, and port-city relationships. Research on port hinterlands focuses on the integrated development of port hinterlands. However, there is still a need for further exploration because the measurement of port system centralization and decentralization is the focal point of port systems. With the development of multimodal transportation, changes in port systems have intensified the competition among ports, which scholars have tended to interpret from a macroscopic perspective. The structure of port networks involves topics such as topological spatial arrangements, changes in network structure, and network security assessments. Scholars place particular emphasis on the impact of port networks on China's development. Prior development studies have been based on comprehensive planning that considers natural, economic, and societal conditions, port layout, and site selection as crucial research subjects. However, in recent years, some emerging development strategies have started to investigate port logistics and enterprises, and port terminals, offering recommendations and considering the interests of businesses; The research on port-city relationships centers on the development of the port-city interface, and analysis of waterfront areas also captures the interest of scholars. The economic relationship between the port and the city is relatively complex, and scholars have not yet reached a consensus on it. Overall, research focusses on the impact on the national economy, but theories are relatively lacking. Port geography research in China has paid little attention to society, institutions, culture, or supply chains that are popular in Western research. In future, we should pay attention to the impact of extreme weather and geopolitics, deepen research on ports' internal wharves and enterprises, promote the application of Automatic Identification System data, and construct theories on port logistics.

  • Christian Kesteloot, Lorenzo Bagnoli, Yannan Ding, Ning An
    Tropical Geography. 2024, 44(1): 1-12. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.temp.003791

    A short overview of the history of academic geography since the 19th century shows that there has never been a unity of physical and human geography in the past, at least in the form that is strived for today to justify the relevance of geography in coping with the present problems faced by humanity. But the fact that the limits of positivism start to be recognized in physical geography opens a way to collaboration for addressing the pressing problems affecting our planet today. The paper ends with some examples of how such a collaboration might look like and advocates greater attention to a political chorological approach, concentrating on the diversity of regions in the world, by taking both their internal and external relationships in terms of power structures into account.

  • Yunlong Cai
    Tropical Geography. 2024, 44(1): 13-15. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003797

    The differentiation of physical geography and human geography is consistent with the differentiation of science, which is always in progress. Both have their advantages, and both have made contributions to scientific cognition and practical application. However, they also share common interests and means, which can give full play to their advantages and provide unique academic support for understanding and solving numerous social and environmental problems and challenges faced by contemporary human beings.

  • Shangyi Zhou
    Tropical Geography. 2024, 44(1): 16-19. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003795

    Inspired by the article co-authored by Christian Kesteloot and Lorenzo Bagnoli, this paper proposes three bases for the integration of physical geography and human geography. First, the ontologies faced by the two academic groups need to be close; second, the two academic groups must embrace each other's methodology; and third, the organization of scientific research operation should be conducive to integration. In order to better demonstrate these three integration bases, this paper considers the case of color control in the central city of Beijing, and analyzes the difference research approaches of physical geographers and human geographers when they face this practical issue in the absence of these three bases, as well as trends in their divergence.

  • Jinshe Liang
    Tropical Geography. 2024, 44(1): 20-23. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003808

    The environment is a common research subject of physical and human geography, serving as a bridge toward the integration of these two sub-disciplines within geography. In order to study the interaction between human and physical geographical processes and the complex earth landscape it generates, incorporating the concept of region and corresponding research methods can be a possible direction to simplify the complexity of the problem. I argue that the division and analysis of regions should be based on geographical processes, emphasizing the discovery of chain reactions within these processes. Although there is a degree of subjectivity in the division of region among geographers, a good regional delineation should uncover more important and objective facts, reveal deeper truths, and therefore gain higher recognition. The unity of physical and human geography is evident in the cognitions and actions that human societies take regarding the interactions between physical and human geographical processes, which the comprehensive study of geography should able to explore, analyze, organize, and interpret.

  • Jigang Bao, Shixiu Weng
    Tropical Geography. 2024, 44(1): 24-27. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003816

    The 21st century has seen an exponential growth in the number of papers published by Chinese geographers, yet this surge in publication has not corresponded to a commensurate increase in societal impact. The voices of geographers, particularly those of the younger generation, have diminished when confronted with substantial scientific and societal challenges. A pivotal factor contributing to this phenomenon is the academic evaluation system, which places significant emphasis on the quantities of papers and projects. This system significantly impedes cohesive progress in the field of Chinese geography, leading geographers, especially the younger generation, to diverge from the fundamental principles of the discipline. Consequently, there is a gradual neglect of the "comprehensiveness" and "regionality" dimensions that geography traditionally employs to tackle significant issues. To augment the capacity of geography to confront crucial challenges and enhance its standing within both the disciplinary and societal realms, Chinese geography should embark on a trajectory of consolidated development. This includes crucial steps such as strengthening geography education, establishing a leading problem-oriented framework, outlining pathways for integrating physical and human geography, and utilizing initiatives such as the "Top Ten Research Progresses in Chinese Geographical Science" to guide synthesized geographic development.

  • Yun Li, Fengqian Shen, Xiaoyuan Shen, Chunlan Guo
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(12): 2249-2262. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003787

    In the context of globalization, cross-boundary regions have become strategic areas for improving national competitiveness and promoting local development. Moreover, cross-boundary governance has gradually become a key issue in regional integration research. Recently, with the increasing trend of anti-globalization, exploring regional governance transformation is crucial for national development. This article conceptualizes a research framework that is a cross-boundary governing network based on policy network theory. It is believed that in cross-boundary governance, various state actors based on common development goals form multi-level and systematic state communities under the restructuring of state capacity while working together to promote cross-boundary regional development. Among them, economic territorialization and state capacity are the key to understanding this concept. Furthermore, under the institutional framework of "one country, two systems," an empirical study was conducted using the Shenzhen Hong Kong cross-boundary region as an example, highlighting the close relationship between the process of economic territorialization and the construction of the cross-boundary governing network. This study explored the operational methods of cross-boundary governing network, and further analyzed the impact of state-society paradigms on the operation of cross-boundary governing network under asymmetric governance. Research has proven that the cross-boundary governing network is a resilient governance mechanism for understanding the process of government-led institutional integration in cross-boundary areas. The new framework also contributes to the policy network as follows: First, the new conceptual framework is more likely to be understood as a complex, multi-type mixed network that is used to overcome the problem of the limited applicability and oversimplification of ideal policy network typologies in practice. It helps to understand the connection between the state-led decision-making process and the state-society interaction process. Second, it is configured on a logical need to contextualize the policy network to the broader and everchanging meso-level territorial scales within which state actors are defined and located within different state-society relations. Third, the factors of "resource" and "power," which are the functional core of the policy network, have yet to be fully defined with little consensus. The "new" will be centered on the configuration and realization of the state capacity of involved state actors as the bridging role of both meso-level networks. Furthermore, the "general-purpose" and "task-specific" components inherent in the multilevel governance approach are adopted to describe different systematic state communities. Meanwhile, the inter-actor idea of an "advocacy coalition" is also incorporated to understand the consensus-forming process within the intra-territorial network. Under the dynamic construction of the cross-boundary governing network, this multi-level and systematic governance approach will continuously deepen the development of Shenzhen Hong Kong cross-boundary cooperation, to make a theoretical contribution to cross-boundary synergistic development in other regions.

  • Xianfeng Xu, Jili Xu, Jiangchun Yao, Jialing Huang, Sicong Hu
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(12): 2263-2273. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003782

    The "enclave economy" is an important governance tool for promoting regional integration. Guangdong Province occupies the leading position in exploring the "enclave economy" model in China, which has effectively promoted the development of the east and northwest of Guangdong Province through the "point to area" approach. However, certain problems that are associated with the "enclave economy" concept, including a weak level of industrial relatedness, disconnection with the development of the local urban system, and inadequate interest driving mechanisms, need to be urgently addressed. The article aims to explore the high-quality development path of the "enclave economy" in the new era, taking advantage of the symbiosis theory. Based on field research and semi-structured interview methods, the present study attempts to not only probe into the cooperative relationship and mutually beneficial symbiosis mechanism among different actors in the "enclave economy" but also explore a more sustainable and mutually beneficial development "enclave economy" model. With respect to theoretical contribution, based on the symbiosis theory and the characteristics of the "enclave economy", this study facilitates a better understanding of the high-quality development logic of the "enclave economy" from the perspective of symbiosis in particular and establishes a theoretical framework comprising the "industrial symbiosis network-industrial symbiosis unit-interest symbiosis mechanism" components. Empirically, this study takes the Guangqing Economic Cooperation Zone (Guangde Park) as the case study; reveals the development process and problems of the "enclave economy", including the isolation of industry transplantation, fragmentation of industry-city units, and locking of interests and mismatch between rights and responsibilities; and proposes high-quality development strategies, such as establishing a cross-regional "enclave economic circle", a resource-linking platform between industry and city, and a community of interests in industrial parks and towns, to form a more sustainable symmetric and mutually beneficial symbiotic mechanism. The key contribution of this study lies in the theoretical framework for the high-quality development of the "enclave economy" through the lens of symbiosis, which enriches the ways of analysis and cognitive logic of the "enclave economy" and advances cross-regional cooperation and "enclave economy" research. It enhances the cross-territorial geographic thinking of regional cooperation and "enclave economy" research, holding the potential to provide decision-making references for the promotion of regional coordinated development in Guangdong Province in the new period. It also has practical application value for relieving the pressure of unbalanced and insufficient regional development in China by promoting cross-municipal and cross-provincial cooperation.

  • Xiangyu Wang, Yuyao Ye, Xibo Wu, Zhiying Zhang, Fengyu Cheng, Xiaohua Zou, Beilei Zhao, Hong'ou Zhang
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(12): 2274-2287. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003788

    The international non-tariff trade protection against China has gradually increased since 2018, hindering technology trade. Under the impact of the new trade protection, we still know little about how the electronic communication industry (as one of the strategic high-tech industries)changes the innovation cooperation relationship and the innovation performance. Owing to the failure of geographical research to integrate trade protection into the existing research framework from an institutional perspective, the trade protection literature and the innovation geography literature do not intersect. However, the trade geography literature has not paid enough attention to the evolution of industrial innovation in China in recent years and has not taken into account the heterogeneity of the industry-college-institute cooperation and innovation relationship and its impact on regional industrial innovation performance. Based on the 2014-2021 US Export Control Regulations and the invention patent data of the electronic communication industry in the Pearl River Delta, this study uses descriptive statistics, a Quadratic Assignment Procedure, and a negative binomial regression model. It explores both the mechanism and effect of a new round of trade protection on industry-college-institute cooperation and their joint impact on cooperative innovation performance. The study finds that the structure of the industry-college-institute cooperative innovation relationship in the electronic communication industry of the Pearl River Delta has gradually decentralized, and its heterogeneity growth tends to stall. The new round of trade protection significantly regulates geographical proximity, deteriorating the geographical scale of cooperative innovation. The regression results show that under the impact of trade protection, the heterogeneity of industry-college-institute cooperation changes from positive to negative, and the inverted U-shaped relationship has reached a significant level. Trade protection changes the influence of social and cognitive proximities and of geographical proximity on cooperative innovation performance, and the moderating effect of trade protection is highlighted by the positive effect of strengthening geographical proximity on industry-college-institute cooperation and innovation performance. The above findings remind us of the need to further refine and optimize innovation support policies. Therefore, the study puts forward some targeted policy suggestions, namely, to formulate innovation support policies suitable for the internal and externalized innovation transaction costs of different types of enterprises, strengthen the dominant role of enterprises in innovation, and promote cross-regional cooperation. To a certain extent, it can inform the decision-making by China's regional strategic industries around ending the international technology trade blockade and achieving high-quality independent innovation and technical cooperation.

  • Aiheng Zhang
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(12): 2345-2358. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003784

    The study of everyday life has gained attention across various disciplines in the context of modernity. This study utilizes Lefebvre's rhythmanalysis to explore the everyday experiences of residents in the Xiguan Community, a historically significant residential area in western Guangzhou undergoing urbanization and tourism development. Adopting an emic perspective, this study employed auto-ethnography to depict the daily rhythms and spatially embodied experiences of the author, a native resident of the Xiguan Community. By incorporating reflective and self-narrative elements and comparing them across generations, this approach provides first-hand knowledge and self-awareness. This research offers an insider's comprehensive understanding of the effects of urbanization and tourism on residents' everyday lives. Informed by Lefebvre's rhythmanalysis, this analysis incorporates spatial and temporal dimensions, with a specific emphasis on residents' experiences of spatial embodiment and their engagement with everyday rhythms. The study reveals two key findings: First, urbanization and the commodification of landscapes have created a constructed "the present" in traditional communities, displacing the meaningful "existence" of everyday life. Certain spaces within these communities have detached from residents' everyday lives, serving urban and tourism purposes, and leading to partial alienation in spatial and temporal dimensions. These spaces represent the simulacra and fragments of residents' everyday lives, lacking subjectivity, temporality, and wholeness. Over time, the "existence" that embodies the meaning of residents' everyday lives has been squeezed out by structural forces such as urban renewal and community tourism. For tourists, these landscapes may serve only as replicas of attractions, devoid of the essence of residents' everyday lives. For the residents, these community spaces have become manifestations of instrumental rationality and commodification. Second, this study highlights that traditional community residents' bodies are disciplined and governed by the instrumental rationality of urban production and the invisible rhythms of the tourism industry. In large cities, the significance of individual bodies in traditional urban communities is often overlooked, as bodies become tools for creating value through work. Individuals adjust their everyday rhythms based on urban settings' production rationality and efficiency priorities. This undermines the bodily rhythms that align with natural cycles and prompts residents to distance themselves from traditional communities. While the older generation in the Xiguan Community experiences overlapping leisure time and shares community spaces, fostering solid social relationships, the younger generation faces longer working hours, extended commuting distances, and more individualized leisure time. As a result, there is a lack of synchronization in leisure rhythms among neighbors. The embodied rhythms of traditional community residents have shifted from a state of harmony with natural rhythms and community spaces to being governed by the instrumental rationality of urban production and invisible rhythms of the tourism industry. This study provides an emic and longitudinal perspective to the investigation of spatial experiences and embodied rhythms in urban and tourism development. The use of auto-ethnography amplifies residents' voices and calls for greater consideration of local daily life. These findings emphasize the importance of incorporating residents' everyday experiences into the planning and development of sustainable communities and tourism.

  • Lei Chen, Rumeng Qiu, Chuan Li
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(12): 2406-2417. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003785

    Cultivated land is the cornerstone of grain production and the basic resource to ensure food security. Understanding the non-grain production status of cultivated land in the main grain-producing areas of western China is necessary to provide a basis for regional sustainable agricultural development and cultivated land protection decision-making. In this study, Chengdu Plain was selected as an empirical research area. A mathematical quantization model and spatial autocorrelation method were used to analyze the spatiotemporal characteristics of non-grain production of cultivated land in Chengdu Plain, and an econometric model was constructed to identify its driving factors. The results showed that the cultivated land area did not change significantly in the Chengdu Plain from 2000 to 2019; however, the small change in cultivated land area did not mean that its actual use changed little, and the non-grain production status of cultivated land was obvious. (1) From 2000 to 2019, both the Non-Grain production Area (NGA) and the Non-Grain production Rate (NGR) in Chengdu Plain showed a fluctuating and increasing trend, with an increased rate of 4.40% and 13.53%, respectively, which indicates that cultivated land protection and food security were under great pressure. (2) In terms of space, the NGA in 34 districts and counties of Chengdu Plain presents a multi-center scattered distribution, which shows a spatial pattern of high in the center and low in the northeast and southwest, and the NGA's spatial agglomeration areas are concentrated in Chengdu and its neighboring cities. (3) Economic Crop Planting Scale (ECPS), Agricultural Structure Adjustment (ASA), Urbanization Rate (UR), and Cultivated Land Protection Policy (CLPP) are the most important factors affecting the non-grain transformation of cultivated land in Chengdu Plain. Some suggestions are proposed: red lines should be drawn to implement a control system for cultivated land use; departmental collaboration must be strengthened to build a synergy of cultivated land protection; the agricultural subsidy system must be improved to defend farmers' fundamental rights and interests; and policy advocacy for cultivated land protection should be enhanced to raise food security awareness. This study can better reflect the non-grain production status of cultivated land in Chengdu Plain, and from the spatial unit of district and county, it provides a good perspective for the study of the non-grain production of cultivated land. This study also provides a scientific foundation for decision-making regarding regional sustainable agricultural development and cultivated land protection.

  • Chengkun Liu, Tingying Peng, Bing Zeng, Yu Zeng
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(11): 2049-2059. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003771

    In response to global climate change, China has incorporated carbon peaking and carbon neutrality into its overall economic and social development. National-level new areas are critical strategic carriers for high-quality regional economic development in China, playing an essential role in promoting carbon reduction. Objectively evaluating the carbon-emission-reduction effect of national-level new areas can help accumulate and promote China's low-carbon construction experience, and thus, comprehensively facilitate greening and ecological civilization construction. In this study, the impact of the establishment of national-level new areas on carbon emissions in their respective cities were investigated using the difference-in-difference method. The findings show that: 1) the establishment of a national-level new area can significantly minimize the carbon emissions in the city in which it is located, and after three years of establishment, it will have a significant long-term inhibitory effect on the carbon emissions of the city. This conclusion is still valid after a series of robustness tests, such as propensity score matching + difference-in-difference; 2) The national-level new area policy mainly reduces carbon emissions in a city through technological and energy-saving effects but cannot yet reduce them by adjusting the industrial structure. 3) The impact of the establishment of national-level new areas on the carbon emissions of surrounding cities shows an "∽" trend of increasing first, then decreasing, and subsequently increasing. It has a significant carbon-reduction effect on cities within the range of 200-250 km, indicating that national-level new areas can help promote carbon-emission reduction in surrounding cities. 4) The national-level new area policy has a higher carbon-emission-reduction effect on northern cities than on southern cities. The single-city layout model of the national-level new area has a significant carbon-emission-reduction effect on the host city, whereas the dual-city layout model does not significantly reduce the carbon emissions in the host city. This study investigated the carbon-emission-reduction effect of national-level new area policies and examined carbon-emission reduction in the national-level new areas of pilot cities through technological and energy-saving effects. This study helps to improve the theoretical understanding of national-level new area policies and carbon-emission impact mechanisms and provides a policy reference for China's promotion of the "dual-carbon" strategy.

  • Bin Liu, Lei Xu, Hao Chen
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(11): 2075-2086. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003774

    The autonomy and travel conditions for older adult tourists have significantly improved, leading to a diversification of their tourism activities. Among these, the concept of a free and comfortable sojourn has gained popularity. Despite the complex concept of older adult sojourns being established in related research, the concepts often overlap and are fragmented, leading to a disjointed understanding of the phenomenon. This study aims to incorporate the life-span theory of control and its optimization strategy framework from a life-span development perspective in older adults. By deeply connecting research on older adults with tourism research through life-span development thinking, we aim to explore methods of coordinating and analyzing older adult sojourns. This approach will allow us to systematically reshape existing conceptual knowledge. Based on the results of this coordinated analysis, we aim to gain a systematic understanding of older adult sojourns and propose future research directions. The study revealed that older adult tourism exhibits strategic traits consistent with the life-span theory of control, where resource allocation and willpower investment are crucial elements. This forms a resource-willpower investment framework that categorizes 16 different older adult tourism behavior patterns. Using this framework, by comparing the characteristics of older adult travel with the 16 classification results, the resource and willpower investment framework is focused on the amount of resources invested in the destination and the distance of the trip. This further refines the corresponding older adult travel patterns into four types: relatively high investment in travel to distant areas, relatively high investment in travel to nearby areas, relatively low investment in travel to distant areas, and relatively low investment in travel to nearby areas. The study reveals that the four categories represent varying lifestyle demands and participation limitations for older adults. Those who invest more and travel longer distances tend to face greater participation challenges, have fewer companions, require more from their destinations, and have limited choices. Conversely, those who invest less and travel shorter distances experience the opposite. The four categories of older adult travel display different scene transitions and state changes, each with unique participation challenges, social choices, and destination requirements. Overall, the categorization of older adult tourism types and the comprehensive analysis of older adult travel types constitute a process of knowledge creation. The research employs deductive methods for progressive exploration, building a comprehensive classification framework. This framework lays a cognitive foundation for future research and provides key directions. The innovative research approach, in conjunction with the life-span theory of control, provides a method for pattern analysis to understand ongoing tourism behaviors and phenomena that are constantly evolving and enriching. Older adult sojourn is one of the few forms of tourism that is notably age-friendly. The prospects for research and industrial development of this phenomenon are promising, but there is currently a lack of discussion about the phenomenon itself. Future research can build upon this initial understanding to further investigate behavioral characteristics, values related to aging, and local response needs. By examining behavior, subject, and space, a study can be conducted on behavior, motivation, space, and their interactive results, leading to more systematic findings and enhancing the practical value of the guidance.

  • Lingling Zhao, Changming Liu, Ziyin Wang, Xinhui Zhang, Xing Yang
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(11): 2119-2134. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003763

    The prediction of rainstorms and floods in small and medium-sized watersheds, as well as the synthesis of related parameters, plays a pivotal role in preventing flood disasters. Environmental changes have led to an increase in hydrological extremes such as rainstorms and floods, presenting unprecedented challenges for small and medium-sized river basins. In this review, we systematically categorize, and summarize the processes involved in predicting rainstorms and floods in these watersheds, along with advancements in correlated parameter synthesis research. Furthermore, we analyze and discuss the most commonly employed runoff and confluence estimation methods and their associated parameters in practical applications, as well as their limitations. First, we establish the concept of small- and medium-sized watersheds across various academic disciplines. From a hydrological perspective, these watersheds typically exhibit slope confluence and have relatively small catchment areas. In terms of eco-hydrology, the ecological water demand of the basin must be calculated based on the different communities occupying the river basin and divided by area according to the ecological samples from each district after the investigation. Thereafter, we summarized the methods and types of runoff calculation and parameter synthesis in small- and medium-sized basins, and the methods and principles of runoff analysis, such as rainfall–runoff correlation diagram, infiltration curve method, deduction method, runoff coefficient method, and hydrological model method as well as the methods of parameter synthesis, such as rainfall-runoff correlation diagrams and loss methods are introduced. Second, we summarize and discuss the assessment of confluence and its associated parameters in small- and medium-sized river basins. This encompasses background information and various calculation methods, such as the instantaneous unit line, comprehensive unit line, inference formula method, and empirical formula method. We also examine how the three major elements of parameter synthesis convergence influence confluence parameters. We emphasize that combining radar rainfall measurements, high-resolution remote sensing, high-performance computing, and deep learning can facilitate research on simulating and forecasting rainstorms and flood processes in small- and medium-sized basins. However, a significant portion of these basins lacks data, limiting the application of simulation and flood forecasting. To address this, integration with geographical parameters specific to small- and medium-sized basins is necessary to enhance regional reliability and forecasting accuracy. Additionally, when applying deep learning to simulate basins with limited or no data, the significance of parameter synthesis becomes even more pronounced. Finally, we discuss the problems and challenges associated with storm flood calculations and parameter synthesis methods in small- and medium-sized basins and offer predictions regarding future research and technical developments. We recommend strengthening the use of emerging technologies for watershed runoff and runoff parameter calculations and advocate for their application in storm flood design.

  • Qiang Luo, Kai Bai, Baoling Dong, Beibei Li
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(11): 2178-2190. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003769

    Memory is an essential structure of the tourism experience. Tourism memory construction is not only an individual's review and sublimation of on-site experience, but also the pursuit and introspection of self-meaning. Although tourism memory is unique and critical, it has not yet been fully examined in local tourism studies, resulting in the focus on on-site experience while ignoring the special role of tourism memory in shaping the landscape and constructing individual self-cognition. In this study, based on theories of autobiographical memory and self-expansion, the Grounded Theory and Structural Equation Model were adopted to investigate the influence mechanism of tourism memory construction on tourists' self-concept expansion based on excavating the dimensions of tourism memory construction. The results showed that: 1) Tourism memory is an unforgettable autobiographical memory formed by individual screening and construction after tourists' on-site experience. Its construction dimensions comprise three basic structures: cognitive appraisal, interactive perception, and affective involvement. Specifically, cognitive appraisal refers to the cognitive feelings generated by tourists based on the objective environment of destinations in their memory. Interactive perception is the participatory perception of the interaction between the host and guest and the interaction between tourists. Affective involvement reflects the emotional properties of memory, which is the corresponding emotional reaction of tourists based on cognitive appraisal and interactive perception. These three elements are interrelated and jointly shape and interpret the landscape constructing tourist' self-identity. 2) Cognitive appraisal, interactive perception, and positive affective involvement in tourism memory help promote tourism-sharing behavior, which significantly and positively influences the individual and social self-expansion of tourists. This finding confirms that cognitive and interactive memories contribute to tourism-sharing behavior. In particular, positive and negative affective involvements are remembered by tourists, but many tourists are more willing to share "positive energy" and express the positive side of tourism memories. In addition, through self-narration and self-expression, tourism sharing deepens reflection of the overall self-perception. 3) Among the direct effects of tourism memory construction on self-concept expansion, cognitive appraisal and interactive perception significantly and positively affect individual and social self-expansion, whereas positive affective involvement only positively affects individual self-expansion and indirectly affects social self-expansion by tourism sharing. Furthermore, this paper theoretically clarifies the dimensions of tourism memory construction, complements the theoretical deficiencies of post-travel memory in previous tourism experience studies, and reveals the subjective significance of tourism memory to self. This paper also introduces the concept of self-expansion in tourism research and complements self-expansion studies in nonrelational contexts. Finally, this study is a practical reference for memory marketing in destinations.

  • Yingmin Huang, Xiao Fu, Xiaoshu Cao, Wang Liao
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(11): 2191-2202. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003765

    The acceleration of high-quality development in the revolutionary old areas has played a pivotal role in advancing coordinated regional development in China. The 20th National Congress of the Chinese Communist Party proposed a development strategy for implementing regionally coordinated development, building a new development pattern, promoting high-quality development, and accelerating the rejuvenation and development of special areas such as the revolutionary old regions. However, there is an overemphasis on economic development metrics, a disregard for local practices and characteristics, and a blending of processes and outcomes associated with the high-quality regional development evaluation indicators. To solve these issues, it is essential to establish a set of tailored indicators to evaluate and guide the high-quality and differentiated development of counties in the old revolutionary base areas. Harnessing the essence of high-quality development concept, this study proposes a logical framework for constructing an evaluation index system for high-quality development in counties within the revolutionary old areas. Using the old revolutionary base areas in Southern Jiangxi and Western Fujian as the study areas, a three-level coding process based on grounded theory was employed. This rigorous approach enabled the scientific construction of an evaluation index system for high-quality development in the revolutionary old areas. This index system comprises seven dimensions, namely, innovation-driven, economic development, urban-rural coordination, people's well-being, ecological civilization, internal and external openness, and red culture, encompassing 40 indicators. Furthermore, a critical understanding of high-quality development in the revolutionary old areas, emphasizing the need to inherit, preserve, and promote red culture as a contemporary task guided by new developmental concepts, was gained. The aim was to facilitate enhancing both the scale and structure of economic development. This indicator system uses the entropy method to ascertain the indicator weights and subsequently performs a comprehensive evaluation of the study areas. The findings indicate that innovation-driven factors play a significant role in driving the differences in the high-quality development of the revolutionary old areas. In contrast, ecological civilization is yet to exhibit sufficient potential as a driving force for high-quality development at the current stage. Notably, significant disparities exist in the level of high-quality development between the demonstration areas of Ganzhou and the old revolutionary base areas of western Fujian. These disparities are most evident in the spatial core-edge structure. Additionally, counties at the provincial boundaries demonstrate relatively low levels of high-quality development, warranting increased attention to future high-quality revitalization and development efforts. In comparison to previous research, this study contributes in three key ways. First, an evaluation index system has been constructed using a combined top-down and bottom-up approach, incorporating indicators that account for local practices and characteristics, offering a novel perspective for establishing a high-quality development index system. Second, the national strategic positioning of county-level research units in urban-rural integration development, rural revitalization, and urbanization is highlighted, with county towns identified as pivotal carriers. Urban-rural coordination was identified to be the focus of coordination at the county level. Finally, by extending the core connotations of high-quality development, this study enriches the existing understanding of high-quality development. The research findings hold significant implications for expediting the revitalization and development of revolutionary old areas and for the systematic implementation of high-quality development concepts.

  • Yue'er Li, Kefu Yu, Tingli Yan, Leilei Jiang
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(10): 1843-1855. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003748

    Coral growth rate is a physical index that is particularly closely associated with climatic factors such as Sea Surface Temperature (SST). The growth rate is minimally affected by environmental changes and serves as a high-resolution indicator in the study of climatic and environmental variation, making it a useful tool in paleoclimatic coral research. However, previous research on coral growth rate has primarily focused on the modern period, with limited investigation of the Mid-Holocene, which shares similar climatic characteristics with the current warm period. It is especially important to understand the climate and environmental conditions during the Mid-Holocene to gain insight into contemporary climate change processes and mechanisms. To address this gap, we first collected a modern Porites coral core and 23 Mid-Holocene subfossil coral cores from Tanmen, located on the eastern coast of Hainan Island. Using X-ray radiography and image processing methods, we measured and analyzed the coral growth rates of all cores, resulting in the identification of growth rate patterns during the Mid-Holocene. Additionally, by analyzing the environmental factors that impact modern coral (2005-2021 AD), we established a linear relationship between coral growth rate (L) and SST in Tanmen, expressed as SST=2.945±0.237×L+22.481±0.301(1?s.e.). By applying this equation, we reconstructed an annual average SST sequence of 406 years during the Mid-Holocene (6,143-4,356 a BP). The results indicate that the average coral growth rate during the Mid-Holocene was 1.079 cm/a, ranging from 0.607 to 1.670 cm/a, with noticeable fluctuations. The coral growth rate sequence also revealed three consecutive periods of low growth rate, accompanied by a significant increase in interannual variability after 4,515 a BP, resulting in more complex fluctuations. Moreover, the reconstructed SST sequence based on coral growth rate data shows that the mean SST of the Mid-Holocene was 25.7±0.54 ℃, which is comparable to the modern SST in the context of global warming. The average annual SST varied from 24.7 to 26.8℃ in the Mid-Holocene, exhibiting considerable fluctuations between warm and cold periods, and with three distinct periods of low SST at 5,860, 5,660, and 5,160 a BP. This provides detailed insights into the temperature variations during the Mid-Holocene. In addition, a comparison of the spectral cycles of coral growth rates between the modern and Mid-Holocene periods (5,427-5,394, 5,243-5,209, 4,515-4,456, and 4,404-4,356 a BP) revealed significant ENSO cycles of three to seven years, observed in both modern and Mid-Holocene corals. During the Mid-Holocene, the primary ENSO cycle changed: its frequency decreased considerably, indicating that ENSO activity was weaker than that observed in the modern period. However, further statistical analysis utilizing the Probability Density Function (PDF) demonstrated a gradual increase in ENSO variability during this period. The results of this study offer novel insights into tropical climate characteristics of the Mid-Holocene.

  • Jinhui Zheng, Guangbo Ren, Yabin Hu, Feifei Zhang, Yi Ma, Mingjie Li, Ruifu Wang
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(10): 1856-1873. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003762

    The global proliferation of natural predators, including Terpios hoshinota sponge and crown-of-thorns starfish, poses a significant threat to the ecological vitality of coral reefs. However, coral reef research currently lacks comprehensive quantitative studies on the ramifications of predator outbreaks in various coral reef landform types. To bridge this knowledge gap, this study utilized a dataset comprising 26 Sentinel-2 remote sensing images spanning the years 2016 to 2022, both pre- and post-two distinct episodes of natural predator outbreaks involving the Terpios hoshinota sponge and crown-of-thorns starfish, within the vicinity of Taiping Island. High-resolution GF-2 (PMS) remote-sensing images and satellite data were used to augment the analysis. Based on data obtained from the Google Earth platform of the Geographic Information System for remote sensing imagery, we conducted an experiment involving the classification of coral reef landform types in Taiping Island in the South China Sea. During the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification experiments, we performed a meticulous examination of the image interpretation outcomes, making comparisons and rectifications in consultation with domain experts. Classification was performed by analyzing remote sensing images, and the identified landform types included areas characterized by dense coral sedimentation, sparse coral sedimentation, coral clusters, sand flats, and shallow reef front slopes. Subsequent analyses focused on discerning distinctive characteristics and tracing their evolutionary patterns. The findings reveal that (1) this study effectively integrates expert interpretation knowledge and an SVM classification algorithm to classify the various landform types present in Taiping Island's coral reef ecosystem. Remarkably, the classification achieved an unprecedented level of accuracy, with an overall accuracy rate of 96.46% and a kappa coefficient of 0.94. (2) The analysis showed that during the two natural predator outbreaks, the coral reef landforms on Taiping Island, which included dense coral reef areas, dense coral sedimentation areas, and sparse coral sedimentation areas, displayed significant decreases in their respective areas. The outbreak of Terpios hoshinota sponge had the most profound impact on the dense coral sedimentation area, resulting in a 72.92% decrease in the total area. Meanwhile, the outbreak of crown-of-thorns starfish had the most significant effect on the coral cluster area, causing a 59.17% reduction in total area. (3) Over the period spanning from 2016 to 2022, the degradation rate of the coral reefs on Taiping Island exceeded the recovery rate. Notably, the highest degradation rate (23.88%) occurred between March-June 2017. Conversely, the highest rate of recovery (18.03%) was observed from June-September 2017. We analyzed the dynamic characteristics of coral reef landform types, including changes in type distribution, areal extent, degradation rate, and recovery rate. Furthermore, we assessed the influence of natural disturbances on the degradation of coral reef ecosystems, thereby providing valuable insights for conservation and scientific inquiries pertaining to coral reef ecological resources in the waters surrounding Taiping Island. This effort is underpinned by a solid theoretical foundation. The Chinese and English literature cited in this article have contributed significantly to various facets, including coral reef monitoring methodologies, construction of coral reef classification systems, and assessment of coral reef ecosystem health.

  • Yongwei Tang, Helin Liu, Mei Luo, Junyang Gao, Hui Ci
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(10): 1891-1902. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003751

    Knowledge of the evolutionary characteristics of urban functional centers and their formation mechanisms is a prerequisite for promoting urban renewal and optimizing these centers. Taking the central urban area of Suzhou as an example, the driving mechanisms of spatial-temporal differentiation were determined through examining long-term data of urban points of interest, kernel density estimation, and location entropy. The findings are as follows. First, the spatial distribution of urban functional centers evolves from a monocentric to a polycentric pattern, with a significant pattern of primary and secondary differential order. In the case of Suzhou, the city has evolved from a single center to a multi-center functional system with one main center and four sub-centers, which is in accordance with the layout of the functional centers determined by the urban master plan. Second, The services of functional centers shift from public function to a dominance of lifestyle function and then to consumer dominance, which supports the trend of the transformation into a consumption-oriented city. The spatial differentiation of the dominant function types of each center is significant, with both a complementary division of labor and a corresponding trend of functional specialization. Under China's unique governance system, the intervention of planning policies is bound to have a significant impact on the spatial and temporal differentiation of urban functional centers. Therefore, based on the perspective of urban planning and policy, we have constructed an analytical framework for the evolution of functional centers at multiple scales and with multiple actors acting together. Macro policies are transmitted downward through national strategies and regional plans to guide the overall evolution of space and functions; at the meso policy level, the active local government builds a blueprint plan through planning tools, such as development plans and urban master plans, links with market mechanisms, and carries out urban management to promote the generation of multiple functional centers in the city. At the micro-policy level, action policies such as urban function relocation, spatial regeneration, and the creation of special spaces in new towns are coordinated to promote the function relocation and agglomeration of functional centers in the city. Multi-scale planning policies jointly construct a nested mechanism to drive the evolution of functional centers; however, the degree of spatial and temporal matching between planning policies and market mechanisms determines the formation and evolution paths of functional centers. The mismatch between the "blueprint" approach of urban planning and the flexibility of the market mechanism, the failure of the transmission of planning policies at the upper and lower levels, or the change of planning can cause a bias in the generation and evolution of functional centers. The contribution of this study is, first, to establish a spatial and temporal cognitive framework for the evolution of functional centers and to explore the evolutionary pattern of the dominant function types of functional centers based on fine-grained data. We found that the dominant functions of urban functional centers in the case study area go through an evolutionary process of "public function-living function-consumption function". A similar process has not yet been documented in other cities, underscoring the need to verify the model through multi-case comparisons. Second, the special urban governance environment in China requires that researchers and planners view policy interventions at multiple scales in order to fully understand the spatial and temporal evolution of urban functional centers and so establish a policy cognitive framework for the evolution of functional centers. Understanding the role of planning policy interventions forms the basis for the subsequent implementation of targeted planning interventions.

  • Aiyuan Lin, Zhihui Gu, Youwei Tan, Yu Chen, Liheng Chen
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(10): 1950-1960. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003757

    Industrial coordination constitutes a crucial aspect of regional integration, and evaluation of industrial collaboration holds significant practical importance in elucidating industrial processes and advancing industrial development. In this study, a variety of data sources, including enterprise big data and mobile signaling data, were used to construct an evaluation framework for assessing regional collaborative development of intercity industry clusters across two dimensions: latent associations and actual associations. Incorporating factors such as the industrial chain, industrial homogenization, capital, and personnel mobility into a unified framework to assess industrial collaboration, we comprehensively explored collaborative relationships within the electronic information industry in the Pearl River Delta. The Following results were obtained: 1) The Pearl River Delta city cluster, with Shenzhen, Dongguan, and Guangzhou as its core, has established a highly integrated network within the next-generation electronic information industry chain. Examining latent associations reveals a significant level of specialization, particularly within individual metropolitan areas. When considering actual associations, core cities demonstrate close interactions in financial interactions, and strong interconnectedness is also apparent when commuting between these metropolitan areas. 2) Notable collaborative development is evident within the Pearl River Delta's new-generation electronic information industry cluster, particularly involving Shenzhen and Dongguan, Shenzhen and Guangzhou, Zhuhai and Zhongshan, and Zhongshan and Jiangmen. Of particular interest is the strong differentiated cooperation between Shenzhen and Dongguan. While collaboration among core cities is robust, there is room for improvement in collaboration levels that include peripheral cities,and we suggest maximizing the central leadership roles of Shenzhen, Dongguan, and Guangzhou to nurture diverse industrial clusters in peripheral cities. Our evaluation system proposed our article can be used to measure the collaborative development of intercity industry clusters. It aids in urban planning and policymaking, promotes sustainable economic growth in the region, and offers reference and insights for the industrial collaborative development of other city clusters.

  • Wei Zhang, Yue Wang, Zhaoxiang Qin, Yongchun Yang
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(10): 1986-2000. https://doi.org/10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003749

    "Red songs" record the stories of family and country in a specific time and space and are grand narratives that spread the spirit of the Chinese nation, build collective memory, and trigger emotional resonance. Based on humanistic epistemology, this study constructs a theoretical framework for the interpretation of spatio-temporal narratives of texts. The text of red songs and the network hot comments are selected as the research objects. From the narrative perspective of chronological order and spatial structure, grounded theory, natural language processing method, and the Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) model are adopted to explore the spatial and temporal meaning construction of the grand narrative under the scale of the family and the country. Additionally, the study investigates the internalization of the value mechanism of the emotional arousal and output of the creators of the text and the audience across the space and time is also investigated. The results reveal the following: (1) Red song lyrics can be categorized into four dimensions: time, space, memory, and spirit. The spatio-temporal performance of the red songs can be recognized as the stories of the family and the country that occurred in different spatial scales, such as body, place and region, during the periods of the New Democratic Revolution, socialist construction, reform and opening up, and the new era. This resulted in a condensing of the spatio-temporal course of revolution, resistance, liberation, struggle, and rejuvenation of the Chinese nation over the past hundred years. (2) The spatio-temporal dimension records the main vein of collective spatial practice and becomes the basic element of representation. The memory and spiritual dimensions are the core meaning of the representation, demonstrating that the spatio-temporal factor carries the national memory through the collective practice and metaphorically represents the spirit of resistance and struggle. (3) The red songs network hot comments are closely integrated with the four dimensions of the narrative text, presenting the audience's reception of the information transmitted by each dimension of the text and the internalization of values in the spiritual realm. Value internalization is manifested in a series of processes such as the reception, comparison, superposition, reconstruction, and sublimation of multidimensional information by the audience. This realizes the transmission and interaction of emotions across time and space between the text's creator and the reader, leading to construction of thoughts and consciousness aligned with the mainstream societal values. (4) The mechanism of value internalization is a chain reaction of political discourse, cultural genes, and modernity acting together in the media, education, subject, and society. Among these, political discourse is the guide, cultural genes are the driver, and modernity is the catalyst. The study of spatio-temporal interpretation of the red song lyrics is not limited to the objective existence attributes of spatio-temporal, but takes this as the starting point to explore the meaning creation of this on the grand narrative text, as well as the internalization mechanism of textual value under the spatio-temporal transformation, which is conducive to the expansion of new cultural geography's research on the interpretation of spatio-temporal narratives in texts. In addition, the study expands the research logic of spatio-temporal identification to the intrinsic connection between spatio-temporal and human subjects from the three aspects of manifestation, representation, and representation effect. This enriches the theoretical system of spatio-temporal narrative to a certain extent and provides theoretical support for the exploration of the spatio-temporal-based path of textual analysis.