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  • Shengsheng Gong, Chunming Li, Kemei Xiao
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(9): 1760-1776.

    Suicide is a serious negative social phenomenon. In this study, we used Python technology to obtain suicide death data from a network and applied mathematical statistical and geographic spatial analyses to study the spatial-temporal characteristics of suicide deaths and the relationship between suicide rate and economic development in China from 2000 to 2018. Following conclusions were drawn from the results. (1) The number of suicide deaths in China is on the rise. Within a year, the high-incidence period of suicide deaths is from May to June, whereas the low-incidence period is from February to March. Within a month, the 1st, 10th, and 20th days have the highest incidences of suicide deaths. Within a day, 77.2% of the suicide deaths occur from 06:00 to 19:00, and 09:00 and 15:00 were the peak times in which suicide deaths take place. (2) A total of 90.98% of the suicide deaths occur in southeast China. The suicide rate is higher in the southeast than in the northwest, higher in the south than in the north, and decreases gradually from east to west. At county level, a relatively high suicide rate is seen in regions spanning from Great Khingan Mountains to Yunnan Guizhou Plateau, from Qinling-Dabashan Mountains to Dabie Mountains, and from the coast of northern Jiangsu to Hainan Island. (3) Most areas in China present a low-grade suicide rate. However, low-grade areas appeared to change to high-grade areas during the period 2000–2018. The hotspots of suicide deaths spread from east to west, except for the Beijing–Tianjin–Tangshan area, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta, which have always been suicide hotspots. (4) The spatial and temporal characteristics of suicide deaths in China are closely related to economic development, and on a city scale, the suicide rate has a significant positive correlation with the per capita GDP and urbanization rate. The impact of economic factors on suicide rate is greater on the southeast coast than on the northwest inland. An important conclusion from this study is that the gap between the rich and poor is a key factor, leading to psychological imbalance and suicidal behavior in the poor; therefore, only the new development path based on common prosperity is the road for people to reach happiness and health. In addition, in this study, we prove that network suicide data, obtained using the web-crawler technology (Python), not only have the same consistency and credibility as sampling statistics but also have a better spatiotemporal resolution, with a temporal resolution of one hour and spatial resolution of a county. Therefore, by analyzing this spatiotemporal dataset, we can scientifically extract the time differences in suicide deaths at quarterly, monthly, daily, and hourly scales and the spatial differences in suicide deaths at regional, provincial, and county scales. In the future, network suicide data may become an important data source for suicide research, and the use of the Internet to monitor suicidal behavior may become an important method of suicide intervention.

  • Ye Liu, Jiarui He, Ruoyu Wang, Zhigang Li
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(9): 1747-1759.

    The provision of a high-quality ecological environment is essential for the quality of life of residents. As an important component of the urban ecological environment, the relationship between urban green spaces and public health requires further investigation. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the Chinese and international literature on how urban green spaces affect mental well-being. First, it introduces different approaches of measuring the use of and exposure to urban green spaces. The most commonly used indicators for measuring the use and exposure to urban green spaces include Surrounding Greenness, Access to Green Spaces, Green Viewing Rate and Green Space Quality and Usage Satisfaction. The main advantages of Surrounding Greenness are wide spatial coverage, long timespan, and low cost; however, the accuracy of measuring exposure is relatively low. Researchers have extensively used access to green spaces. Because the bird's-eye perspective cannot fully reflect resident perceptions of park green spaces, scholars have used the green view ratio, which has the advantages of wide coverage, low cost, easy access, and small data deviation. Greenspace quality and usage satisfaction are also important measurement indicators, and their main advantages are low operational difficulty and the ability to reflect residents' subjective evaluations more accurately. It then elucidates the "environmental stress reduction-restoration-instoration" mechanisms underlying the effect of urban green spaces on mental well-being. Specifically, urban green spaces can affect the mental health of residents by reducing the harm arising from heat and pollution, restoring capacity, and building capacity. Green spaces alleviate environmental pressure by purifying air, reducing noise, and alleviating the heat island effect, thereby promoting residents' mental well-being. People can alleviate their psychological stress and restore their ability to control attention by viewing green spaces, thereby protecting their mental health and providing a favorable and convenient venue for residents to conduct physical activities and socialize with their neighbors, which is beneficial to their mental wellbeing. Subsequently, it illustrates the moderating effect of opportunities to use urban green spaces, motivation to use urban green spaces, and ease of using urban green spaces on mental wellbeing from a "socio-ecological" perspective. Finally, it indicates that the current body of literature has several limitations and that future research agendas should be centered on research content, data, perspectives, and methods. Specifically, (1) for research content, the effect of green spaces on the mental well-being of different social and cultural groups is poorly understood. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the analysis of the sociocultural mechanism of the effect of urban green spaces to enrich the existing research framework. (2) Most previous studies used one method to measure the level of greenspace exposure or usage. It is advisable to use a variety of methods to measure the level of greenspace exposure or usage both subjectively and objectively. (3) From a research perspective, most previous studies have used a research paradigm based on local and static analysis, failing to solve the Uncertain Geographic Context Problem (UGCoP). Therefore, it is necessary to adopt a human-centered perspective and accurately measure the impact of green space exposure on residents' mental well-being in their residential neighborhoods, workplaces, and other activity spaces. (4) Researchers need to solve the problem of residential self-selection when investigating the effect of urban green spaces on mental well-being and explore nonlinear complex relationships using advanced methods such as machine learning.

  • Chengkun Liu, Tingying Peng, Bing Zeng, Yu Zeng
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(11): 2049-2059.

    In response to global climate change, China has incorporated carbon peaking and carbon neutrality into its overall economic and social development. National-level new areas are critical strategic carriers for high-quality regional economic development in China, playing an essential role in promoting carbon reduction. Objectively evaluating the carbon-emission-reduction effect of national-level new areas can help accumulate and promote China's low-carbon construction experience, and thus, comprehensively facilitate greening and ecological civilization construction. In this study, the impact of the establishment of national-level new areas on carbon emissions in their respective cities were investigated using the difference-in-difference method. The findings show that: 1) the establishment of a national-level new area can significantly minimize the carbon emissions in the city in which it is located, and after three years of establishment, it will have a significant long-term inhibitory effect on the carbon emissions of the city. This conclusion is still valid after a series of robustness tests, such as propensity score matching + difference-in-difference; 2) The national-level new area policy mainly reduces carbon emissions in a city through technological and energy-saving effects but cannot yet reduce them by adjusting the industrial structure. 3) The impact of the establishment of national-level new areas on the carbon emissions of surrounding cities shows an "∽" trend of increasing first, then decreasing, and subsequently increasing. It has a significant carbon-reduction effect on cities within the range of 200-250 km, indicating that national-level new areas can help promote carbon-emission reduction in surrounding cities. 4) The national-level new area policy has a higher carbon-emission-reduction effect on northern cities than on southern cities. The single-city layout model of the national-level new area has a significant carbon-emission-reduction effect on the host city, whereas the dual-city layout model does not significantly reduce the carbon emissions in the host city. This study investigated the carbon-emission-reduction effect of national-level new area policies and examined carbon-emission reduction in the national-level new areas of pilot cities through technological and energy-saving effects. This study helps to improve the theoretical understanding of national-level new area policies and carbon-emission impact mechanisms and provides a policy reference for China's promotion of the "dual-carbon" strategy.

  • Hong'ou Zhang, George C S Lin, Shenjing He, Gengzhi Huang, Yuyao Ye, Chengliang Liu, Yan Luo, Yu Yang, Helin Liu, Fenghua Pan, Shengjun Zhu, Yurui Li, Zhiding Hu, Zhenshan Yang, Xia Zhou, Qitao Wu, Ren Yang, Wei Sun, Haitao Ma, Yutian Liang, Fenglong Wang, Ning An, Zhenjie Yuan, Yan Guo, Guangliang Xi, Xiaohui Hu, Qiang Lin, Yi Liu, Jie Huang
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(8): 1453-1478.

    Owing to the development issues of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area in the new domestic and international situation, the content, challenges, and paths of innovation and development of the Greater Bay Area are explored from multiple dimensions, including economic, social, cultural, and institutional. The innovation and development of the Greater Bay Area should strengthen technological and industrial innovation capabilities, improve regional resilience to cope with external shocks, increase the mobility of intraregional factors, improve the well-being of the people's livelihood, enhance the capacity of spatial governance, promote integrated urban-rural development, and optimize the regional pattern of ecological security. The conclusion is that considering the innovation and development of the Greater Bay Area from a systemic and interconnected perspective is crucial for seeking innovations in various development fields and promoting coupling and coordination among them. Therefore, the region may acquire the agency that can continuously break through bottlenecks, resolve external shocks, and unlock new paths of development. We call for the strengthening of cross-field and cross-disciplinary collaborative research to contribute the power of geography to the realization of the development goals of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area.

  • Wei Tian, Yuxiang Dong
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(9): 1665-1677.

    Searching the key words' wave-beach-dune interactions' in Web of Science, nearly 100 domestical and overseas publications since the 1980s have been analyzed and reviewed. This stuyd summarizes major advances at different temporal-spatial scales. The issues of integration between them are clarified by sorting the conceptual models and categorizing development stages. Additionally, research opportunities and challenges are identified. Studies on wave-beach-dune interactions have been initiated since 1980s and developed through the following three stages: theory proposed and improved, expansion of study areas, and in-depth exploration. The conceptual models have been developed from simple to reliable models across a range of micro-, meso-, and macro-scales. Studies were initially conducted by taking advantage of only field survey and bathymetry maps. Nowadays, collaborated technology and methods have been applied in studying coastal landforms through in-situ field monitoring, wind tunnel trial, 3S technologies, and numerical simulation. Study areas extended and expanded from southeast Australian coasts to Europe, South and North America, and Asian coasts. Although plenty of relevant reports have been published, some issues exist. Owing to their highly temporal-spatial heterogeneity, it is difficult to find a universal conceptual model for the worldwide coastal dune systems. At the micro-scale, as the complex process of wave-tide hydrological and aeolian dynamic imposed on surfzone-beach-dune and limitation of monitoring data utility, the existing theoretical model cannot completely reveal the mechanism of the terrestrial-marine interface and beach-dune landform response and feedback to wind dynamics. At the mesoscale, many mechanisms of dune response to storm surges have been proposed, but few are from the perspective of the surfzone-beach-dune as a whole system. More case studies based on observation are needed, which will benefit in-depth exploration. Furthermore, more long-term monitoring and refined models are required to build the bridge between fundamental process-response dynamics (events scale) and medium-long-term landforms topography changes and evolution. At the macroscale, given the alongshore sediment transport and supply, sea level rise rate, and landward and seaward sediment transport, prediction models of coastal geomorphological changes induced by sea level rise should be tested and supported by multi-temporal-spatial observation and monitoring data. Future studies will continue collaborating the historical reports and site monitoring techniques with high-resolution images interpretation to comprehensively understand the relationships between dynamic-response process and landforms geomorphology evolution by integration of environmental variables and surfzone, beach, and dune landforms investigation. The numerical simulation will reveal the mechanisms of wave-beach-dune interactions across micro-, meso-, and macro-scales and redefine theoretical concepts.

  • Zhenyan Wang, Yunling He, Chen Lin
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(7): 1288-1301.

    As the new crown epidemic ravaged the world, China's grain production has been greatly impacted and challenged. Studying the current situation of grain production in Yunnan Province is of great guiding significance for its future grain production structure adjustment and optimization layout. In this study, the spatiotemporal changes in grain production in This paper mainly uses the logarithmic method to calculate the contribution rate of the influencing factors, the decomposition and calculation method of the contributing factors of the change of grain total output, the gravity shift model and the grain yield volatility coefficient to analyze the spatio-temporal changes of grain production in Yunnan Province.Through the analysis of data, the following results were obtained: (1) In the past 30 years, the grain planting area and yield in Yunnan Province have shown a significant upward trend. In particular, the total output growth rate has reached 97% and the increase in the single yield of each crop and adjustment of the planting structure are the main contributors to the increase in the total grain output of the province. The planting area of rice and wheat has decreased by 16% and 36%, respectively, over 30 years, and the total and single yields have not changed substantially. The growth rate of the planting area, total yield, and single yield of maize is most obvious. The changes in the total yield of potatoes during the study period were all caused by changes in planting area, with contribution rates of 85%, 78%, and 206%, respectively, in the three periods. (2) The grain planting area and output in Yunnan Province generally show the distribution law of more east and less west. The most abundant area is Qujing City and the least is the Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. The center of gravity of grain production has a tendency to migrate to the northeast. Rice production is decreasing from southeast to northwest, and the high-value areas of wheat yield are gathered from all sides to the middle. Corn production is the fastest, and potato high-yield areas are mainly distributed in northeast Yunnan. (3) In the past 30 years, the per capita grain in Yunnan Province has increased by 111.56 kg/person, and the grain production capacity has improved and is currently of the self-sufficient type. However, the fluctuation coefficient of more than 70% of the years exceeds the national average, grain supply is relatively unstable, and contradiction between grain supply and demand remains prominent. It is concluded that the grain planting area and yield in Yunnan Province have gradually increased, the current situation of grain production is mainly self-sufficient, and the differences between the main grain crop-producing areas are quite large, and it is extremely important to pay attention to the optimization of the grain planting structure and promote the stable increase of grain production. At the same time, according to the analysis results, this study proposes that the main problems of grain production in Yunnan Province are (1) the decline in the amount of cultivated land; (2) the high number of medium and low yield fields; and (3) the phenomenon of "non-grainization" is more serious. In the face of the development status of grain production in Yunnan Province, relevant departments still need to pay attention to the quantity and quality of cultivated land, adjust the agricultural planting structure, and comprehensively improve grain production capacity in the future. It is necessary to (1) increase subsidy policies and adhere to the red line of cultivated land; (2) invest in relevant technologies to increase grain yields; and (3) coordinate the process of urbanization development and adjust the planting structure according to local conditions. This study investigated the spatiotemporal changes in major crop production in Yunnan Province over the past 30 years; obtained corresponding conclusions on timing changes, spatial distribution, and contributing factors; analyzed the current grain production security situation in Yunnan Province; summarized the main problems in its development process; and put forward targeted suggestions, so as to further develop a deeper understanding of the current situation of grain production in Yunnan Province to play a certain guiding and reference role in its future development and planning direction.

  • Xianfeng Xu, Jili Xu, Jiangchun Yao, Jialing Huang, Sicong Hu
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(12): 2263-2273.

    The "enclave economy" is an important governance tool for promoting regional integration. Guangdong Province occupies the leading position in exploring the "enclave economy" model in China, which has effectively promoted the development of the east and northwest of Guangdong Province through the "point to area" approach. However, certain problems that are associated with the "enclave economy" concept, including a weak level of industrial relatedness, disconnection with the development of the local urban system, and inadequate interest driving mechanisms, need to be urgently addressed. The article aims to explore the high-quality development path of the "enclave economy" in the new era, taking advantage of the symbiosis theory. Based on field research and semi-structured interview methods, the present study attempts to not only probe into the cooperative relationship and mutually beneficial symbiosis mechanism among different actors in the "enclave economy" but also explore a more sustainable and mutually beneficial development "enclave economy" model. With respect to theoretical contribution, based on the symbiosis theory and the characteristics of the "enclave economy", this study facilitates a better understanding of the high-quality development logic of the "enclave economy" from the perspective of symbiosis in particular and establishes a theoretical framework comprising the "industrial symbiosis network-industrial symbiosis unit-interest symbiosis mechanism" components. Empirically, this study takes the Guangqing Economic Cooperation Zone (Guangde Park) as the case study; reveals the development process and problems of the "enclave economy", including the isolation of industry transplantation, fragmentation of industry-city units, and locking of interests and mismatch between rights and responsibilities; and proposes high-quality development strategies, such as establishing a cross-regional "enclave economic circle", a resource-linking platform between industry and city, and a community of interests in industrial parks and towns, to form a more sustainable symmetric and mutually beneficial symbiotic mechanism. The key contribution of this study lies in the theoretical framework for the high-quality development of the "enclave economy" through the lens of symbiosis, which enriches the ways of analysis and cognitive logic of the "enclave economy" and advances cross-regional cooperation and "enclave economy" research. It enhances the cross-territorial geographic thinking of regional cooperation and "enclave economy" research, holding the potential to provide decision-making references for the promotion of regional coordinated development in Guangdong Province in the new period. It also has practical application value for relieving the pressure of unbalanced and insufficient regional development in China by promoting cross-municipal and cross-provincial cooperation.

  • Li Wan, Yue'er Gao, Jingjing Shen
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(7): 1247-1258.

    The comprehensive development of rail stations combining the Transit Oriented Development (TOD) concept with rail transit has been a research and practical hotspot in recent years. The functional layout within the station catchment area and between rail stations is an important basis for implementing TOD to guide the optimization of urban spatial structures, and passenger flow is a direct reflection of its functional layout effectiveness. Studying the adaptability of rail station functions through passenger flow characteristics has important practical significance for the comprehensive development of rail transit as the main body and for promoting the optimization of urban spatial structures. However, in existing research, there has been no unified conclusion on the mixed and differentiated functional layout of the station catchment area, which has often been advocated for the differentiation of functionality between stations, however, it mostly remains at the guiding ideology level. Therefore, this study categorized and assigned weights to the POI in the station catchment area and divided the Xiamen rail stations into three categories: stations with single dominant functions, stations with dual dominant functions, and stations with mixed functions. The relationship between the functional layout of stations and their corresponding spatial passenger flow was analyzed based on the OD volume of passenger flow between different functional types of stations and the distribution of OD in different distance segments. Based on the current functional layout characteristics and corresponding passenger flow characteristics of rail stations, further optimization strategies are proposed. The results show that: 1) Stations with high passenger flow are mostly those with single and dual-dominant functions, and the passenger flow of stations with mixed functions is not prominent; high-passenger flow stations are mostly those with high-level central functions, mainly distributed in urban central areas; and low-passenger flow stations are spatially concentrated, mostly concentrated near the end of the line. 2) The functional complementarities between spatial stations directly affect passenger flow OD volume, and the OD volume between stations of the same type is small. Meanwhile, that between stations of different types is large. 3) The OD ratio of each distance segment of the station is affected by the functional grade of the center and functional complementarity of the surrounding stations. The proportion of short-distance OD at stations in the central urban area is relatively large, whereas the proportion of long-distance OD at stations near the end of the line is relatively large. Finally, the causes of the current rail station functions and corresponding passenger flow characteristics were analyzed based on the internal logic of the occurrence and attraction of passenger trips with urban functions, central place theory, and the market rules of urban functional layout. Based on the requirements of urban spatial structure, the principle of comprehensive development function layout for rail stations is proposed, which includes "mixed basic functions, concentrated dominant functions" in the station influence area and "complementary differences, connecting points and forming axes" between stations.

  • Yun Li, Fengqian Shen, Xiaoyuan Shen, Chunlan Guo
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(12): 2249-2262.

    In the context of globalization, cross-boundary regions have become strategic areas for improving national competitiveness and promoting local development. Moreover, cross-boundary governance has gradually become a key issue in regional integration research. Recently, with the increasing trend of anti-globalization, exploring regional governance transformation is crucial for national development. This article conceptualizes a research framework that is a cross-boundary governing network based on policy network theory. It is believed that in cross-boundary governance, various state actors based on common development goals form multi-level and systematic state communities under the restructuring of state capacity while working together to promote cross-boundary regional development. Among them, economic territorialization and state capacity are the key to understanding this concept. Furthermore, under the institutional framework of "one country, two systems," an empirical study was conducted using the Shenzhen Hong Kong cross-boundary region as an example, highlighting the close relationship between the process of economic territorialization and the construction of the cross-boundary governing network. This study explored the operational methods of cross-boundary governing network, and further analyzed the impact of state-society paradigms on the operation of cross-boundary governing network under asymmetric governance. Research has proven that the cross-boundary governing network is a resilient governance mechanism for understanding the process of government-led institutional integration in cross-boundary areas. The new framework also contributes to the policy network as follows: First, the new conceptual framework is more likely to be understood as a complex, multi-type mixed network that is used to overcome the problem of the limited applicability and oversimplification of ideal policy network typologies in practice. It helps to understand the connection between the state-led decision-making process and the state-society interaction process. Second, it is configured on a logical need to contextualize the policy network to the broader and everchanging meso-level territorial scales within which state actors are defined and located within different state-society relations. Third, the factors of "resource" and "power," which are the functional core of the policy network, have yet to be fully defined with little consensus. The "new" will be centered on the configuration and realization of the state capacity of involved state actors as the bridging role of both meso-level networks. Furthermore, the "general-purpose" and "task-specific" components inherent in the multilevel governance approach are adopted to describe different systematic state communities. Meanwhile, the inter-actor idea of an "advocacy coalition" is also incorporated to understand the consensus-forming process within the intra-territorial network. Under the dynamic construction of the cross-boundary governing network, this multi-level and systematic governance approach will continuously deepen the development of Shenzhen Hong Kong cross-boundary cooperation, to make a theoretical contribution to cross-boundary synergistic development in other regions.

  • Yue Zhang, Jieli Du
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(7): 1275-1287.

    The completion of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge makes the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Bay Area a closed-loop traffic system that provides the basis and possibility for tourism integration. From the spatial perspective of tourism supply and demand, this study examines the pattern of tourism competitiveness and residents' travel potential of cities in the Bay Area before and after the opening of the bridge, using the Geographic Information System and an improved gravity model of the tourism system. The development trend of regional tourism integration under bridge impact was also analyzed. The results show that: (1) the opening of the Hong Kong-Zhuhai-Macao Bridge has facilitated a more balanced distribution of tourist flows on the east and west sides of the Pearl River Estuary, which will benefit balanced development and promote the integrated development of regional tourism in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area. (2) The bridge impact index on tourism competitiveness and residents' travel potential in 11 cities in the Greater Bay Area was significantly correlated with traffic accessibility change following the opening of the bridge, presenting an obvious attenuation effect of the bridge's impact on tourism with distance to the bridge. The opening of the bridge has reduced tourism resistance between the two sides of the estuary and greatly strengthened tourism cooperation between cities on both sides of the estuary, especially the complementary resource advantages between the east and west bank city clusters (Hong Kong, Shenzhen, Macao, and Zhuhai). (3) The impact on tourism competitiveness and residents' travel potential in the Greater Bay Area shows a significant spatial clustering pattern. The high-value clustering areas are mainly located in Hong Kong, Macao, and Zhuhai, which are directly connected by the bridge. Some areas of Zhongshan and Zhuhai are surrounded by high-value neighbors and are more likely to be diffused. Some areas of Guangzhou-Foshan and Shenzhen-Dongguan are low-value clustering areas, showing a marginalization trend. The bridge significantly strengthens the advantages of the core city agglomerations of Hong Kong and Macao. The relative status of Guangzhou and nearby areas has been weakened; however, the bridge does not affect Guangzhou's leading position in the tourism industry in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area.

  • Jieying Chen, Yungang Liu
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(7): 1339-1350.

    China's new urbanization strategy emphasizes the need to help more people enjoy equal access to urban public services while increasing the urbanization rate. With the implementation of the new urbanization strategy, how the villagers of the original rural settlements surrounded by the urban landscape (i.e., urban villages) turn into citizens (i.e., citizenization) has attracted much attention. However, few studies have attempted to deconstruct the influence of the entire change process in urban villages on the process of villagers' citizenization by associating the fate of villagers with external urbanization. To make up for this research gap, this study took Yangji Village of Guangzhou as an example, using the theoretical framework of citizenization to analyze the process and results of citizenization of villagers from the three perspectives of identity, economy, and cultural citizenization, focusing on discussing the relationship between the changes of Yangji Village and the citizenization of villagers and the lagging problems of citizenization of villagers in urban villages to realize a deep discussion on the phenomenon of identity change of villagers in urban villages and clarify the general characteristics and special process of citizenization of urban villages. The results found that: 1) the basic path of citizenization of villagers in urban villages was that farmers acquire urban household registration and urban employment opportunities in the process of land expropriation by the government and gradually realize citizenization by integrating into the social division of labor; 2) the citizenization process of villagers in urban villages can be roughly divided into three stages: the village period, the urban village period, and community relocation period; 3) the government's land acquisition and housing rental behaviors promoted the transformation of villagers' occupation and cultural psychology, while the urban village reconstruction improved the income of the villagers, enhanced the cultural atmosphere of the community, and further promoted the citizenization process of the villagers' identity, occupation, and culture; 4) the reconstruction of urban villages boosted the citizenization process of villagers on the whole. However, the citizenization of villagers was not only the transformation of living space behind the transformation but also affected by the location of urban villages, village collective cadres, external social environment, individual subjective initiatives, and others. The realization of citizenization requires villagers to have a real sense of citizenship, change their way of life, and discard unreasonable traditional ideas. In this process, the government should establish an effective social security mechanism to help land-lost farmers enjoy the same rights as urban citizens regarding employment, social security, housing, education, and other aspects. In addition, community activities or modern media should help less-educated villagers accept the new culture, improve their ideological quality, realize the institutional and normative nature of urban civilization, and enhance their awareness of public services.

  • Meng Wang, Zhengzheng Sun, Zhidong He, Zhihui Wang, Shoubao Geng, Xinfeng Zhao, Long Yang, Zhongyu Sun
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(11): 2146-2154.

    Quantitative studies of mangrove leaf functional traits will help us understand the adaptive evolutionary strategies of mangrove plants and the relationship between mangrove biodiversity and ecosystem functions. Because of the special environment of the intertidal zone where mangroves are located, it is very difficult to obtain the functional traits of mangrove canopies from the ground, and relevant studies are lacking. The maturity of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) hyperspectral remote sensing technology provides a new means of conducting such research. This study considered mangroves on Qi'ao Island, Zhuhai, as the research object. Based on UAV hyperspectral data, two UAV hyperspectral data processing methods, which combined Partial Least Squares Regression with Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (PLSR+NDVI) and Partial Least Squares Regression with Continuous Wavelet Transform (PLSR+CWT), were used to estimate the 10 canopy leaf functional traits of mangroves on Qi'ao Island. The results showed that the PLSR + NDVI method was more suitable for the inversion of mangrove canopy-specific leaf weight (LMA), phosphorus content per unit mass (Pmass), and nitrogen content per unit area (Narea), whereas the PLSR + CWT method was more suitable for the estimation of the nitrogen/phosphorus ratio (N/P), chlorophyll content (Cab), and carotenoid content (Cxc). However, the results of the above two methods for retrieving the nitrogen content per unit mass (Nmass), potassium content per unit mass (Kmass), phosphorus content per unit area (Parea),and potassium content per unit area (Karea) were not ideal (R2<0.3). The optimal method established in this study was used to estimate the contents of LMA, Pmass, Narea, N/P, Cab, and Cxc of the mangrove canopy leaves in the study area and map their spatial distribution. Mangrove canopy leaf functional traits obtained using UAV hyperspectral data inversion better reflect the horizontal structure and function of the mangrove community. Regarding the spatial distribution patterns of canopy leaf functional traits, the spatial distribution patterns of Narea, Cab, Cxc, and N/Pwere relatively consistent with higher values in the middle region and lower values in the edge region. The spatial distribution patterns of the LMA and Pmass were similar, and the distribution was relatively uniform throughout the study area. Combined with ground survey data, the internal relationship between species composition and spatial patterns of functional traits, as well as ecosystem functions and processes, can be deeply explored, and rapid investigation and assessment of mangrove forests can be realized at the community and ecosystem scales. The spatial distribution pattern of functional traits was closely related to the spatial distribution pattern of canopy structure and species. The inversion model of hyperspectral functional traits was constructed by separating mangrove species with different life types, which is expected to further improve the inversion accuracy of the model. Constructing a specific functional trait inversion model for each mangrove species, combined with the species identification results of visible-light images, will effectively improve the inversion accuracy of mangrove canopy leaf functional traits.

  • Lei Chen, Rumeng Qiu, Chuan Li
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(12): 2406-2417.

    Cultivated land is the cornerstone of grain production and the basic resource to ensure food security. Understanding the non-grain production status of cultivated land in the main grain-producing areas of western China is necessary to provide a basis for regional sustainable agricultural development and cultivated land protection decision-making. In this study, Chengdu Plain was selected as an empirical research area. A mathematical quantization model and spatial autocorrelation method were used to analyze the spatiotemporal characteristics of non-grain production of cultivated land in Chengdu Plain, and an econometric model was constructed to identify its driving factors. The results showed that the cultivated land area did not change significantly in the Chengdu Plain from 2000 to 2019; however, the small change in cultivated land area did not mean that its actual use changed little, and the non-grain production status of cultivated land was obvious. (1) From 2000 to 2019, both the Non-Grain production Area (NGA) and the Non-Grain production Rate (NGR) in Chengdu Plain showed a fluctuating and increasing trend, with an increased rate of 4.40% and 13.53%, respectively, which indicates that cultivated land protection and food security were under great pressure. (2) In terms of space, the NGA in 34 districts and counties of Chengdu Plain presents a multi-center scattered distribution, which shows a spatial pattern of high in the center and low in the northeast and southwest, and the NGA's spatial agglomeration areas are concentrated in Chengdu and its neighboring cities. (3) Economic Crop Planting Scale (ECPS), Agricultural Structure Adjustment (ASA), Urbanization Rate (UR), and Cultivated Land Protection Policy (CLPP) are the most important factors affecting the non-grain transformation of cultivated land in Chengdu Plain. Some suggestions are proposed: red lines should be drawn to implement a control system for cultivated land use; departmental collaboration must be strengthened to build a synergy of cultivated land protection; the agricultural subsidy system must be improved to defend farmers' fundamental rights and interests; and policy advocacy for cultivated land protection should be enhanced to raise food security awareness. This study can better reflect the non-grain production status of cultivated land in Chengdu Plain, and from the spatial unit of district and county, it provides a good perspective for the study of the non-grain production of cultivated land. This study also provides a scientific foundation for decision-making regarding regional sustainable agricultural development and cultivated land protection.

  • Yue'er Li, Kefu Yu, Tingli Yan, Leilei Jiang
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(10): 1843-1855.

    Coral growth rate is a physical index that is particularly closely associated with climatic factors such as Sea Surface Temperature (SST). The growth rate is minimally affected by environmental changes and serves as a high-resolution indicator in the study of climatic and environmental variation, making it a useful tool in paleoclimatic coral research. However, previous research on coral growth rate has primarily focused on the modern period, with limited investigation of the Mid-Holocene, which shares similar climatic characteristics with the current warm period. It is especially important to understand the climate and environmental conditions during the Mid-Holocene to gain insight into contemporary climate change processes and mechanisms. To address this gap, we first collected a modern Porites coral core and 23 Mid-Holocene subfossil coral cores from Tanmen, located on the eastern coast of Hainan Island. Using X-ray radiography and image processing methods, we measured and analyzed the coral growth rates of all cores, resulting in the identification of growth rate patterns during the Mid-Holocene. Additionally, by analyzing the environmental factors that impact modern coral (2005-2021 AD), we established a linear relationship between coral growth rate (L) and SST in Tanmen, expressed as SST=2.945±0.237×L+22.481±0.301(1?s.e.). By applying this equation, we reconstructed an annual average SST sequence of 406 years during the Mid-Holocene (6,143-4,356 a BP). The results indicate that the average coral growth rate during the Mid-Holocene was 1.079 cm/a, ranging from 0.607 to 1.670 cm/a, with noticeable fluctuations. The coral growth rate sequence also revealed three consecutive periods of low growth rate, accompanied by a significant increase in interannual variability after 4,515 a BP, resulting in more complex fluctuations. Moreover, the reconstructed SST sequence based on coral growth rate data shows that the mean SST of the Mid-Holocene was 25.7±0.54 ℃, which is comparable to the modern SST in the context of global warming. The average annual SST varied from 24.7 to 26.8℃ in the Mid-Holocene, exhibiting considerable fluctuations between warm and cold periods, and with three distinct periods of low SST at 5,860, 5,660, and 5,160 a BP. This provides detailed insights into the temperature variations during the Mid-Holocene. In addition, a comparison of the spectral cycles of coral growth rates between the modern and Mid-Holocene periods (5,427-5,394, 5,243-5,209, 4,515-4,456, and 4,404-4,356 a BP) revealed significant ENSO cycles of three to seven years, observed in both modern and Mid-Holocene corals. During the Mid-Holocene, the primary ENSO cycle changed: its frequency decreased considerably, indicating that ENSO activity was weaker than that observed in the modern period. However, further statistical analysis utilizing the Probability Density Function (PDF) demonstrated a gradual increase in ENSO variability during this period. The results of this study offer novel insights into tropical climate characteristics of the Mid-Holocene.

  • Bin Liu, Lei Xu, Hao Chen
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(11): 2075-2086.

    The autonomy and travel conditions for older adult tourists have significantly improved, leading to a diversification of their tourism activities. Among these, the concept of a free and comfortable sojourn has gained popularity. Despite the complex concept of older adult sojourns being established in related research, the concepts often overlap and are fragmented, leading to a disjointed understanding of the phenomenon. This study aims to incorporate the life-span theory of control and its optimization strategy framework from a life-span development perspective in older adults. By deeply connecting research on older adults with tourism research through life-span development thinking, we aim to explore methods of coordinating and analyzing older adult sojourns. This approach will allow us to systematically reshape existing conceptual knowledge. Based on the results of this coordinated analysis, we aim to gain a systematic understanding of older adult sojourns and propose future research directions. The study revealed that older adult tourism exhibits strategic traits consistent with the life-span theory of control, where resource allocation and willpower investment are crucial elements. This forms a resource-willpower investment framework that categorizes 16 different older adult tourism behavior patterns. Using this framework, by comparing the characteristics of older adult travel with the 16 classification results, the resource and willpower investment framework is focused on the amount of resources invested in the destination and the distance of the trip. This further refines the corresponding older adult travel patterns into four types: relatively high investment in travel to distant areas, relatively high investment in travel to nearby areas, relatively low investment in travel to distant areas, and relatively low investment in travel to nearby areas. The study reveals that the four categories represent varying lifestyle demands and participation limitations for older adults. Those who invest more and travel longer distances tend to face greater participation challenges, have fewer companions, require more from their destinations, and have limited choices. Conversely, those who invest less and travel shorter distances experience the opposite. The four categories of older adult travel display different scene transitions and state changes, each with unique participation challenges, social choices, and destination requirements. Overall, the categorization of older adult tourism types and the comprehensive analysis of older adult travel types constitute a process of knowledge creation. The research employs deductive methods for progressive exploration, building a comprehensive classification framework. This framework lays a cognitive foundation for future research and provides key directions. The innovative research approach, in conjunction with the life-span theory of control, provides a method for pattern analysis to understand ongoing tourism behaviors and phenomena that are constantly evolving and enriching. Older adult sojourn is one of the few forms of tourism that is notably age-friendly. The prospects for research and industrial development of this phenomenon are promising, but there is currently a lack of discussion about the phenomenon itself. Future research can build upon this initial understanding to further investigate behavioral characteristics, values related to aging, and local response needs. By examining behavior, subject, and space, a study can be conducted on behavior, motivation, space, and their interactive results, leading to more systematic findings and enhancing the practical value of the guidance.

  • Aiyuan Lin, Zhihui Gu, Youwei Tan, Yu Chen, Liheng Chen
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(10): 1950-1960.

    Industrial coordination constitutes a crucial aspect of regional integration, and evaluation of industrial collaboration holds significant practical importance in elucidating industrial processes and advancing industrial development. In this study, a variety of data sources, including enterprise big data and mobile signaling data, were used to construct an evaluation framework for assessing regional collaborative development of intercity industry clusters across two dimensions: latent associations and actual associations. Incorporating factors such as the industrial chain, industrial homogenization, capital, and personnel mobility into a unified framework to assess industrial collaboration, we comprehensively explored collaborative relationships within the electronic information industry in the Pearl River Delta. The Following results were obtained: 1) The Pearl River Delta city cluster, with Shenzhen, Dongguan, and Guangzhou as its core, has established a highly integrated network within the next-generation electronic information industry chain. Examining latent associations reveals a significant level of specialization, particularly within individual metropolitan areas. When considering actual associations, core cities demonstrate close interactions in financial interactions, and strong interconnectedness is also apparent when commuting between these metropolitan areas. 2) Notable collaborative development is evident within the Pearl River Delta's new-generation electronic information industry cluster, particularly involving Shenzhen and Dongguan, Shenzhen and Guangzhou, Zhuhai and Zhongshan, and Zhongshan and Jiangmen. Of particular interest is the strong differentiated cooperation between Shenzhen and Dongguan. While collaboration among core cities is robust, there is room for improvement in collaboration levels that include peripheral cities,and we suggest maximizing the central leadership roles of Shenzhen, Dongguan, and Guangzhou to nurture diverse industrial clusters in peripheral cities. Our evaluation system proposed our article can be used to measure the collaborative development of intercity industry clusters. It aids in urban planning and policymaking, promotes sustainable economic growth in the region, and offers reference and insights for the industrial collaborative development of other city clusters.

  • Ke Luo, Yulu Guo, Ke He, Changdong Ye, Zihan Chen, Peiyun Ling
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(7): 1302-1314.

    This research investigated the new concept of urban agriculture in the new stage and its patterns based on four practical cases of urban agriculture in Guangzhou: Huacheng Farm Park in Tianhe, Happy Farmland in Haizhu, an urban Jintian in Huangpu, and Amy's Rice Town in Conghua. The results show the following: First, after experiencing the four stages of the independent stage in the urban-rural isolation period, output stage in the rural-support urban period, compensatory stage in the urban-feeding rural period, and modern agriculture stage in the urban-rural integration period, the new stage of urban-rural, high-quality integrated urban agriculture indicates the four new characteristics of new functions, new technologies, new mechanisms, and new forms. Second, based on the concepts of the four new characteristics of urban agriculture in the new stage, the development of urban agriculture in Guangzhou can be summarized by the four basic patterns of stereoscopic agriculture (new form), leisure agriculture (new function), rural complex (new technology), and shared agriculture (new mechanism) distributed from the central to outside region. Stereoscopic agriculture, which is basically located in the CBD, combines agriculture and commercial functions, focusing on new technologies such as e-commerce operations and technological displays, emphasizing the characteristics of commercial operations in the mechanism, and manifesting itself as an intensive three-dimensional construction. Leisure agriculture, essentially located in the urban central area, is the combination of agriculture and the daily recreation function of citizens. It applies park landscape construction and artistic creation techniques, revealing the characteristics of the farming experience and providing leisure parks for citizens. The rural complex is basically located in the inner suburban area and combines agricultural production with scientific research activities. It comprehensively uses new technologies of farmland consolidation and agricultural production and is characterized by science, technology, and agriculture shaped as independent islands. In the outer suburbs, shared agriculture combines traditional agricultural production with the rural tourism experience, in addition to using new agricultural technologies for farmland preparation and production. It also emphasizes using new Internet of Things technologies, highlighting the new mechanism of shared participation, and is designed as standardized farmland. Third, the innovative experience of Guangzhou's urban agriculture development mainly includes strengthening the transformation of agricultural resources and the value of multiple functions; diversified innovation and integration forms; pattern innovation, new technologies, and artificial intelligence to enhance the development of urban agriculture; the combined mechanism of "government, enterprise, and university"; and institutional guarantees to facilitate the implementation of urban agriculture projects. The development of urban agriculture in the new stage of urban-rural integration in Guangzhou provides experience and lessons for other cities.

  • Lachang Lyu, Caiyun Zhao
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(8): 1479-1488.

    In the era of the knowledge economy, with the increasing role of knowledge and entrepreneurship in cities, the impact of the urban knowledge environment on entrepreneurship has become an important research topic. Cities are the primary carriers of knowledge and entrepreneurship. However, few studies examine the impact of an urban knowledge environment on entrepreneurship. The impact of the urban knowledge environment on entrepreneurship in China remains unclear. Therefore, this study constructs an urban knowledge environment index from the two aspects of urban knowledge stock and knowledge infrastructure, measures the spatial distribution characteristics of the knowledge environment index of 275 cities at the prefecture level and above in China, and analyzes its impact using a spatial regression model. The results show that: (1) The urban knowledge environment index in the eastern coastal areas is relatively high, while that in the central and western areas is relatively low. Cities in major urban agglomerations, such as the Beijing Tianjin Hebei, Shandong Peninsula, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, and Chengdu Chongqing urban agglomerations, have a high urban knowledge environment. The level of urban knowledge environment in provincial capitals and above is relatively high, whereas it is relatively low in general, prefecture-level cities. (2) Urban knowledge environments promote entrepreneurship. When other factors are controlled, entrepreneurship increases by 0.239% for every 1% increase in the urban knowledge environment index. (3) Spatial heterogeneity exists in the influence of the urban knowledge environment on entrepreneurship, and its marginal effect differs among cities in different regions and levels. Cities in the east had higher values than those in the central and western regions, and cities at or above the provincial capital level in the same region had higher values than ordinary prefecture-level cities. Among these, the increase in entrepreneurship caused by improving the knowledge environment index of cities at the provincial capital level and above is the largest, nearly three times higher than that of the eastern, central, western, and general cities. This study provides a theoretical basis and practical reference for the development of urban entrepreneurship in China in the new era by revealing the internal laws and impact mechanisms of the urban knowledge environment.

  • Yuanping Yang, Maimaiti Bumairiyemu, Guiming Chen, Dan Li, Kai Jia, Hao Jiang, Shuisen Chen
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(7): 1315-1325.

    With the acceleration of agricultural modernization, problems such as agricultural nonpoint source pollution and the proliferation of agricultural carbon emissions have become increasingly prominent. In this context, promoting sustainable agricultural development; ensuring national food, resource, and ecological security, and accelerating high-quality agricultural development have become inevitable trends. Promoting the green development of agriculture is one of the core tasks of high-quality agricultural development, and the implementation of green production behavior is the key to promoting the green transformation of agriculture. Farmers are not only the main bodies of agricultural production, but also the main implementers of green production. Therefore, it is of great practical significance to clarify the factors influencing farmers' green production behavior and the relative importance of each influencing factor. Based on the perspective of the entire industry chain and survey data of 360 lychee growers in major lychee-producing areas of Guangzhou City from May to August 2022, this study uses an ordered logistic regression model to explore and analyze the influencing factors of the green production behavior of lychee growers. The importance of these results is then ranked using the random forest model. The organic combination of these two methods overcomes the limitations of a single statistical method. The results show that 1) the age and part-time employment of lychee growers and the lychee planting area significantly negatively affect the implementation of their green production behavior; 2) production safety, environmental, and policy cognition can effectively promote the adoption of lychee growers' green production behaviors; 3) village rules and regulations, increasing green production subsidies, identifying geographical indication product brands, government satisfaction, participating in training and increasing agricultural income all significantly positively affect the lychee growers' green production behavior; and 4) the relative importance of explanatory variables ranks from high to low as follows: policy cognition, formulating village rules and regulations, production safety cognition, identifying geographical indication product brands, environmental cognition, increasing agricultural income, age, the planting area of lychee, participating in training, increasing green production subsidies, government satisfaction, and part-time employment. The four influencing factors are also ranked in order of importance: cognitive characteristics, external environment, family business characteristics, and personal characteristics. Accordingly, this study suggests that the government should first, based on respecting the subjectivity of lychee growers, formulate relevant policies according to local conditions to stimulate the internal power of their sustainable development, stimulate their consciousness, and improve their responsibility toward green production by increasing green production subsidies by realizing the visualization of income and benefits, building a diversified publicity and training system, and other means. A supervision mechanism should be established to standardize the behavior of lychee growers, and measures such as market supervision, village rules, and regulations should be adopted to constrain them. Finally, governments must create an external environment conducive to green development by appropriately expanding the planting scale to reduce the proportion of part-time lychee growers; building a high-quality brand image; promoting cooperation among research institutes, universities, and lychee growers; and comprehensively improving their green production levels.

  • Xiaolong Chen, Qianbin Di, Hongyu Wu
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(11): 2060-2074.

    China has entered a critical period of economic transformation and rapid development. In this context, it is important to promote the coordinated emission reduction of carbon dioxide and environmental pollutants, transformation of the economic growth model, realization of the "double carbon" goal, and high-quality economic development. Within the framework of the synergy of pollution and carbon reduction, we constructed a comprehensive evaluation index system and used the improved TOPSIS model to measure the synergy index of pollution and carbon reduction in urban agglomerations within the period from from 2010 to 2019. Combined with spatial autocorrelation analysis, a composite system synergy model, and a regression model, the spatial and temporal evolution laws and collaborative development level of the synergy of pollution and carbon reduction in urban agglomerations were analyzed, and the factors influencing the synergy between pollution and carbon reduction were explored. Following conclusions were drawn from the results. (1) From 2010 to 2019, the synergistic effect of pollution and carbon reduction in three major urban agglomerations showed a steady growth trend, with different spatial distribution patterns. The synergistic index of pollution and carbon reduction in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration shows an overall upward trend, that in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration shows a steady fluctuation, and that in the Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration shows a slow growth trend. (2) The spatial correlation characteristics of the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei urban agglomeration change from random to regular distributions, and the synergistic cooperation mechanism of pollution and carbon reduction among cities in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration needs to be strengthened. The radiation and driving effect of the cities in the Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration on the surrounding cities is gradually increasing, and the local spatial agglomeration of these three major urban agglomerations is not evident. (3) From 2010 to 2019, the order degree of the synergistic system of pollution and carbon reduction showed a significant growth trend; the overall synergy degree of the composite system is low, and the growth order of the urban agglomerations is as follows: Yangtze River Delta > Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei > Pearl River Delta. Different evolution and correlation characteristics are observed in space, and no internal coordination of urban agglomerations is seen. (4) Economic development, environmental pollution, environmental governance, ecological protection, and resource utilization are important factors affecting the synergistic evolution of pollution and carbon reduction in the three aforementioned major urban agglomerations. This study analyzed the connotation requirements and specific characteristics of the synergy between pollution and carbon reduction in such agglomerations in the coastal areas of China. Based on the analysis of the spatial and temporal evolution and influencing factors of the synergy of pollution and carbon reduction in these agglomerations, we aim to address the problems existing in the synergy of pollution and carbon reduction in urban agglomerations. Corresponding countermeasures and suggestions are put forward to provide an empirical reference for the realization of comprehensive green and low-carbon transformation and high-quality green development of urban economies and societies.

  • Zhaofan Wang, Zicheng Ma, Zhongzhao Xiong, Tiancheng Sun, Zanhui Huang, Dinghui Fu, Liang Chen, Fei Xie, Cuirong Xie, Si Chen
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(9): 1689-1700.

    The eastern coastal zone of Hainan Island is an important scenic belt and concentrated area of tourism resources in Hainan Province. Due to natural factors such as sea level rise and human factors such as coastal reclamation, the ecosystem in this area is highly sensitive. Water depth data are crucial for the protection and management of the coastal ecosystem. Satellite remote sensing data combined with machine learning algorithms have become an important means of shallow water depth inversion. However, few studies evaluate shallow water depth inversion for different remote sensing data, water environmental conditions, and algorithms. Taking the Wanning Sea area as an example, three scenes of Landsat-8 and Sentinel-2 data with different water environmental conditions were selected to apply water depth inversion. The Sentinel-2 data were collected on February 11th, 2022, with some suspended matter and poor water transparency in the nearshore water, and the image exhibited band-like reflectance anomalies caused by waves. The Landsat-8 data were collected on July 16, 2019, and June 28th, 2021. Both scenes had better water transparency than the Sentinel-2 data, and relatively less suspended matter in the nearshore water. Compared to the Landsat-8 data collected on June 28th, 2021, the image of Landsat-8 data collected on July 16th, 2019, showed stronger wave features in the nearshore water. A 1:25,000 maritime chart of the Potou Port and Dazhou Island (C1516171) area released by the China Maritime Safety Administration was collected to obtain 588 measured water depth data points in the study area. Among these, 295 randomly selected data points were used as training data for the remote sensing water depth inversion, and the remaining 293 data points were used as testing data to evaluate the accuracy of the inversion models. A total of three machine learning methods, including Random Forest regression, Support Vector Machine, and Partial Least Squares Regression, were used for water depth inversion experiments, and their accuracy was evaluated. The results indicated that the Landsat-8 data (20190716) with the best water transparency and weakest wave effect achieved the highest accuracy in water depth inversion. In the water depth range of 0-40 m, the R2 was 0.814, and the MAE, RMSE, and MAPE were 3.39 m, 4.31 m, and 0.366, respectively. In the water depth range of 0-20 m, the R2 was 0.874, and the MAE, RMSE, and MAPE were 2.24 m, 3.24 m, and 0.449, respectively. The RF algorithm obtained relatively high accuracy in the entire water depth range, while the SVM and PLSR algorithms displayed advantages in some shallow water depth inversions. The spatial resolution of optical remote sensing images is not an absolute positive correlation with the accuracy of water depth inversion. The hydrological characteristics of the water bodies in the remote sensing images have a significant impact on water depth inversion accuracy. Factors such as water transparency, suspended matter concentration, and seawater waves will affect the inversion accuracy. In the process of using optical remote sensing data for shallow water depth inversion, data with high water transparency and calm water conditions should be selected for modeling and inversion. The results have certain reference value for data source and algorithm selection in shallow water depth inversion based on multispectral remote sensing data.

  • Wei Lu, Xiaoling Yin, Peng Gong, Hongyan Zhang, Shunmin Yi, Qiongyi Qiu
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(11): 2167-2177.

    Mangroves are halophytic forest plant communities located on saline marshes in estuaries of tropical and subtropical bays. They are one of the most vulnerable ecosystems in the world and are severely threatened by urban development, environmental pollution, aquaculture, and other problems. The Dongchong mangrove forest is a relatively well-preserved mangrove forest in China, with a large area and a typical Excoecaria agallocha landscape, which has significant ornamental and ecological conservation value. The aim of this study is to provide basic support not only for mangrove ecological conservation and restoration, but also to construct and manage nature's reserves. The eco-environmental geological characteristics of mangroves were investigated using geology, geomorphology, pedology, ecology, and other methods, and a typical eco-environmental geological profile of the mangrove in Dongchong was drawn. The results show that the strata in the study area are mainly Quaternary sediments and rhyolites of the Nanshancun Formation of the Early Cretaceous. Faults are developed in the west of Dongchong Mangrove Wetland Park. The main environmental geological problems are uneven ground settlement, ground subsidence, and ground cracks. The concentration of F- in the surface water are high, and the water quality is slightly lower than that of the Class III water standard; however, the groundwater is freshwater with low salinity and hardness. Cd and Tl are locally significant in the surface soil of the study area. N, P, CaCO3, Org, and B are deficient in the soil, whereas the K content is mainly medium. A part of the soil is polluted by heavy metals, particularly As, followed by Cd. However, the mangrove leaves are rich in nutrients, indicating that the lack of soil nutrient elements and heavy-metal pollution are not the major factors limiting the growth of mangroves in this region. Improving the growth environment of mangroves should include expanding the landscape area and reinforcing reserve management. In the rock-soil-plant ecosystem, As, Pb, Cd, and B are significantly rich in the soil, indicating that their contents have a slight correlation with their parent rocks. Ni, Cu, Zn, and K are limited by the parent rock contents, and some elements including P, Mo, and Cr show enrichment capacity in the soil. The BCF >2 of mangroves of the mangrove forests in Dongchong are P and B, indicating that the mangrove trees have a higher absorption capacity for P and B. In contrast, the BCF values of As, Pb, and Cd are relatively low, which, in addition to the weak absorption capacity of the mangrove trees for these elements and combined with the geochemical characteristics of the soils in the study area, are also affected by the high Cd and As contents of the soil. All the data presented in this paper are from the project, "Ecological and Environmental Geological Survey of Shenzhen Nature Reserves," for which we express our sincere gratitude.

  • Yanfen Xiang, Bohong Zheng, Rui Guo, Yihan Jiang
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(8): 1523-1535.

    The monsoon climate in southern China is characterized by hot summers and cold winters. These extreme conditions have caught the attention of researchers because of the importance of designing cities so as to strengthen natural ventilation in summer and reduce exposure to cold winds during winter. Not only do the design and construction of urban ventilation corridors lead to the mitigation of the urban heat island effect in summer, the corridors also contribute to reducing atmospheric pollution and the invasion of winter monsoons. This study is specifically concerned with an analytical method that can be used, especially during the planning and design of cities, to improve the urban wind environment. Currently, most urban wind environment studies generally adopt numerical simulations as the investigation method. To some extent, this approach can be helpful with urban wind environment analyses under different planning and design scenarios. Many existing studies indicate that this technique has the advantage of rendering urban wind environment predictions with reliable accuracy. Numerical wind environmental simulations—especially, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation models—have been used for urban planning and design optimization. However, these models have certain limitations about the planning and workflow that the numerical simulation techniques require. For instance, in the early stages of urban design schemes, such as the master planning stage, the workload and amount of time required to perform the necessary repetitive simulations become enormous (not only in terms of time and energy but also with regard to expertise). The thorough and exhaustive numerical simulation task sometimes becomes impossible because of the limitations of computer performance, particularly for large city-scale areas. In this study, Hengyang County, Hunan Province, was selected as the study area. A new method was proposed to reduce the workload, time, and computational equipment requirements for analyzing the wind environment of a large city-scale area during the early stages of urban planning and design. The proposed method starts with the construction of a 3D model of the city using rule-based modeling, followed by a comprehensive evaluation model implemented in ArcGIS to assess the urban spatial enclosure and its influence on urban ventilation corridors. We used the least-cost path to generate ventilation corridors under different wind directions. The measurement points in the ventilation corridors of the city were selected to validate the wind speed cloud map simulated by PHOENICS. The simulation results were basically consistent with the site-measurements, thus demonstrating the validity of the evaluation model proposed in this study. Several findings are derived from this study. First, changes in the urban wind environment should be considered at the early stage of urban design. Second, the choice of rule-based modeling is not only beneficial to the quick modeling of the design scheme but is also efficient for a quick modeling of ventilation corridors. Third, the construction of urban ventilation corridors needs to consider several urban elements. The 8 primary ventilation corridors and 14 secondary ventilation corridors are constructed in the planning scheme according to the different action spaces of the wind corridors. Comparing the wind speed map of PHOENICS and the comprehensive evaluation results, it is proved that the urban ventilation corridor system constructed by buildings, road networks, water, and greenery systems can be quite overlapped with the ventilation corridors, and it also proved that the optimization measures based on wind openings, open space, water, roads, and buildings can effectively improve the ventilation capacity of the planning scheme. The study further demonstrates the limitation of single-criteria evaluation compared to multi-criteria evaluation which is more suitable for the complex urban wind environment. In addition to terrain height differences, the urban spatial enclosure model reflects consideration for building environment factors, such as the sky view factor, absolute roughness, frontal area density, average height, and building density. Thus, we propose a more convenient and effective method for the design of urban ventilation corridors that can be beneficial for achieving green and low-carbon urban planning.

  • Manhua Lin, Wanna Zhang, Rongbao Zheng, Kefei Zhao, Qi Zhong, Lijie Lin
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(9): 1823-1834.

    Green buildings are characterized by energy saving and emissions reduction. To achieve the goals of peak emissions and carbon neutrality, large-scale development of green buildings contributes to relieving the pressure of resource shortage and environmental degradation. The extant literature on China's green buildings has mainly focused on standards and rating systems. With regard to the rapid growth of green buildings, research has increasingly focused on the development patterns and mainly concentrated on the nationwide or regional scales. It is essential to study the spatial and temporal patterns of green buildings and explore their dynamics in urban China within a particular city. Taking Guangzhou as a case study, this study comprehensively explored the spatial and temporal patterns of green buildings which were awarded the Chinese Green Building Evaluation Standard or LEED certification from 2008 to 2021, and further identified main factors in terms of market, economy, environment, and resources driving such patterns with the aid of ArcGIS spatial analysis and GeoDector. It was found that: (1) Temporally, the growth of green buildings demonstrates a policy-driven trend of rising first and then descending. (2) Spatially, there are significant differences in green buildings project, construction area, and types in terms of green office, residential, and other public buildings. The green buildings in the city center of Guangzhou have considerable differentiation and complex levels. The high-level green buildings are primarily concentrated in Tianhe, Zengcheng, and Huangpu Districts, while the low-level green buildings are mostly located in Conghua, Panyu, and Nansha Districts. (3) The spatiotemporal patterns of green buildings exhibited the following features: The gravity center of green buildings moved northward and then southward;. The range of distribution has continuously expanded. The developing trend in Guangzhou present northwest-southeast direction with gradually enhanced directionality. (4) With regard to the driving forces, resource factors are the primary driving force in the development of green buildings, followed by economic, market, and environmental factors. Specifically, among the three types of green buildings commercial, residential, and office, resource factors are the most important driving force in developing green commercial and residential buildings, while market factors deeply affect the spatial variation of green office buildings. Notably, environmental factors also play a key role in green residential buildings. From the perspective of geography in the spatiotemporal dimension, this study systematically reveals the evolution and determinants of green buildings in China. The findings provide scientific evidence for governmental decision-makers and urban planners in green buildings, new insights into green buildings development and enrich the theoretical framework of green buildings.

  • Zhifeng Zhao, Zhiwei Li
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(7): 1351-1363.

    Pertinent evidence clearly shows that food not only meets the basic needs of tourists, but is also an important carrier of the tourist experience. We investigated the type of restaurants that tourists favor. Obtaining tourists' identity from food and beverage brands is crucial. Authenticity has become the standard of purchase as tourists pursue unique cultural experiences. However, research on tourism has paid little attention to brand authenticity. Therefore, this study analyzes the composition of the authenticity dimension of local catering brands in the tourism context and develops a set of reliability and validity scales to explore the impact of brand authenticity on brand identity and word-of-mouth recommendation willingness. Based on brand authenticity theory, this study analyzes the authenticity dimensions of local catering brands. Study 1 found that restaurant brand authenticity can be divided into four dimensions: continuity, credibility, relevance, and originality. Study 2 developed a brand authenticity measurement scale based on the connotation of the four dimensions of brand authenticity combined with interview data and further verified nomological validity. The results showed that the continuity dimension is an important external clue for tourists to identify a brand; however, it does not affect their willingness to recommend it. The relevance dimension favorably affects brand recommendation but does not affect brand identity. This study provides novel insights into the nature of brand authenticity and highlights its importance in branding theory and practice. First, this study developed a brand authenticity scale for food and beverage brands in the context of tourism based on theories of brand authenticity. The authentic content of the brand from a tourist perspective is crucial for tourism management departments and industries. Second, the tourism context provides tourists with a social environment that is substantially different from that of daily life. The travel world, characterized by temporary and off-site characteristics, encourages tourists to pay more attention to brand continuity, credibility, relevance, and originality. In addition, this study confirms that brand authenticity favorably affects brand identity and the willingness to recommend via word-of-mouth. Further analysis showed that the continuity dimension is an important external clue for tourists to recognize the brand; while it does not affect their willingness to recommend, it promotes brand recommendation, but it does not affect brand identity. This study used quantitative research to confirm the relationship between brand authenticity, brand identity, and word-of-mouth recommendations. The results of this study have several practical implications. Therefore, we should aim for the brand's target market, pay attention to how tourists in the target market define the authenticity of the brand and the relationship between lifestyle and the brand, and establish an effective marketing strategy. Specifically, the brand's continuity, credibility, relevance, and originality were further enhanced in four dimensions. In addition, the brand authenticity scale in the tourism context can be used to measure and compare the differences in brand authenticity of different types of restaurants and can create brand authenticity rankings to guide tourists' consumption.

  • Lingling Zhao, Changming Liu, Ziyin Wang, Xinhui Zhang, Xing Yang
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(11): 2119-2134.

    The prediction of rainstorms and floods in small and medium-sized watersheds, as well as the synthesis of related parameters, plays a pivotal role in preventing flood disasters. Environmental changes have led to an increase in hydrological extremes such as rainstorms and floods, presenting unprecedented challenges for small and medium-sized river basins. In this review, we systematically categorize, and summarize the processes involved in predicting rainstorms and floods in these watersheds, along with advancements in correlated parameter synthesis research. Furthermore, we analyze and discuss the most commonly employed runoff and confluence estimation methods and their associated parameters in practical applications, as well as their limitations. First, we establish the concept of small- and medium-sized watersheds across various academic disciplines. From a hydrological perspective, these watersheds typically exhibit slope confluence and have relatively small catchment areas. In terms of eco-hydrology, the ecological water demand of the basin must be calculated based on the different communities occupying the river basin and divided by area according to the ecological samples from each district after the investigation. Thereafter, we summarized the methods and types of runoff calculation and parameter synthesis in small- and medium-sized basins, and the methods and principles of runoff analysis, such as rainfall–runoff correlation diagram, infiltration curve method, deduction method, runoff coefficient method, and hydrological model method as well as the methods of parameter synthesis, such as rainfall-runoff correlation diagrams and loss methods are introduced. Second, we summarize and discuss the assessment of confluence and its associated parameters in small- and medium-sized river basins. This encompasses background information and various calculation methods, such as the instantaneous unit line, comprehensive unit line, inference formula method, and empirical formula method. We also examine how the three major elements of parameter synthesis convergence influence confluence parameters. We emphasize that combining radar rainfall measurements, high-resolution remote sensing, high-performance computing, and deep learning can facilitate research on simulating and forecasting rainstorms and flood processes in small- and medium-sized basins. However, a significant portion of these basins lacks data, limiting the application of simulation and flood forecasting. To address this, integration with geographical parameters specific to small- and medium-sized basins is necessary to enhance regional reliability and forecasting accuracy. Additionally, when applying deep learning to simulate basins with limited or no data, the significance of parameter synthesis becomes even more pronounced. Finally, we discuss the problems and challenges associated with storm flood calculations and parameter synthesis methods in small- and medium-sized basins and offer predictions regarding future research and technical developments. We recommend strengthening the use of emerging technologies for watershed runoff and runoff parameter calculations and advocate for their application in storm flood design.

  • Xiumei Wang, Chunxiao Huang, Hongfu Xu, Zhiqiang Yang
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(8): 1489-1500.

    In the era of knowledge economy, acquiring top talent has become the key to competitiveness for urban and regional areas. As the representatives of top talent, CAS(Chinese Academy of Sciences) and CAE (Chinese Academy of Engineering), Yangtze River Scholars, and Distinguished Young Scholars are important for breakthroughs in and promotion of competitiveness in urban science and technology competitiveness. Taking the core area of the Yangtze River Delta as an example, based on the list of CAS and CAE, Yangtze River scholars, and Distinguished Young Scholars in the previous year, through a resume analysis method, a resume database of 1,878 highly-talented individuals was constructed. Considering the urban scale, this study explores the law of social space flow and its influencing factors, using the ArcGIS spatial analysis and social surveys. It aims to identify the urban and regional where top innovative talent gathering, and provide inspiration for the construction of a regional network. The conclusions are as follows: (1) The first career choice of high-level talent has a significant spatial proximity orientation, which manifests in two aspects. First, local emotional traction is strong, and the migration from one's place of birth to the place of employment is mainly local or migration to the neighboring. Second, owing to the relationships developed during education, the historical correlation between high-level talent employment and schooling is strong. (2) The geographical flow of re-employment has two characteristics, network correlation and spatial proximity flow. The former is characterized by the long-distance siphoning to first-tier cities, such as Beijing, Guangzhou, and Shenzhen from non-first-tier cities in the core area of the Yangtze River Delta, as well as the significant circulation between cities that are not adjacent in space but have similar characteristics. The latter is characterized by the fact that spatial proximity was still retain within the core area of the Yangtze River Delta. (3) The pursuit of individual interests by high-level talent and the urban comprehensive environment jointly shape the network correlation phenomenon of high-level talent flow. High-level talent pays most attention to economic level, innovation support, development opportunities, and emotional support, while the strength of the urban "talent magnetic field" is ultimately determined by the urban comprehensive environment, comprising the economy, policies, innovation, and social environment.

  • Ying Li, Nannan Wang, Zhaomin Tong, Yanfang Liu, Rui An, Yang Liu
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(8): 1547-1562.

    Streets are important spaces for transportation and life. It is important to clarify the economic effects of street quality on the real estate industry to create high-quality street spaces and meet the environmental needs of residents. Based on factors influencing traditional housing prices, such as street quality, this study used the random forest model and an accumulated local effects plot to explore the nonlinear relationship between street quality and housing prices, with its threshold effect in Guangzhou. The results show that the random forest model's fitting accuracy is 0.145 times higher than that of traditional linear methods and that the random forest model effectively captures the nonlinear relationship and threshold effect between street quality characteristics and housing prices. Commercial location, global betweenness, and the years of community construction significantly impact housing prices. The total contribution of green vision rate, sky openness, and enclosure to housing prices reached 5.68%, and residents' preferences for a comfortable environment drew attention. When distance increased, the negative influence of the commercial and economic location on housing prices gradually decreased. When global betweenness is less than 1,715, it has an exponential positive correlation with housing prices. When local proximity exceeds 117, it has little impact on housing prices, revealing the alternative effects of transportation hubs at different levels. Positive externalities, such as convenient transportation and negative externalities, such as traffic congestion and environmental pollution, affect housing prices equally. Road construction should consider traffic efficiency and environmental livability. When the degree of road motorization is less than 23% and more than 26%, the construction ratio of protective isolation facilities is more than 4.27%, and the night light brightness is higher than 0.0037 W/(m2·sr·μm), they have a lesser impact on housing prices. The over-construction of safety facilities reduces the economic benefits of street quality. Moreover, to ensure fair street usage, the green vision rate of the living environment should not be less than 15%. The spatial distribution trends of sky openness and enclosures are opposite, but both negatively impact housing prices. In urban development and construction, the development intensity should be reasonably controlled to avoid psychological depression caused by space cramping. For future street-stock renewal, it is necessary to accurately understand the current situation of street quality and the needs of residents, specifically improving street quality. Avoiding street quality creates property premiums and strives to ensure the fairness of residents' access to and use of street spaces. It guides real estate developers to participate in street construction. This study compensates for the limitations of traditional characteristic price models and the lack of explanatory properties in traditional linear methods, thereby providing a scientific basis for improving residents' living environments and building a livable city.

  • Chuhai Li, Juan Lin, Jiaxin Lu, Shidai Wu
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(8): 1501-1511.

    In the context of bank failure, the internet and development trend of financial businesses have notably influenced the banking industry. However, existing literature shows that few studies have quantitatively examined these influences on bank outlets, and the outcomes of studies on the impact of internet on the offline operation of banks have not been authoritatively verified; therefore, further exploration is required. In this context, this study analyzed the withdrawal of offline bank outlets and spatial distribution of bank withdrawals from 2019-2021 using kernel density analysis, geographical concentration index, and DBSCAN clustering algorithm and identified the comprehensive factors influencing bank withdrawals by combining these analyses with a spatial econometric model. This study determined the influences of various factors on the operation of offline financial banks under the background of information development. According to the results: 1) From 2019 to 2020, the withdrawn financial bank outlets revealed aggregated distribution overall, and the number of financial bank outlets that withdrew gradually declined from east to west; given the different conditions in terms of information network impact, different types of bank outlets reported various trends in these changes. 2) The financial institutions that withdrew had some common characteristics from single- and intra-city perspectives. Regarding single cities, In the three regions classified by the level of economic development, large urban agglomerations are the centralized regions where banks withdraw branches, forming the center–edge structure with core cities as the center. From the intracity perspective, more financial banks withdrew in regions with intensive capital, dense population, and developed technology. 3) In the context of mobile information, financial bank withdrawal was influenced by multiple factors. Overall, information environment exerts a strong influence. However, whether innovative ability is related to financial bank withdrawal remains unclear. In addition, the competition, labor, rent, and other operation costs and bank operation benefits from the external market substantially influenced the withdrawal of banks. In contrast to previous studies on the spatial expansion of bank outlets, this study discussed the development characteristics of financial bank withdrawal from the perspectives of time and multidimensional space and additionally considered financial geography, providing subsequent researchers with a reference and guidance. However, limited by data, this study only analyzed and discussed the data of from a 3-year period; the longer-term details of the study object were not summarized. In the future, more abundant data and broader methods will be used to conduct more detailed studies from richer perspectives.

  • Jinhui Zheng, Guangbo Ren, Yabin Hu, Feifei Zhang, Yi Ma, Mingjie Li, Ruifu Wang
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(10): 1856-1873.

    The global proliferation of natural predators, including Terpios hoshinota sponge and crown-of-thorns starfish, poses a significant threat to the ecological vitality of coral reefs. However, coral reef research currently lacks comprehensive quantitative studies on the ramifications of predator outbreaks in various coral reef landform types. To bridge this knowledge gap, this study utilized a dataset comprising 26 Sentinel-2 remote sensing images spanning the years 2016 to 2022, both pre- and post-two distinct episodes of natural predator outbreaks involving the Terpios hoshinota sponge and crown-of-thorns starfish, within the vicinity of Taiping Island. High-resolution GF-2 (PMS) remote-sensing images and satellite data were used to augment the analysis. Based on data obtained from the Google Earth platform of the Geographic Information System for remote sensing imagery, we conducted an experiment involving the classification of coral reef landform types in Taiping Island in the South China Sea. During the Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification experiments, we performed a meticulous examination of the image interpretation outcomes, making comparisons and rectifications in consultation with domain experts. Classification was performed by analyzing remote sensing images, and the identified landform types included areas characterized by dense coral sedimentation, sparse coral sedimentation, coral clusters, sand flats, and shallow reef front slopes. Subsequent analyses focused on discerning distinctive characteristics and tracing their evolutionary patterns. The findings reveal that (1) this study effectively integrates expert interpretation knowledge and an SVM classification algorithm to classify the various landform types present in Taiping Island's coral reef ecosystem. Remarkably, the classification achieved an unprecedented level of accuracy, with an overall accuracy rate of 96.46% and a kappa coefficient of 0.94. (2) The analysis showed that during the two natural predator outbreaks, the coral reef landforms on Taiping Island, which included dense coral reef areas, dense coral sedimentation areas, and sparse coral sedimentation areas, displayed significant decreases in their respective areas. The outbreak of Terpios hoshinota sponge had the most profound impact on the dense coral sedimentation area, resulting in a 72.92% decrease in the total area. Meanwhile, the outbreak of crown-of-thorns starfish had the most significant effect on the coral cluster area, causing a 59.17% reduction in total area. (3) Over the period spanning from 2016 to 2022, the degradation rate of the coral reefs on Taiping Island exceeded the recovery rate. Notably, the highest degradation rate (23.88%) occurred between March-June 2017. Conversely, the highest rate of recovery (18.03%) was observed from June-September 2017. We analyzed the dynamic characteristics of coral reef landform types, including changes in type distribution, areal extent, degradation rate, and recovery rate. Furthermore, we assessed the influence of natural disturbances on the degradation of coral reef ecosystems, thereby providing valuable insights for conservation and scientific inquiries pertaining to coral reef ecological resources in the waters surrounding Taiping Island. This effort is underpinned by a solid theoretical foundation. The Chinese and English literature cited in this article have contributed significantly to various facets, including coral reef monitoring methodologies, construction of coral reef classification systems, and assessment of coral reef ecosystem health.

  • Yongwei Tang, Helin Liu, Mei Luo, Junyang Gao, Hui Ci
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(10): 1891-1902.

    Knowledge of the evolutionary characteristics of urban functional centers and their formation mechanisms is a prerequisite for promoting urban renewal and optimizing these centers. Taking the central urban area of Suzhou as an example, the driving mechanisms of spatial-temporal differentiation were determined through examining long-term data of urban points of interest, kernel density estimation, and location entropy. The findings are as follows. First, the spatial distribution of urban functional centers evolves from a monocentric to a polycentric pattern, with a significant pattern of primary and secondary differential order. In the case of Suzhou, the city has evolved from a single center to a multi-center functional system with one main center and four sub-centers, which is in accordance with the layout of the functional centers determined by the urban master plan. Second, The services of functional centers shift from public function to a dominance of lifestyle function and then to consumer dominance, which supports the trend of the transformation into a consumption-oriented city. The spatial differentiation of the dominant function types of each center is significant, with both a complementary division of labor and a corresponding trend of functional specialization. Under China's unique governance system, the intervention of planning policies is bound to have a significant impact on the spatial and temporal differentiation of urban functional centers. Therefore, based on the perspective of urban planning and policy, we have constructed an analytical framework for the evolution of functional centers at multiple scales and with multiple actors acting together. Macro policies are transmitted downward through national strategies and regional plans to guide the overall evolution of space and functions; at the meso policy level, the active local government builds a blueprint plan through planning tools, such as development plans and urban master plans, links with market mechanisms, and carries out urban management to promote the generation of multiple functional centers in the city. At the micro-policy level, action policies such as urban function relocation, spatial regeneration, and the creation of special spaces in new towns are coordinated to promote the function relocation and agglomeration of functional centers in the city. Multi-scale planning policies jointly construct a nested mechanism to drive the evolution of functional centers; however, the degree of spatial and temporal matching between planning policies and market mechanisms determines the formation and evolution paths of functional centers. The mismatch between the "blueprint" approach of urban planning and the flexibility of the market mechanism, the failure of the transmission of planning policies at the upper and lower levels, or the change of planning can cause a bias in the generation and evolution of functional centers. The contribution of this study is, first, to establish a spatial and temporal cognitive framework for the evolution of functional centers and to explore the evolutionary pattern of the dominant function types of functional centers based on fine-grained data. We found that the dominant functions of urban functional centers in the case study area go through an evolutionary process of "public function-living function-consumption function". A similar process has not yet been documented in other cities, underscoring the need to verify the model through multi-case comparisons. Second, the special urban governance environment in China requires that researchers and planners view policy interventions at multiple scales in order to fully understand the spatial and temporal evolution of urban functional centers and so establish a policy cognitive framework for the evolution of functional centers. Understanding the role of planning policy interventions forms the basis for the subsequent implementation of targeted planning interventions.

  • Huan Zhou, Jin Huang, Xiao Zou
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(10): 1917-1928.

    With the rapid development of lifestyle logistics in the service industry, such as e-commerce express and same-city delivery, new challenges have arisen in the planning and implementation of urban logistics freight and related industries. However, studies of existing urban logistics tend to focus on large-scale administrative areas, such as inter-provincial and city clusters, ignoring the importance of intra-city logistics networks. Traditional research methods are mostly based on static data to simulate inter-city logistics links, which makes it difficult to accurately and comprehensively reflect the intra-city logistics factor flows and their linkages. In response to these shortcomings, we adopted a method to track logistics in real time, by using truck GPS "flow data" across the city of Shenzhen. In addition, a community discovery model based on social networks was developed to identify important intra-city logistics nodes. The following conclusions are drawn. 1) There are 12 logistics hub nodes in Shenzhen, including the Songgang Industrial Zone, Yantian Port, and Pinghu Logistics Park, based on the infrastructure of large industrial clusters, advanced technology industrial zones, and integrated logistics parks. 2) Intra-city logistics activities are mainly concentrated on weekdays; in contrast, on weekends, logistics activities are severely inhibited by factors such as frequent activities of residents during holidays and delayed construction of planned roads. 3) The overall internal logistics linkage is weak, with logistics activities concentrated in the Guangzhou-Shenzhen axis, showing a spatial pattern of "dense in the west and sparse in the east", but the existing logistics infrastructure is mostly located in the central part of the city, which results in a misaligned layout of logistics activities heading west and logistics facilities being distributed in the middle. 4) The logistics linkage feature "heterogeneous attraction" is obvious: the logistics activities of different types of nodes tend to flow towards specific areas, gradually forming a logistics corridor with "airport-industrial area-coastal port-logistics park" as the axis. Intra-city logistics relies on the linkage of the corridor and forms a logistics corridor network model, with the corridor as the axis spreading to the periphery. 5) The intra-city logistics spatial organization can be divided into six subgroups, whose edge subgroups basically transfer logistics activities around the core subgroups, constituting a "core-edge" organization pattern. Taking these key results into consideration, we propose planning for high-quality development of intra-city logistics in Shenzhen, from three perspectives: reshaping the logistics space, adjusting planning, and cultivating new growth levels. The results of this study not only help to develop and improve the theoretical and methodological system of urban logistics network and deepen the understanding of intra-city logistics network construction, but also serve as a 'Shenzhen sample' for urban logistics development, with the goal of integrating Shenzhen into the world-class logistics hub of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area.

  • Chengli Tang, Guandong Song, Guohua Zhou, Yanhua He
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(10): 1903-1916.

    At present, the economy of China is in a new stage, shifting from high-speed growth to high-quality development. Accordingly, high-tech industrial development zones (hereinafter referred to as "high-tech zones") have developed as clusters of innovative resources, high-tech enterprises, and industries. These high-tech zones serve as demonstration zones for national and regional innovation development. Building a resilient innovation ecosystem in high-tech zones and enhancing their ability to cope and adapt to an uncertain environment are important for promoting the high-quality development of these zones as well as the regional economy. There are few academic studies on the resilience of innovation ecosystems in high-tech zones. Incorporating the concept of resilience and enhancing the ability of innovation ecosystems in high-tech zones to cope with risk is a topic worthy of attention in academic research. Here we introduce the concept of resilience, explore the connotation and characteristics of the resilience of the innovation ecosystem in the high-tech zone, analyze its evolution process by applying adaptive cycle theory, and construct a measurement index system in four dimensions: resistance, absorption, recovery, and transformation power. From this perspective, resilience is considered the ability of the zone to maintain and restore its original characteristics and functions and also to continue to grow after the system has been disturbed. The zone characteristics considered are complexity, dynamic evolution, scale correlation, and regulation, as evident through four evolutionary stages: exploitation, storage, release, and renewal. Using the TOPSIS method, 46 high-tech zones in Hunan Province were selected as research objects, and their innovation ecosystem resilience levels and spatiotemporal pattern characteristics were analyzed. It was found that the innovation ecosystem resilience level of the Hunan high-tech zone increased from 0.316 in 2012 to 0.604 in 2020, showing an overall upward trend in resilience. In terms of the increase in the level of resilience in each dimension, the most significant increase was that of transformation power, followed by absorption and resistance powers. The smallest increase was that of recovery power. The spatial pattern showed obvious divergence, with the more resilient high-tech zones clustered in the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration and the less resilient zones distributed in the western Hunan region. Over time, the degree of spatial differentiation gradually shrank, forming the characteristics of a highly resilient agglomeration, with the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration as the core, and Yueyang, Chenzhou, Changde, and other multi-centers coexisting. In this study the innovation ecosystem of high-tech zones was examined from the perspective of dynamic development; the results are expected to broaden the concept of urban development resilience in theory and promote the high-quality development of high-tech zones in practice.

  • Junjun Guo, Yuping Liu
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(11): 2087-2101.

    Based on the National Census data of 2000, 2010, and 2020, with districts and counties as spatial units, the current situation of population aging is described using a time-series comparison method, and its distribution position is identified using a standard deviation ellipse. Moran's I index was used to investigate the spatial correlation and evolution characteristics of population aging, and the Dagum Gini coefficient and decomposition were used to evaluate its regional differences and sources. Then, a spatial econometric regression model was used to test the factors influencing the spatial differentiation of population aging. This study revealed that the population aging of counties in the Chengdu-Chongqing economic circle has been accelerating as a unit from 2000 to 2020. However, different regions before and after 2010 have shown relatively different changes. The center of population aging in the counties gradually shifted to Chengdu over time. Population aging in counties of the Chengdu-Chongqing economic circle mainly shows the spatial distribution characteristics of similar types of agglomeration; counties with significant spatial correlation are mainly characterized by high-high or low-low type clustering, of which the latter has gradually concentrated in Chengdu and Chongqing during the survey period. After 2010, the high-high type clustering areas rapidly concentrated on the two wings of the central axis of Chengdu and Chongqing. The overall difference in population aging of the counties in the Chengdu-Chongqing economic circle accelerated during the investigation period. The increase and decrease in intra-regional differences varied among different periods, with increased inter-regional differences occurring after 2010. Hypervariable density contributed the most to the overall difference in population aging. Compared with 2010, factors such as aging inertia, fertility inertia, population inflow, and education level had a greater impact on the spatial differentiation of population aging in the Chengdu-Chongqing economic circle in 2020, and an increasing number of elderly people have been observed to gather in more densely populated districts and counties since 2010. Overall, this study provides a detailed presentation of the spatial imbalance and dynamic evolution characteristics of population aging at the county level in the Chengdu-Chongqing economic circle over the past two decades and reports that, compared to 2000-2010, the population aging in the counties of the Chengdu-Chongqing economic circle during 2010-2020 underwent rapid deepening with an overall increase in differences and showed new changes in deepening speed, regional relative aging degree, and distribution of similar types of agglomeration counties, that could be considered, there are also certain differences in the causes of population aging in the counties.

  • Jianbo Xu, Rong Liu, Shuangyu Xie, Huafang Qiao
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(7): 1364-1376.

    With expanding globalization and the "cultural turn" in geographic research, the mobile phenomenon of the trans-local production of food culture has received increasing attention from society and academia. Trans-local ethnic theme restaurants are important carriers of food culture, and customer perception has always been a research hotspot for catering enterprises. However, there are few studies on the differences in customer perceptions of the authenticity of trans-local ethnic theme restaurants and the factors affecting them in multi-ethnic countries. To explore the differences in customer perceptions and influencing factors of the originality of food culture in trans-local ethnic minority theme restaurants, this study employed the theoretical framework of the originality of food culture, taking the Enshi Tujia restaurant in Wuhan as the research object, combining online text information and questionnaire surveys, and applying the Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) methods to validate the theoretical framework of the originality of food culture in trans-local ethnic minority theme restaurants. Moerover, it used the Potential Conflict Index (PCI) method to analyze the overall level and internal differences of customers' perceptions regarding originality of trans-local ethnic minority food cultures. Specific factors affecting the differences in customers' perceptions were explored using the one-way nonparametric test and the optimal scale regression analysis. The results of the study are as follows: (1) The customers' perception levels of food and environmental authenticity in the Enshi Tujia restaurant in Wuhan were 0.60, but the customers' perception level of service authenticity was -0.06. The PCI values of food and environmental authenticity were 0.09 and 0.08, respectively, but the PCI values of service authenticity was 0.35. (2) Significant factors contributing to the differences in customers' perceptions of the originality of the dietary culture, such as expectations and information access, were: the overall level and internal differences in customer perceptions of food culture were not significant. Significant factors of customer perception differences, with importance indexes of 0.566 and 0.270, respectively, were found. Education was a significant factor leading to customer perception differences in food and service authenticity, with importance indexes of 0.081 and 0.141, respectively. Stimuli such as the degree of understanding of Enshi and the experience of traveling there lead to significant differences in the perception of food authenticity, with importance indexes of 0.144 and 0136. Recent dining time and income indicated that customers' perception of environmental authenticity and service authenticity differ significantly, with importance indices of 0.178 and 0.256, respectively, whereas cultural background factors such as the place of origin did not have a significant impact on the difference in customers' perceptions of the food culture authenticity. The study conclusions as follows: (1) Customers' perception of food authenticity and environmental authenticity of ethnic minority themed restaurants was high with small internal differences, while the perception of service authenticity was low with large internal differences. (2) Expectations and information acquisition channels are important factors leading to significant differences in customers' perceptions, but the influence of cultural background factors such as place of origin, degree of understanding of Enshi, and experience of traveling there is relatively limited. (3) Trans-local ethnic minority theme restaurants are micro spaces for the exchange and fusion of food culture in the source place and food culture there, which can satisfy the diversified dietary consumption needs of different customers, such as local and foreign ethnic minority customers. Trans-local production of ethnic minority theme restaurants is conducive to promoting the formation and development of a unified multi-ethnic state in China. This study expands the scale of research on the originality of food culture, enriches the theoretical content of the perception of the originality of food culture, and provides case references and a theoretical basis for the trans-local production and operation of ethnic minority themed restaurants.

  • Chunhui Zheng, Yi Wang, Lili Qian
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(8): 1563-1574.

    The memorial landscape of fear is a precious heritage of human memory. However, the sense of spatiotemporal distance and non-experience of disastrous events may cause a negative geographical imagination of the commemorative landscape of the site, making its social meaning face a forgotten predicament continually. By applying the grounded theory, this research aims to explore the process and mechanism of constructing a geographical imagination of the sacredness of memorial landscapes of fear under media discourse. Taking the Memorial Hall of the Victims of the Nanjing Massacre as a case study, the results indicate that: (1) online media have expanded the memory of the Nanjing Massacre into a broader spatial and temporal context. In space, the memory of the Nanjing Massacre gradually rises from place memory to the national memory, and eventually to global memory. In time, the memory of the Nanjing Massacre has evolved from a "national shame" in the framework of contemporary historical narratives to a textbook of suffering in the history of human development. In addition, while the media narrated the macroscopic memories of the Nanjing Massacre, they focused on the awakening and transmission of individual memories at the microscopic level, evolving from narrating macroscopic history to interpreting the meaning of microscopic life. (2) Through naming norms, legal exaltation, symbolic construction, and ritual interaction, the state and the media have constructed the Nanjing Memorial Hall entirely as a sacred memorial site for peace and a communication position for the national image in the new era, achieving the transformation from a landscape of fear that triggers negative geographical imagination to a secular sacred space. (3) The memorial ceremony played a significant role in linking subject, memory, and space in the process of constructing the sacredness of the Nanjing Memorial Hall. By participating in memorial rituals, the public connects themselves to memory and collective identity, generating a strong sense of mission and meaning. The contributions of this study are mainly reflected in the following three aspects: First, it deepens the study of the landscape of fear, a special cultural landscape that carries negative emotions of people and places and helps solve the dilemma that the memorial landscape of fear and its social meaning is constantly facing forgetfulness. Second, this study explores the media's and the public's (i.e., "author") construction of the geographical imagination of the sacredness of the memorial landscape of fear and the public's (i.e., "reader") deconstruction of imagination, expanding the scope of geographical imagination research from a micro perspective. Finally, this study explores the role of national memorial ceremonies in constructing the sacredness of memorial landscapes of fear, thus expanding the study of sacred spaces, mostly focusing on religious rituals. These findings are important for the transmission of collective memory and the construction of national identity.

  • Jianke Guo, Tianqi Feng, Yafeng Qin, Xiaoyang Liu
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(8): 1652-1664.

    As the most significant international transportation infrastructure, the operation and external links of ports are affected by more complicated aspects, resulting in immense changes not seen in a century. Related studies have long been interested in and have followed the evaluation of port location advantage as a comprehensive response to ports' economic and trade conditions. Location advantage reflects the overall resource advantage of a location. Transportation infrastructure can be evaluated from various perspectives, and the choice of different indicators sets the evaluation slant for its use. A port's ability to operate depends on natural navigational conditions, high-quality infrastructure, an appropriate economic hinterland, favorable geographic relationships, and a global environment. Port location advantage has traditionally been focused on from the perspective of transportation routes, hinterland economy, etc. The geographical proximity of nations also has a significant impact on how ports function in today's complex international development environments. To evaluate the advantages of port location along the route, this study uses the geo-relationships between various countries as well as the physical, functional, and economic links between ports as its research objects. It then homogenizes the national-scale WGI Global Governance Index to ports and incorporates it with port-scale maritime distances and route linkages as an integrated model of the degree of location advantage of the ports, using ports along the Maritime Silk Road from 2008 to 2018 as case studies to show how much the ports' advantage in location affects their significance in the real world international environment. The research findings are as follows. 1) Because of the relative position of the hinterland economy in international economic and trade exchanges, the port location advantage also exhibits some scale-free characteristics, and the quantitative expression of geo-relationships between ports emphasizes the importance of ports. As a representative of Asia's emerging economies, China has added more ports with more significant location advantages. 2) The strength of location connections between ports follows the law of distance attenuation, and the shift in the center of gravity of port location connections to Asia reflects the formation of a port location connection pattern dominated by internal Asia with the development of many emerging economies therein. 3) Comparison with mainstream complex network indicators found that although the concentration of factor flow has been formed under the "flow space" in the era of globalization, primary geographical attributes such as geographical relationships and spatial distance still maintain their independence and do not exhibit spatial imbalance under the influence of the reconstruction of global industries and trade. The location of ports based on geographical relationships and port location dominance avoids the limitations of a single perspective in evaluating port location in the international shipping network and can serve as a new basis for assessing the importance of ports in shipping networks; the expression of geographical spatial relationships fills the evaluation gap of existing network indicators.

  • Wang Liao, Xiaoshu Cao, Tao Li, Xingchuan Gao
    Tropical Geography. 2024, 44(2): 195-211.

    High-quality air service is important for achieving high-quality aviation development. As the primary customers of air travel services, passengers are the most important evaluators of the service. Therefore, research on their air travel choices is key for promoting the coordination of multi-airport regions. Based on stochastic utility psychological perception theories, this study discusses the impact of the key dimension of airport service quality on air travel choices using the structural equation model-logit model. The results show that air travel choice is not a simple linear extension of behavioral intentions as there are two key dimensions of airport service quality: First, mandatory service processing is inevitably the most time-consuming and tedious process for passengers at airports. This waiting time is perceived as a sign of low airport service capability, whereas the level and quality of service provided by staff in this process is an intangible factor for passengers. This in turn affects the level of passengers' ratings of airport services, especially for business travelers. Therefore, airports need to recognize the time and resource constraints of passengers and work with airlines to streamline the check-in process, ensure security control, and reduce waiting time. One solution is to use shared self-service devices or automated robots that allow any passenger of any airline or flight to check-in and check-out on the same device. Second, while facilities, equipment, and environment are not universal considerations for passengers, differences in passenger perceptions are evident between airport types. Within multi-airport regions, the facilities, equipment, and environment of major airports are above passengers' psychological expectations, while auxiliary or other airports need to pay more attention to this service, which illustrates that the improvement of airport service quality requires changes to unidimensional and monolithic thinking but also focus on passengers' overall perception of service experience from a multidimensional perspective, as well as consideration of the spatial and temporal characteristics of different airport types in the multi-airport region to make targeted improvements. Moreover, passengers do not have an obvious preference for particular airlines, but low-cost airlines still hold a certain appeal for passengers when they take off from regional airports, which also means that low-cost airlines ' entry into the market has anti-risk properties for regional airports. Within the limits of China's aviation controls, the presence of low-cost carriers can still improve the chances of an airport being chosen. Therefore, different airport types within the same multi-airport region often need to compete differently to achieve regional synergistic development. To enhance airport service quality, it is essential to fine tune service quality standards, based on airport's types. The improvement of airports' performance should include a phased integration of assessments of service experience settings. Airports should adopt differentiated spatial designs for their service functions based on the goal of airport integration, with a view to achieving optimal management at minimal cost while being able to effectively guide passengers in their air travel choices.

  • Yihan Liu, Tianke Zhu, Xiaojin Cao
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(9): 1787-1799.

    As an important driving force to stimulate urban development, cultural consumption is often implanted into traditional streets, breaking the original homogeneous field environment and gradually promoting the dissolution and differentiation of social relations. In the context of cultural oriented urban renewal, it is significant to explore the evolution of social space during the renewal process, which is of great importance for their sustainable development. In the field theory, Bourdieu's "nonbinary opposition" view has a high degree of theoretical application adaptability with the historical districts that gather cultural consumption and daily life in sharp contrast. The integration of daily life theory also provides a means for analyzing the subject's behavior and field construction, which is a supplement to the existing research on cultural oriented urban renewal. Combined with the theory of everyday life practice, this study established a social space analysis framework based on field theory and explored the mechanism of social space evolution in the field of cultural consumption and everyday life. Taking Pingjiang road and Xietang street districts in Suzhou as case studies, this study used qualitative methods of participatory observation and in-depth interview. The results reveal the following: 1) Different locations lead to significant differences in the historical and cultural accumulation of districts and the cost of space regeneration, which also determines the plasticity and typicality during the renewal development itself. Historical districts located in the center of the ancient city have accumulated a large number of typical historical and cultural capital in the long-term stable environment. In contrast, districts located in new urban areas may be more vulnerable to being damaged and influenced in the process of modern urban development. 2) The development foundation of the districts will have an impact on the decision-making. The governance transmits their practical intentions through system, planning, and other decisions, and their intervention timing and implementation strength may directly affect the direction and practical results of strategic discipline. 3) Renovation promotes the reconstruction and organization of the social space inside the districts, and is divided into two fields: everyday life and cultural consumption. Consequently, two situations exist between the fields in these two cases: intertwined balance and mutual stripping. Retaining the Aboriginal everyday life field does not necessarily lead to an "either or" conflict outcome, and it can even enhance the creativity of everyday life initiatively or passively. However, the separation of Aboriginal may inevitably lead to common consumption or elitism. Reflecting on the spatial practices of the historical districts in Suzhou, there is no unified renewal paradigm that can be applied to all historical districts. The capital accumulation formed under different development environments will limit the decision-making and renewal path. Additionally, during the renewal period, the continuous debugging according to the stage effect makes the district renewal a dynamic change that cannot be completely predicted for a long time. However, activating the community attribute of districts during urban regeneration is not only the core driving force to maintaining the flavor of life and continue local culture but also an important competitiveness to stimulate cultural consumption with real situational experience. Therefore, practicing orientation with humanism, and promoting the positive evolution of social space to realize the symbiosis of cultural consumption and everyday life should be the proper meaning of urban renewal in cultural oriented historical districts.

  • Qin Lu, Yuyao Ye, Yuanjun Li, Kangmin Wu, Zhengqian Liu
    Tropical Geography. 2023, 43(8): 1512-1522.

    Inter-city Venture Capital (VC) exchange is a micro-embodiment of the cross-regional flow of innovative elements such as capital and technology, and also an important driving force for shaping the network of VC cities. Compared with other types of investment activities, VC has more advantages in promoting the development of innovative industries, especially high-tech industries, and then driving urban economy and regional development; hence, it is widely regarded as a "catalyst" for economic growth and technological innovation. The study of VC networks is helpful in understanding the financial activity links between cities across the country and provides key support for further rational allocation of financial resources between cities. The existing research rarely uses the actual investment amount of VC transaction events between cities to construct the city network. The analysis of the continuous dynamic evolution research and the influencing factors of the overall spatial network structure over a long period of time needs to be strengthened. To compensate for the shortcomings in the above research, this study uses the data of China's inter-city VC flow between 2000 and 2018 to construct the Chinese urban VC network. The long-term spatial evolution characteristics and overall network structure influencing factors of the national inter-city VC network are discussed based on complex network analysis, GIS spatial technology analysis, multiple linear regression model, and so on. This study derives the following results: (1) The connection between cities tends to be closer, and the agglomeration degree of the national VC network increases, displaying obvious characteristics of high aggregation and small-world network. However, the cyber spatial structure of investors/start-ups tends to be flattened, there is a trend of decentralization. (2) The VC connection between cities has expanded from the eastern coastal axis to the central and western regions as a whole, exhibiting obvious characteristics of path dependence and distance attenuation. Additionally, the VC connection continues to sink from the three major urban agglomerations to other marginal cities, and the core node cities of the network also display a tendency of quantitative expansion and power transfer. (3) The city's entrepreneurial foundation, VC industry development level, financial environment, and urban accessibility all have differentiated impacts on the spatial structure of the national VC network. Moreover, the aforementioned are affected by various mechanisms such as multi-dimensional proximity, urban economy, and path dependence, which promote the construction of national and regional VC networks and the formation and evolution of regional capital centers.