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Accepted, unedited articles published online and citable. The final edited and typeset version of record will appear in the future.
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  • Xuesong Duan, Zhiding Hu, Fuchang Niu
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-05-24

    Myanmar is a key neighbor for China and an important link in advancing the "Belt and Road" initiative, contributing to both domestic and international economic flows. Despite the border closures and restrictions imposed during the COVID-19 pandemic, the New China-Myanmar Indian Ocean Corridor has seen substantial progress. However, this development has not garnered the attention it deserves, as both national and Yunnan provincial governments continue to prioritize the China-Myanmar Economic Corridor (CMEC). This oversight results from an incomplete understanding of the changes in Myanmar's geopolitical landscape since 2000. Using a framework for national geopolitical landscape analysis, this study examines Myanmar's basic national conditions, principal relationships, and inherent contradictions, revealing how Myanmar's geopolitical landscape has evolved due to the interplay of internal and external factors, cross-field interactions, and strategic games played by multiple geopolitical actors. Specifically, the study discusses the period from 2000 to 2010, characterized by external pressure and internal stability, and the years from 2011 to 2021, marked by external conflict and internal turmoil. The evolving geopolitical landscape in Myanmar has created favorable conditions for building the New China-Myanmar Indian Ocean Corridor. From a geopolitical perspective, this paper explores the reasons behind the necessity of this new corridor and suggests a re-evaluation of China's spatial planning for major infrastructure projects in Myanmar given the country's shifting geopolitical context. The corridor's feasibility—whether measured by distance, time, costs, spatial distribution of domestic ethnic armed conflicts, or Myanmar's post-pandemic economic trends—suggests it is highly workable. In the short term, the new corridor can complement the China-Myanmar Economic Corridor, progressing concurrently; in the long term, it could gradually replace it as the main route for China-Myanmar trade. This study not only enhances understanding of the New China-Myanmar Indian Ocean Corridor but also provides a scientific rationale for its vigorous promotion.

  • Xuemiao Xie, Yiwen Shao
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-05-24

    The rapid growth of social media has introduced new concepts and technical approaches for disaster management. This paper reviews the characteristics of social media data and its application potential in disaster management research, providing a new research perspective for the field of disaster management. Taking the impact of Typhoon Doksuri in Fujian Province in 2023 as a case study, this research employs Latent Dirichlet Allocation (LDA) topic modeling to analyze the practical application effectiveness of social media data at different stages of disaster management from three perspectives: the spatiotemporal distribution of posts, trend analysis of different types of entities, and evolution of topic content. These findings indicate that the synchronous relationship between the popularity of related topics on Weibo and the impact of a disaster event confirms the effective application of social media data in disaster management. By monitoring the dynamics of information dissemination on social media, we can determine the occurrence status and impact scope of disasters in real time. During disasters, different user types have different foci. Individual users tend to focus more on the restoration of living facilities and the supply of relief materials, whereas organizational users concentrate on disseminating information about disasters and emergency response measures. The information provided by different types of users can provide a more comprehensive and diversified perspective on disaster perceptions for disaster management. Analysis of the evolution of topic content can reflect the evolution of emergency response dynamics and public attention needs in different cities at different stages of disaster management, thereby developing more practical emergency response strategies. Through the mining and analysis of social media data, this study recognizes the entire process of disaster occurrence from the perspective of social media data, thereby enriching the relevant theoretical and empirical research. Future research could be conducted from perspectives such as utilizing other multisource data, integrating machine learning and deep learning technologies to enhance the accuracy of topic information extraction, and exploring the application of social media data to post-disaster emergency rescue and infrastructure support.

  • Jing Zheng, Zhuohuang Chen, Wenyuan Li, Lisheng Tang
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-05-24

    Catastrophe insurance is an important financial tool to mitigate the risk of catastrophes. After the 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China accelerated its exploration of a catastrophe insurance system. As one of the most natural disaster-prone provinces in China, Guangdong experiences frequent rainstorms and typhoons. Severe natural disasters have not only led to significant losses to economic development and people's lives, but have placed considerable financial pressure on governments at all levels. To promote the transformation of government functions and use of catastrophe insurance as a modern financial tool to cope with major natural disasters, Guangdong has conducted pilot work since 2016 to explore and experiment with different aspects of catastrophe index insurance. This includes the design and application of insurance systems and products. The pilot work achieved remarkable results and formed the Guangdong catastrophe index insurance paradigm. However, few studies have examined the development and application of catastrophe index insurance programs in Guangdong Province. This paper describes the research and design process, data, and key methods of typhoon catastrophe index insurance in Guangdong, in accordance with the specific catastrophe index insurance practices. Furthermore, the application of the current catastrophe index insurance program from 2016 to 2023 is reviewed. Additionally, the advantages, characteristics, and shortcomings of the program are systematically analyzed, and potential directions for improvement in the future are discussed. Several notable conclusions were drawn from this study. First, the typhoon catastrophe index insurance, which is based on the circular catastrophe box and uses typhoon intensity levels as a stratification criterion for the payout structure, offers a straightforward methodology, easy recalculations, readily accessible data, and transparent results. Second, this form of insurance facilitates rapid claim settlements, incurs low operational costs, and effectively mitigates moral hazard. Third, the existing typhoon catastrophe index insurance program may encounter high basis risk and underestimate the severity of typhoon hazards, particularly in the context of climate change and the situation wherein a single typhoon impacts multiple municipalities. Finally, improvements to the current typhoon catastrophe index insurance program in Guangdong could be achieved by more deeply and comprehensively analyzing the spatial and temporal patterns of typhoon events, incorporating additional parameters with clear physical meanings, and refining the probability distributions of typhoon disaster events. The insights outlined in this paper may potentially enhance understanding among scholars and practitioners of typhoon catastrophe index insurance programs and provide guidance for extending catastrophe insurance in other typhoon-prone areas.

  • Jun Sun, Jialing Liu, Yujun Pan
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-05-21

    A brief review of the development of ethnogeography over the past century and geography-oriented theories of minzu over the past 30 years shows that ethnogeography, which is a prominent subdiscipline of geography in the first half of the 20th century, is being eroded to an "important but not conspicuous" field in China. Geography-oriented theories of minzu highlight the significance of "geography" to the development, integration and identification of minzu, whereas the understanding of "geography" is complicated and diverse, and a direction for establishing ethnogeographical theory has not been proposed. Meanwhile, narrow ethnogeography as an independent research field or subdiscipline is devoid of a systematic theoretical system. Considering both modern and contemporary geographical perspectives as well as geography-oriented theories of minzu, three accessible approaches that can strengthen the integrity of ethnogeography and promote the integration of geographical disciplines are proposed. First, the theoretical system of broad ethnogeography could be integrated through a "state-region-place" framework. Second, the multidimensional interpretations of minzu could be bridged with disciplinary traditions of natural science, social science, and humanities to form a threefold "nature-society-humanities" interpretation system. Finally, geographical theories of minzu that emphasizes connection, mobility, and transformation could be developed from the perspective of geography as a discipline rather than a subject. The integrity of ethnogeography will be demonstrated through bridging the gaps among theories, interpretations, and knowledge, and the influence of geography will be extended. More importantly, minzu and nations are understood, not interpreted, geographically.

  • Qitao Wu
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-05-02

    Owing to historical reasons, the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA) features a unique "one country, two systems" institutional framework. Facilitating the integration and connectivity of transportation among Hong Kong, Macao, and the Mainland is crucial for the high-quality development of the GBA. Previous studies about borders have primarily focused on national (supranational) or administrative boundaries within a country's territory. However, studies on the unique institutional differences in the GBA are insufficient. Additionally, most studies do not perform dynamic border effects measurements using big traffic flow data. This study utilizes toll-collection data from highways in the GBA for 2021 and 2023, as well as cross-border traffic data, to construct a traffic-flow network for the GBA. Complex network analysis and border-effect measurement methods are employed to investigate the spatial structure of the GBA traffic-flow network and its dynamic changes in border effects. The results indicate that, in terms of the overall spatial structure of traffic flow in the GBA, the network exhibits a unique "dual-core edge" structure, with the Guangzhou-Foshan, and Shenzhen-Dongguan-Huizhou regions serving as dual cores. In contrast, the overall coverage and connectivity strength of the passenger-flow network are higher than those of the freight-flow network. Regarding the dynamic changes in the spatial structure of traffic flow from Hong Kong and Macao, the coverage and density of the traffic-flow network in 2023 are significantly higher than those in 2021. Traffic flows from Hong Kong and Macao have begun to extend beyond the border toward the northern regions, thus accelerating the integration of transportation within the GBA and forming a spatial pattern of "cross-strait connectivity and all-area interconnection." However, because of their peripheral positions in the traffic network and the presence of border effects, the importance of Hong Kong and Macao in the GBA traffic-flow network remains relatively weak. Based on the dynamic measurement results of border effects, the obstruction coefficients between Hong Kong and the Mainland, as well as between Macao and the Mainland, are significantly higher than those between various counties within the Mainland. The obstruction coefficients for passenger vehicles are generally lower than those for freight vehicles. Following the outbreak of the pandemic, the obstruction coefficients of the GBA traffic-flow network have increased dynamically, thus indicating a reduction in obstructive border effects. This study expands the quantitative research framework of border effects in traffic-flow networks, thus promoting integrated transportation development in the GBA and facilitating its integration development goals.

  • Wulin Zhan, Guangliang Xi, Yang Ju, Fei Shi
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-05-02

    Under the influence of information technology and high-speed transportation networks, which compress space and time, the region's population has achieved large-scale fluidity. Examining the temporal heterogeneity of intercity travel networks and its influencing mechanism can help optimize regional spatial organization and provide a scientific basis for regional integrated development. Based on Baidu migration data from January to April 2023, this study uses a PPML(Poisson Pseudo Maximum Likelihood) gravity model and interaction term testing to compare the scale, pattern, and influencing factors of intercity travel networks during weekdays, weekends, and holidays in the Yangtze River Delta region. The results indicate the following: 1) The intercity travel network in the Yangtze River Delta region exhibits temporal heterogeneity characteristics. During weekdays, intercity travel primarily consists of cross-city commuting and business trips, with the lowest daily average scale. This forms a V-shaped intercity travel structure covering Shanghai, southern Jiangsu, Northern Zhejiang, and Southern Anhui. The positive effects of destination city population size and economic status on intercity travel are enhanced. On weekends, intercity travel is dominated by business trips and leisure activities, and residents tend to take shorter trips, which means that intercity distances pose greater hindrances to intercity travel. During holidays, intercity travel is primarily for leisure and entertainment and for visiting friends and relatives, with the highest daily intensity. The promotional effect of destination city population size on intercity travel is weakened, and intercity travel is less hindered by intercity distances. Compared to the effects of geographical distance, economic status, and population size on the scale of intercity travel during weekdays, travel duration, or geographical distance, tends to pose a greater hindrance on weekends and a lesser hindrance during holidays. The promotional effect of economic status is intensified on weekends but diminishes during holidays. Meanwhile, the promotional effect of population size weakens both on weekends and during holidays.2) Push–pull factors encompass the level of urban development and the incentives that trigger individual travel. In terms of urban development level, indicators such as population size, economic status, and industrial structure reflect the comprehensive strength and development status of a city, influencing its ability to serve as both a starting and destination point for intercity travel. From the perspective of various individual travel incentives, residents pay more attention to various urban resources such as income levels, public service quality, and tourism resources to meet their personal needs for production and living. The primary types of population movements vary across different time periods, shifting between cross-city commuting, business travel, and leisure and entertainment. As a result, the dominant factors among push-pull elements also change, leading to significant variations in the effectiveness of each factor. Intermediate obstacles are the key factors limiting intercity travel. On the one hand, while the level of integration in the Yangtze River Delta region continues to improve, and transportation facilities are gradually improving, geographical distance remains a crucial intermediate obstacle. On the other hand, administrative and cultural differences between different provinces increase residents' adaptation costs, forming "invisible barriers" that hinder cross-province population interactions. The hindrance posed by intermediate obstacles to intercity travel also varies across different travel periods. The effects of push-pull factors exhibit temporal heterogeneity. The small-world characteristics of the intercity travel network during weekdays are more evident, and the central city has a more prominent structural core status. On weekends, the geographical proximity of the intercity travel network improves, with close "center-hinterland" connections and enhanced inter-provincial boundary effects. During holidays, the overall intensity of the intercity travel network increases, with the most significant increase in medium- and long-distance cross-provincial travel. The provincial boundary effect and spatial proximity effect decrease, weakening the structure of the intercity travel network.

  • Chang Liu, Liang Guo, Shuo Yang, Qinghao Zhang, Hui He
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-05-02

    Public transportation is a vital means to alleviate urban congestion. Despite substantial investments in public transit infrastructure in China, the development of urban public transportation has been unsatisfactory, with many city residents still favoring car travel. The extensive use of personal vehicles occupies limited road resources, thus exacerbating traffic congestion and environmental pollution. The built environment extensively influences residents' travel choices. Existing studies often describe the characteristics of the built environment from the perspective of the origin, destination, and public transit stops, lacking attention to the out-of-vehicle segments before and after using public transit; moreover, they mainly focus on the built environment faced by transit riders, without fully considering the alternative transit chains for car travelers. Accordingly, this study adopts a trip chain perspective. Combining resident travel surveys and streetscape data from the main urban area of Wuhan, and simulating travel paths using Baidu Maps, this study uses a random forest model to comprehensively analyze the impact of the built environment at the origin, destination, and out-of-vehicle segments on the choice between public transit and private vehicle. The results indicate the following: (1) The performance of the random forest model is superior to that of the traditional Logistic model, and it can reveal the nonlinear relationship between the built environment and travel behavior. At the same time, considering the out-of-vehicle environment also better understands the competitive environment between public transit and private vehicle, thereby improving the model's predictive ability, (2) the built environment is the main factor influencing the preference for public transit, and the out-of-vehicle environment's influence on travelers is no less than that of the built environment at the origin and destination. The preference for transit and built environment factors exhibit a nonlinear relationship, with some factors having different impacts at the origin and destination. Specifically, the population density, intersection density, and transit stop density at the origin and destination have very similar effects on the preference for transit, while the land use mix and job density differ. The proportion of roads and fences in the out-of-vehicle environment show a clear threshold effect, while the proportion of sidewalks and visible green index exhibit a saturation effect. (3) The mechanisms by which the built environment influences the choice of public transit and private vehicle can be summarized into three categories: elastic adjustment, limited support, and direct drive. These findings reveal the effective range of built environment factors in enhancing the attractiveness of transit, providing more rational and precise targeting for policy-making. This study addresses the issue of insufficient detail in the built environment in current research, incorporating the out-of-vehicle environment and alternative modes of travel into the analysis framework of transit preference, providing more intervenable built environment factors to enhance the attractiveness of transit, and offering insights for integrating nonlinear impact relationships into urban planning practice.

  • Changsheng Xiong, Yuyao Hu, Bo Zhou, Xue Liu, Qiaolin Luan
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-04-30

    High-speed rail (HSR) stations can influence the expansion of the surrounding construction land. However, relevant studies face three main limitations: influence scope estimation lacking a theoretical foundation, less focus on whether the impacts of HSR stations on construction land expansion vary, and misjudgment of the drivers of HSR stations on construction land expansion. To address these research questions, this study first conducts a literature review to theoretically analyze the influence of HSR stations on the surrounding construction land expansion and then identifies the ideal curve for the influence distance of HSR on construction land expansion based on location theory and distance decay theory. Using the 24 stations of the Hainan Roundabout Railway (HRR) as an example, we revealed differences in the influence of various HRR stations on construction land expansion through GIS technology, buffer analysis, and nonlinear fitting to quantitatively analyze the expansion of construction land around HRR stations, identifying the impact range and direction of different HRR stations on the expansion of construction land. Building on the identification of heterogeneous impact results, the study further employed Geodetector to analyze the factors and reasons for the differentiated results of construction land expansion around different HRR stations from four dimensions: attributes of the socioeconomic environment, location conditions, HRR station attributes, and natural conditions. The results show that: (1) after the construction and operation of each HRR station, the surrounding construction land has expanded; the Hainan Eastern Ring HSR (the East Ring) has increased 1.70 km2 around each station per year and the Hainan Western Ring HSR (the West Ring) has increased 1.25 km2 around each station per year. (2) The changing trend of construction land expansion around 20 of 24 HRR stations conforms to the ideal curve, with the impact range of construction land expansion concentrated within 0.5 km-3.5 km, and the influence intensity of impact ranging from 0.06 km2 to 6.64 km2. (3) The impact directions of construction land expansion around 20 HRR stations are mainly in three types of directions: "HSR-main urban area," "HSR-town center," and "HSR-scenic spot." This is because the expansion of construction land around HRR stations is not only influenced by the spillover effects of the stations, but also by the traction effect of the main urban areas, town centers, or tourist areas where the HRR stations are located. The stations along the East Ring of Hainan mainly expanded towards the main urban areas, whereas the stations along the West Ring of Hainan mainly expanded towards town centers. (4) Differences in the scope of the influence of each HRR station on the surrounding construction land expansion were mainly related to several variables, ordered as follows: socioeconomic environment, location conditions, attributes of the HRR station, and natural conditions. The GDP density of the towns where the HRR stations were located had the highest impact intensity at 0.51, followed by population density at 0.49, whereas the average elevation had the lowest impact intensity at 0.12. This study analyzed the mechanism and ideal curve of construction land expansion around HSR stations, establishing a logical basis for studying the spillover effects of HSR stations. In addition, this study analyzes the various impacts of HSR stations on the expansion of surrounding construction land and the reasons for these differences, providing a scientific basis for the current operation and future location of HSR stations. This study also offers methodological insights into the impacts of other infrastructures on the expansion of construction land in surrounding areas.

  • Jiao'e Wang, Enyu Che, Fan Xiao
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-04-30

    Air cargo is an important component of transportation and plays a vital role in the efficient allocation of high-quality resources on global and regional scales. Air cargo contributes significantly to regional economic development by strengthening inter-regional cooperation and resource integration. However, air cargo geography has received relatively less attention from the research community. Existing studies have analyzed the spatial pattern of air cargo using a limited cross-sectional data from selected years, lacking an analysis of its influencing factors. Based on spatial statistics and panel data of air cargo, this study explores the evolution process and characteristics of China's air cargo pattern on a 20-year time scale and quantitatively reveals its key influencing factors. The research findings are as follows: 1) Air cargo in China has transitioned from the rapid development stage to the stable development stage in the past 20 years; 2) Air cargo volume in China is mainly concentrated in the eastern region, and in the past 20 years, China's air cargo center of gravity has been generally located at the junction of Anhui, Henan, and Hubei provinces, showing a spatial displacement trend from Henan to Anhui to Hubei; 3) The pattern of air cargo network in China remains relatively stable, forming a rhombic structure with Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, and Shenzhen as the core; 4) Air cargo development in China is influenced by factors such as urban scale, industrial structure, and ground transportation development. Among them, urban economy, transportation, warehousing, postal and telecommunications industry, and technological investment have a significant positive impact on air cargo volume, whereas the wholesale and retail trade industries have a significant negative impact. For air logistics hubs, the influencing factors are consistent with those of the entire sample airport. However, for non-aviation logistics hubs, population size and research and technology services have a significant positive impact, whereas ground transportation accessibility has a significant negative impact. This study enriches the long-term time-series analysis and quantitative research content in the field of air cargo and has significance for the development of air transportation geography and the construction of a strong civil aviation industry in China.

  • Yukun Gao, Pengjun Zhao
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-04-30

    The rapid development of information technology has triggered an explosion of data, marking the era of big data. A wide range of transportation big data has been used in urban space and travel behavior studies since the beginning of this century. Mobile phone signaling data in particular have many advantages: they have prevalent spatial and temporal coverage, high tracking stability, satisfactory resolution, and low cost. The description of urban phenomena and the analysis of their forming mechanisms using mobile phone signaling data are thoroughly studied by previous research. The next course of action is to tackle specific urban problems. This study summarizes the application progress of mobile phone signaling data in job-housing relationships and travel behavior studies, discusses the application prospects of mobile phone signaling data in transportation carbon emissions research based on past applications and the existing literature on low-carbon transportation, and proposes a research framework and several future directions for studies using mobile phone big data to examine job-housing relationships, travel behavior, and transportation carbon emissions. We first provide a brief introduction to the features of mobile phone signaling data in comparison with other commonly used data types, including their type, content, and spatial-temporal resolution. We then review the existing applications in job housing and travel research. Regarding the jobs-housing relationship, prior studies employ mobile phone signaling data to detect the spatial distribution of workplaces and residences of urban dwellers, analyze jobs-housing relationship features and urban spatial structure characteristics, and examine the factors influencing jobs-housing relationships. Regarding travel behavior, studies employ mobile phone signaling data to identify stays and trips, infer trip modes, detect trip routes, and explore the universal laws of human mobility. Next, we also discuss how mobile phone signaling data can be applied to transportation carbon emissions research. Indeed, mobile phone signaling data can be used in the calculation of transportation carbon emissions and analysis of the relationships between urban spatial structure, individual travel behavior, and transportation carbon emissions, and its wide coverage and large sample size can be exploited to fill research gaps and problems that have yet to be resolved using traditional traffic datasets. Finally, we present a research framework underlining the indirect and direct effects of the jobs–housing relationship and travel behavior on transportation carbon emissions. We also propose future directions in study contents and methodological innovations by recommending long time-series longitudinal studies, large-scale comparative studies, and new population and transportation phenomena. We further recommend fusing multi-source big and small data, incorporating machine learning algorithms into traditional statistical analyses, and constructing digital twin models. Examining the jobs–housing relationship, travel behavior, and transport carbon emissions using mobile phone signaling data is essential for clarifying the interactions between urban and regional structures, travel behavior characteristics, and transport carbon emissions. It has important implications for emissions reduction and sustainable development in the context of proposing carbon peaking and carbon neutrality goals.

  • Huiming Zong, Huimin Liu, Yilin Chen, Dapeng Zhang, Jiamin Zhang
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-04-30

    Research on urban spatial networks based on "flow" data has become a new paradigm in the assessment of urban spatial connections and the delineation of metropolitan influence areas in urban geography and territorial spatial planning. Research on urban connections in Chongqing focuses primarily on districts and counties within the city's administrative region, utilizing passenger or cargo flow data to study the spatial structure of the network within Chongqing. However, few studies have been conducted on cross-provincial administrative regions between Chongqing and its neighboring areas, which does not align with the actual influence of Chongqing's metropolitan area. Based on highway traffic passenger flow data, this study employs social network and GIS spatial analysis methods to study the urban network spatial structure between Chongqing and its neighboring areas from the perspective of passenger flow connections. The results indicate the following: (1) Chongqing's central urban area serves as the absolute core of the urban network, with Changshou, Jiangjin, and Bishan as important nodal cities. Fuling, Bishan, and Changshou exhibit notable accessibility within the network, while Fuling, Qianjiang, Jiangjin, and Wanzhou play prominent intermediary roles. There are no prominent regional nodes outside Chongqing's administrative area, and the growth poles for the development of the Chengdu–Chongqing Economic Circle need further cultivation. (2) The passenger flow network between Chongqing and its neighboring areas exhibits a three-tiered axial connection, with the overall network displaying a distinct radial characteristic. The urban clusters in northeastern Chongqing form a distinct band-shaped axis along the Yangtze River with Chongqing. The urban clusters in southeast Chongqing and their neighboring areas exhibit radial axes, with relatively weak connections to the central urban area. Some areas in Guang'an and Dazhou have overcome provincial administrative boundaries, and the network hierarchy is distributed according to "4(level 1)+15(level 2)+18(level 3)." (3) The cohesive subgroups between Chongqing and its neighboring areas demonstrate a high degree of geographical proximity, forming a "core–periphery" structure. This reflects the significant influence that factors such as spatial distance and road extensions exercise on the road passenger transport network. Conducting research on the spatial structure of cross-administrative urban networks from the perspective of highway passenger flow holds significant theoretical and practical value for enriching research on the spatial structure of cross-administrative metropolitan areas and promoting the linkage between Chongqing's metropolitan area and its surrounding regions.

  • Jialin Liu, Yue'er Gao, Ruizhen Qi
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-04-30

    Implementing preferential policies for bus transfers is an important measure for promoting the development of public transportation. Although public transportation extends the travel time of passengers, the preferential policies reduce the travel costs to a certain extent. On the basis of IC card data of public transport, an income method model was constructed to evaluate the cost of passenger flow transfer time after the implementation of the preferential transfer policy in Xiamen and compare it with the reduced fees due to the policy regulations. To better assess the overall benefit of bus transfer travel, the transfer passenger flow was divided into four categories: transfer zero cost passenger flow, transfer additional cost passenger flow, transfer extra time cost passenger flow, and transfer extra time+cost passenger flow. The spatial distribution characteristics of various types of passenger flow are analyzed from five aspects: station, line, traffic area, density of travel starting and ending points, commuting and non-commuting of travel. With regard to stations, a large number of different types of passenger flowed into the area centered on Yueyang Community. As regards route, No. 24 mainly gathered a large number of different types of passenger flows. As regards transportation areas, numerous different types of passenger flows gathered in the transportation communities around the subway and the island's Bus Rapid Transit (BRT) lines. In terms of OD point density, each station of Rail Line 1 and the BRT stations had large numbers of passengers at the starting or ending points. In terms of commuting and non-commuting behaviors, the activity range of various passenger flows during commuting was smaller, the span was shorter, and the cross-island passenger flow was relatively small. In contrast, the passenger flow during non-commuting behavior showed a more evident cross-island trend, and the span was generally longer. This study devised a new passenger flow classification method to evaluate the effectiveness of a preferential policy for bus transfers. Further, it affords a reference for public transport operators to better comprehend the needs and behaviors of passengers and accordingly formulate more effective policies and measures.

  • Shuang Ma, Xin Chen, Jiayue Ma, Zhehui Chen, Shuangjin Li
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-04-30

    Urban agglomerations are the main spatial carriers of national and regional urbanization development. The study of their spatial association networks is of great significance for optimizing the allocation of urban resources, promoting the process of regional integration, and facilitating the high-quality development of urban agglomerations. The Yangtze River Delta urban agglomeration (YRDUA) is one of the most economically active regions in China. Its spatial association network structure was the main feature of economic and social development in China's "14th Five-Year Plan." Based on the perspective of flow spaces in terms of both the city and township scales, multi-source data were used in this study and included online car-hailing origin-destination travel data, combined with complex network models and a quadratic assignment procedure, to analyze the structural characteristics and driving mechanism of the spatial association network of the YRDUA. Results show that: 1) spatial association network based on online car-hailing flow in the YRDUA has spatial dependence and hierarchical characteristics, and intensities of network association are mostly coupled with levels of economic development; 2) spatial association network in the YRDUA displays spatial spillover effects, leading to an overall pattern of high equilibrium in southern development and strong single-point development capacity in the north; 3) the structural features of spatial association network in the YRDUA differ between townships and urban scales, with some high-level townships in certain transportation networks failing to exert their driving role at the urban level; and 4) economic development status, population vitality, the level of urban construction, and administrative division ownership and geographical location differences between townships have significant impacts on the spatial association network structure in terms of the township scale. The differences in administrative divisions are most important. Online car-hailing travel data were used in this study to effectively supplement the links between township streets within and between cities. This data also revealed intercity links. Thus, the development characteristics of spatial units on different scales were reflected, and research and social management needs were satisfied on a fine scale. In addition, by introducing spatial big data and analyzing the influence mechanism from various aspects, such as socioeconomics, the driving factors of the spatial network of urban agglomerations were systematically identified at the small-scale level, which will help with more reasonable planning within the city and play a role in the development of urban agglomerations by enhancing the attractiveness of individual cities. This study expands the research perspectives on the cooperative development of urban agglomerations on different scales, providing theoretical references and practical support for the promotion of the coordinated development of urban agglomerations as a whole.

  • Xintong Li, Jicai Dai
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-04-30

    The Fourteenth Five-Year Plan of China has proposed the acceleration of the construction of a strong transport nation. The Outline for the Construction of a Powerful Transportation State emphasizes that it is necessary to focus on the general objective of the construction of a powerful transportation state and create a "123 traveling and transportation circle in the country" and reach the new standard of 1-hour commuting metropolitan area, 2-hour connecting urban agglomeration, and 3-hour coverage of the major cities in the country, which determines the importance of the accessibility of urban agglomeration in the strategy. The high-speed railway network in the twin-city economic circle of the Chengdu-Chongqing region enhances inter-city accessibility and has a spillover effect on socioeconomic development. Starting with HSR network accessibility, in this study, the evolution of the accessibility pattern after the opening of the HSR in 2015, 2020, and 2025 was analyzed using the shortest inter-city travel time, weighted average travel time, and daily accessibility index. Based on the gravity model used to measure the economic reinforcement effect generated by HSR network accessibility, the spatial Durbin model was used to explore the spillover effect of HSR network accessibility on the tertiary industry's economic development from 2015 to 2020. The study results demonstrate that the HSR network improves the level of urban accessibility, narrows the gap of accessibility level between cities, weakens the regional accessibility circle structure, and exhibits significant corridor effect. The HSR network generates a significant spatiotemporal convergence effect. The direction of spatiotemporal convergence of core cities is to expand uniformly to their surroundings, and the direction of expansion of edge cities is mainly to spread along newly opened HSR lines in the form of a belt. The improved accessibility of the HSR network will strengthen regional economic ties, narrow the gap between the attractiveness levels of non-core cities, and enhance the twin-core phenomenon. Increased accessibility is conducive to the economic development of the tertiary industry in neighboring cities, with an increase of 1 percentage point in the accessibility of the high-speed rail network in the neighboring region, leading to an increase of 0.3088 in the local tertiary industry. An increase in the tertiary economic level of neighboring cities will inhibit the development of the local tertiary economy, which may be because the Chengdu-Chongqing region is now more competitive than cooperatives in terms of urban relations; therefore, regional development is still in the siphoning stage. The possible contribution of this study is reflected in the use of accessibility as the core research and explanatory variable to explore the economic spillover effects of accessibility of high-speed rail networks in typical case regions. It aims to reveal the impact of high-speed rail network accessibility on the economy and industry, summarize the theory of spillover effect, and provide a theoretical reference for high-speed rail construction, regional planning, and economic layout optimization.

  • Zengxian Liang, Hui Luo, Yanxing Liu
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-04-30

    Chinese people have become important international buyers of second homes in many destination countries, particularly Malaysia, Thailand, and other Southeast Asian countries. In the past decade, the aging population and the quest for a better life have become pressing concerns in China and have triggered an increase in transnational second-home purchases in other countries. However, despite the significant and rapid growth of transnational second homes in China, little is known about the nuanced relationship between buying motives and life satisfaction. Current studies in the Western context offer limited theoretical and practical implications for Chinese transnational second homes because Chinese buyers exhibit different motives and have a distinct understanding of a good life. Based on the push-pull theory, this study examines Chinese transnational second-home buyers' motivation and life satisfaction and the relationship between these two constructs. Data were drawn from 340 Chinese transnational second-home buyers of R&F Princess Cove in Johor Bahru, Malaysia. Structural equation modeling (SEM), Importance-Performance Map Analysis (IPMA), and multi-cluster analysis (MGA) were used to process the data. Our empirical results show that, in comparison to Western second-home buyers, Chinese second-home buyers' tourism and residential experiences and overall life satisfaction are significantly affected by pull motivations, while push motivations exhibit less influence. Among all the dimensions of push motivations, the natural and tourism environment, cultural and life atmosphere, and service facilities are crucial motivations in order of priority. Economic factors (such as prices and cost of living) also influence but are not the most important factors. Both tourism and residential experience significantly affect Chinese second-home buyers' overall life satisfaction, with residential experience exhibiting a higher influence. Women and larger second-home groups value residential experiences more than other groups, while smaller buyers value travel experiences more. This study provides new evidence for future studies on Chinese transnational second homes and responds to the current academic discussions on second-home buyers' motives in transnational contexts. Finally, this study has practical implications for domestic second-home destination construction and marketing.

  • Tao Li, Leibo Cui, Jiao'e Wang, Huiling Chen
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-04-30

    With the rapid development of urban regionalization and networking of high-speed transport, intercity travel has increasingly played a key role in China's economic and social development and socioeconomic functional connections. However, amidst global change and uncertainty, the event disturbance-oriented theory and empirical research on intercity travel is still insufficient to improve the ability of transportation systems to cope with disturbances. Since uncertainty is prevalent in transport operations, improving intercity travel behavior resilience (ITBR) and grasping the spatiotemporal pattern of demand-side intercity travel fluctuation to restrain risk is essential for resilient transport construction. Based on related theories and analysis methods of spatial interaction and intercity travel, this study refines the definition of ITBR. A measurement model of ITBR was constructed based on long-term intercity travel data and the general properties of disturbance events. Furthermore, COVID-19 disturbance was used as a case study to reveal the adaptive pattern of intercity travel and the spatiotemporal pattern of ITBR over three years. The results show that the evaluation of ITBR based on seasonal and holiday trends reveal spatiotemporal patterns of intercity travel fluctuations influenced by disturbance events. The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on intercity travel is as follows: peak of the national pandemic > peak of the Omicron variant > peak of the multipoint fluctuation. The intensity of intercity travel decreased linearly with an increase in distance, and intercity travel during the three stages is lost by 0.86, 1.03, 1.15 percentage points, respectively, with an increase of 50 km. The average intercity travel distances of residents in these three stages were shortened by 52.55 km, 65.31 km, and 105.16 km, respectively. The value of ITBR decreased from the multipoint fluctuation period to the national pandemic period because of the Omicron outbreak. Overall, ITBR showed a gradual increasing trend during the study period. Meanwhile, ITBR in these three stages was characterized by obvious spatial differentiation and regional agglomeration. Compared to existing research, this study further expands existing research focusing on intra-city travel behavior resilience by exploring ITBR on the regional scale.

  • Yisheng Peng, Linchuan Yang
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-04-30

    The construction and development of the metro have reshaped the activity spaces of residents and provided them with abundant opportunities to access various resources. However, existing literature often overlooks the impact of increased access to resources due to the metro system on housing prices. This study, based on residential transaction data from 2017 to 2019 obtained from Beike and metro line and station data from Chengdu, employed network analysis to define a 15-minute activity space for 56,999 residential samples in 2,609 neighborhoods around metro stations, serving as the basis for decomposing resource allocation. Subsequently, an XGBoost model was developed to explore the nonlinear impacts of accessibility and resource allocation at the neighborhood and cross-regional levels on housing prices. The results show that 1) the closeness centrality of the nearest metro station primarily affected housing prices. 2) Additionally, the relative importance of resource allocation on housing prices at the neighborhood and cross-regional levels was 34.60% and 19.55%, respectively, highlighting the significance of resource allocation at the cross-regional level. The development of the metro has reshaped residents' activity spaces, increasing access to various resources. The value of resources obtained through the metro has significantly affected residents' willingness to pay. Furthermore, resource allocation at the two levels reflected a different impact on housing prices. At the neighborhood level, the relative importance of factories and comprehensive hospital facilities was 8.02% and 7.47%, respectively. Meanwhile, the relative importance of parks and comprehensive hospital facilities were 4.85% and 3.86%, respectively, at the cross-regional level. 3) The relationship between accessibility, resource allocation characteristics, and housing prices is complex and nonlinear. Regarding accessibility, the travel time to the nearest metro station and housing prices exhibited a roughly U-shaped relationship, whereas the closeness centrality of the nearest metro station positively affected housing prices. In terms of resource allocation characteristics, different facilities had varying degrees of impact on housing prices at the neighborhood and cross-regional levels. Specifically, parks and primary and secondary schools at the neighborhood level showed an overall positive impact on housing prices, while factories, comprehensive hospitals, and shopping services at the neighborhood level generally suppressed housing prices. Additionally, business and financial service facilities at the neighborhood level showed an inverted U-shaped relationship with housing prices. At the cross-regional level, comprehensive hospital facilities and primary and secondary school facilities had opposite effects on housing prices compared to park facilities and shopping services. The impact of factories at the cross-regional level on housing prices was unstable. Business and financial service facilities at the cross-regional level demonstrated an inverted U-shaped relationship with housing prices, with a suppressive effect when the count of these facilities exceeded 423. The study findings provide valuable insights into sustainable metro development and rational resource allocation.

  • Wei Wu, Ruijin Liu, Changhui He, Lin Yang, Daru Zhan
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-04-05

    Livelihood capital is the core element of sustainable livelihood development for rural households. Based on the survey data of 615 growers in the main rubber-producing areas of Hainan and Yunnan province, this paper constructs an evaluation system of rubber growers' livelihood capital within the sustainable livelihood analysis framework and calculates key indicators, such as farmers' livelihood capital index, livelihood activity diversity index, and household income diversity index. The multiple regression model and the mediating effect model are used to explore the influence mechanism of livelihood capital on the sustainable livelihood of rural households. The following three conclusions are drawn: (1) The accumulation of livelihood capital of rural households is conducive to enriching the structure of household livelihood activities and income sources, especially the accumulation of financial capital, which is more likely to improve the diversity of household livelihood activities. Regional differences exist in the impact of livelihood capital structures on rural household livelihood outcomes. Natural capital endowment has a significant effect on the income diversification level in Hainan, but there may be a "curse" effect in Yunnan. (2) Geographical characteristics, production decisions, and farming household characteristics significantly impact sustainable livelihoods. The altitude of the village and the distance from the county seat pose certain challenges for farmers in diversifying their livelihoods. Although the law of rubber tapping production may weaken farmers' production and business activities, it can better stabilize farmers' incomes owing to its strong flexibility in labor arrangements, which may be beneficial for diversifying livelihoods; however, it does not necessarily lead to diversified incomes. While the characteristics of poor households can help rural households gain policy support, building capacity is the key to achieving a sustainable livelihood. (3) There are intermediary effects of livelihood capital on livelihood activities and household income, but the mechanisms of action are different. For the diversity of farmers' livelihoods, 52.70% of the catalytic effect of livelihood capital is achieved by improving the ability to integrate livelihood capital. Optimizing household employment strategies contributed to the promotion of livelihood capital on the income diversification index, with a mediating effect of 30.52%. The main contribution of this study is to clarify how livelihood capital can achieve the goal of diversifying household livelihood activities and income by coordinating livelihood capacity and employment strategies. Therefore, to enhance the comprehensive livelihood capacity of rural households, the coordination capacity of livelihood capital, livelihood capacity building should be enhanced, and employment information channels should be expanded.

  • Siyuan Cheng, Qiaoyan Chen, Dong Qiao, Licong Dai
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-04-03

    As the final layer for precipitation interception in forests, the litter layer is crucial to the vertical structure of forest ecosystems, situated between the forest vegetation and soil layers. Exploring the litter accumulation and water retention characteristics in different tropical rainforest stands is essential for assessing their water conservation functions. This study focused on three forest stands (primary forest, secondary forest, and rubber plantation) within Qixianling Hot Springs National Forest Park in Hainan, China. The immersion method was used to measure litter accumulation and water retention characteristics, exploring variations among these forest stands. Results revealed (1) significant differences in litter accumulation among the stands, with the primary forest having the highest litter accumulation (2.791 t/hm2), followed by the secondary forest (2.077 t/hm2) and rubber plantation (1.660 t/hm2). Litter moisture content followed the order: primary forest (57.57%) > secondary forest (48.33%) > rubber plantation (46.44%). (2) Regarding water retention and water retention rate, both primary and secondary forests showed an increasing trend with immersion time, with the primary forest exhibiting higher water retention and retention rates than the secondary forest. In contrast, rubber plantations showed no clear trends in water retention or retention rates over time. The relation between litter water absorption rate and immersion time followed a well-fitted power function. The maximum water retention capacities were in the order of primary forest (8.041 t/hm2) > secondary forest (6.251 t/hm2) > rubber plantation (4.896 t/hm2). (3) In terms of water absorption and water loss rates, the rubber plantation had the highest water loss rate, followed by the secondary forest and the primary forest. The maximum water loss was observed in the primary forest (5.225 t/hm2) > secondary forest (4.626 t/hm2) > rubber plantation (4.079 t/hm2), and the maximum water loss rates followed the order: rubber plantation (246.319%) > secondary forest (222.649%) > primary forest (189.748%). The forest litter layer's water retention capacity and storage are closely related, with larger litter reserves correlating with greater water retention. Therefore, among the three forest types, the maximum and effective water interception capacities exhibited the following trend: primary forest > secondary forest > rubber plantation. The maximum and effective interception rates show the pattern: primary forests ≈ rubber plantations > secondary forests. The water conservation function of litter is reflected in its water retention capacity and rate of water loss. Given that primary forests exhibit a higher water retention capacity and lower water loss rates, litter accumulation in primary forests is more conducive to forest water conservation functions. Hence, future efforts should focus on protecting litter from primary forests. Conversely, the litter in rubber plantations tends to have a higher rate of water loss, resulting in poorer water conservation. Therefore, future considerations should include planting understory vegetation in rubber plantations to enhance litter water-conservation capabilities and prevent soil erosion. These findings provide crucial theoretical guidance for forest management and the enhancement of water conservation in tropical regions.

  • Huomu Yang, Rui Li, Chao Zheng, Mengyue Xie
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-04-03

    Small tourism enterprises are pivotal in the development and evolution of the spatial dynamics of scenic tourism and are the principal contributors to tourism services and experiences. They constitute a tangible base and medium for developing tourism in scenic areas. However, amidst the challenges of the tourism crisis and disaster management, there is a noticeable deficiency in the theoretical focus and case study analysis concerning small tourism enterprises. This study delves into the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the tourism industry and its associated sectors. It emphasizes small tourism enterprises in the Xijiang Qianhu Miao Village scenic region, drawing from case observations and field research alongside comprehensive interviews to gather authentic data. This study utilizes the proceduralized grounded theory to elucidate the inherent principles and mechanisms behind the organizational resilience of small tourism enterprises facing the pandemic's impacts. Additionally, it pinpoints the critical elements influencing the development of organizational resilience in these enterprises. The findings reveal the following: 1) The interplay between organizational capabilities and influential factors collectively elucidates the genesis and robustness of organizational resilience among small tourism enterprises in scenic areas, with resilience emerging and intensifying through the synergistic influence of internal and external organizational elements. 2) Organizational capabilities represent the intrinsic rationale and conceptual framework underlying the development of organizational resilience in small tourism enterprises. Such resilient organizations exhibit fundamental abilities such as environmental observation, impact forecasting, crisis response, and reflective learning. In essence, small tourism enterprises adapt by monitoring and recognizing shifts in the external milieu, predicting the duration and ramifications of the pandemic, and crafting proactive strategies in response to pandemic-induced challenges based on external changes and internal shortcomings. Throughout the pandemic, new insights were assimilated into the operational and developmental strategies of small tourism enterprises through ongoing reflection, summarization, and learning. Prompt adaptations in business approaches contributed significantly to cultivating and reinforcing organizational resilience. 3) Initial resources, social capital, and support initiatives foster organizational resilience among small tourism enterprises in scenic locales. These components are crucial for ensuring organizational survival, enhancing resilience potential, and sculpting organizational resilience. Specifically, foundational resources such as property ownership, operator expertise and skills, and surplus funds are vital for building organizational resilience during a pandemic. Concurrently, the relational networks between small tourism enterprises and their stakeholders, alongside social capital stemming from operators' power dynamics and identity within the tourism context, markedly strengthen organizational resilience. Furthermore, tourism relief policies and interventions that modify tourist influx and business sustainability within scenic areas play a pivotal role in enhancing the resilience of small tourism enterprises. This study broadens the theoretical understanding based on case studies of organizational resilience in small tourism enterprises amid the pandemic. It offers theoretical insights and practical guidance for the ongoing management and adaptive regulation of these enterprises during tourism-related crises and disaster management scenarios.

  • Zaizhi Yang, Jianyao Chen
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-04-03

    River hydraulic engineering plays a substantial role in maintaining the water-energy-food-economy nexus and coping with climate change. The co-construction of carbon peaking, carbon neutrality goals, and ecological civilization presents new demands for the development of river hydraulic engineering. Building upon an overview of the development of river hydraulic engineering, particular attention has been paid to its impact on the carbon cycle process. A review of the research on carbon cycling indicates that the carbon cycle of river hydraulic engineering is primarily influenced by geographical location, project scale, and operational management, whereas the evaluation results of carbon balance are significantly affected by differences in calculation methods, evaluation systems, and data discrepancies. Analysis of the carbon balance of reservoirs nationwide also revealed that China's reservoir CO2 flux was slightly higher than the world average, whereas the CH4 flux was lower. The total carbon storage in reservoir sediments in China is approximately 2.103 billion tons, rising at a rate of 76 million tons per year. Estimation results of carbon emissions reduction in hydropower projects indicate that water conservancy projects have significant functional benefits and demonstrate a noticeable "carbon sink" effect on the energy structure. Assuming that hydropower is entirely replaced by thermal power, hydropower reduces approximately 3,984 Tg (CO2eq)/a of carbon emissions from the power system, of which small hydropower accounts for approximately 6%. This study also explored policy-oriented issues in the development of river hydraulic engineering, assisting in elucidating the challenges and demands faced by river hydraulic engineering during the period of multi-objective co-construction. These challenges include balancing ecological friendliness to enhance carbon sequestration, ensuring food security, harnessing water resources for economic purposes, maintaining policy continuity, and increasing government credibility. Recommendations for the future include ensuring policy continuity, deepening research on enhancing data sharing, conducting fundamental research, and strengthening multiscale integrated systematic studies. It is necessary to establish a unified carbon balance evaluation system, conduct in-depth research on process-based mechanisms and cumulative effects, and explore the synergy between research, application, and policy development. These efforts will actively promote the innovative development of river hydraulic engineering within the context of ecological civilization construction and the achievement of the "dual carbon goals".

  • Zhicai Wu, Weiman Ling, Jing Ma
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-04-03

    Accelerated development of modern society has harmed people's physical and mental health. It has become a trend to achieve physical recovery and spiritual reshaping through the deceleration of tourism. However, further research is required to understand how consumers experience and realize time deceleration in the context of tourism. In this study, Lijiang acient town, which has the unique charm of a slow-living experience in the eyes of tourists, was selected as the case study, and the text materials of online travel notes and interviews were used. The coding method of grounded theory was adopted to analyze the connotation and occurrence mechanism of the slow-living experience. The results were as follows: 1) The slow-living experience of ancient town tourism is an immersive experience in which tourists visit the tourist destination of the ancient town and enjoy the passage of time under the influence of spiritual arousal of relief needs, memory, and emotion. 2) Time practice, space practice, and adding meaning to life are the main ways of a slow-living experience, which run through the entire process of tourists' slow-living on-site experiences. 3) The slow-living experience of ancient town tourism includes four stages: spiritual arousal, state relaxation, life immersion, and value realization. Each stage is interconnected and promotes the realization of tourists' deceleration experiences. The theoretical value of this study is that through the explanation of the slow-living experience model, the occurrence mechanism of tourists' slow-living experience was discussed in detail, and the core proposition of how tourists experience and realize deceleration was answered. Among them, the slow-living experience emphasizes the drive of spiritual arousal, relaxation of physical and mental states, immersion in life at the time and space levels, and sublimation of leisure value. This realization process differs from other types of tourism experiences. In addition, this article emphasizes that time practice, space practice, and adding meaning to life can create leisure value, emotional value, and a spiritual sense for tourists' time use and promote the depth of tourists' slow-living on-site experience. The research conclusions provide guidance for tourism development of ancient town tourism. Ancient town tourism operators should focus on tourists and formulate targeted programmes according to their behavioral trends. However, the extensibility of slow-living experiences should be considered comprehensively. Operators should consider the influence of other tourist destination landscapes on the slow-living experience, pay attention to the correlation between the two, create a relaxed and lazy slow-living atmosphere for tourist destinations, and stimulate tourists' environmental awareness. This can provide tourists with an excellent slow-living experience and promote the sustainable development of tourist destinations. Overall, starting from the micro level of tourists, this study constructed a slow-living experience model in the context of ancient town tourism, providing a new perspective and practical guidance for a deeper understanding of tourists' experiences.

  • Yun Yi, Bohua Li, Yindi Dou, Peilin Liu
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-04-03

    Traditional village culture is an important part of rural culture as well as a precious heritage and historical memory of the Chinese nation, and its effective inheritance and sustainable development have attracted much attention. However, traditional village culture is often in a disadvantaged position in the process of urban-rural cultural exchanges, and the cultural adaptation problem of traditional village residents creates difficulties for the integration of urban-rural culture and the development of traditional cultural inheritance in China. In the context of traditional village conservation and tourism development, the cultural adaptation of traditional village residents is related to the resolution of the contradiction among traditional village development and conservation, the realization of the residents' good life, and the realization of the creative transformation and innovative development of traditional culture. Based on the literature on cultural adaptation, case summaries, and long-term field research experiences, this study clarifies the practical objectives of the cultural adaptation of tourism-driven traditional village residents, refines the process mechanism of their cultural adaptation by combining dimensions and processes, and explores the integration path of cultural adaptation based on positive psychology. The results show that first, the process mechanism of cultural adaptation of the residents of tourism-driven traditional villages can be investigated by combining the context of the evolution of urban-rural relationships in China and the U-curve theory of cultural adaptation. During the period of foreign culture entry, residents' external actions are actively cooperative, although their internal perceptions show foreign culture biases and development opportunity expectations. During the period of cultural clash and adjustment, conflicts and contradictions in daily life and behavioral expressions of residents are frequent, causing negative internal psychological emotions and cultural assimilation. The goal of the cultural integration period is that after a series of conflicts, residents will actively cooperate in their external behavior, and will be able to pass on their culture and seek progress. In terms of internal perceptions, residents will have increased psychological satisfaction, cultural confidence, and positive and open cultural perceptions. Further, borrowing from the research concept of positive psychology, we created a positive social organization system with three aspects: government macro-control, coordination of multiple groups, and a preventive supervision mechanism; a positive personality trait system with three aspects: cross-cultural interaction skills, ownership concept, and flexible and open cultural cognition; and a positive emotional experience system with three aspects: cultural identity, positive gaze of visitors, and community care. Based on the above systems, corresponding countermeasures to be taken at different stages of the cultural adaptation process are proposed to construct an integrated path of cultural adaptation for residents of traditional villages. This study explores the process mechanism and integration path of cultural adaptation of traditional village residents to deepen the interactive logic of locality and cultural adaptation, and provides a scientific reference for community governance and conservation practices in traditional villages, supporting traditional village locality protection and urban-rural integration.

  • Yajun Jiang, Yiwei Cai, Yu Guo, Fuyuan Wang, Huiling Zhou
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-04-03

    As an emerging form of accommodation in the leisure and vacation era, the relation marketing of homestays is an important factor in promoting a good relation between hosts and guests and stimulating the citizenship behavior of customers. Customer citizenship behavior is necessary to enhance the customer travel experience and promote the high-quality development of the homestay industry. Stimulating customer citizenship through relation marketing is an important scientific issue that needs to be addressed for the high-quality development of homestays. Based on social exchange theory and attribution theory, this study analyzes the relation between homestay staff and customers and refines the two-dimensional structure of homestay customer citizenship behavior, confirming the mediating effect of relation quality on the influence of relation marketing on helping behavior and deepening the understanding of the moderating effect of motivational attribution on the influence of relation marketing on customer citizenship behavior. The influence mechanism of customer citizenship behavior was clarified. The research results show that customer citizenship behavior in the homestay context consists of two dimensions: helping behavior and tolerant behavior, indicating that the structure of customer citizenship behavior in different contexts is still different. Second, the main effects of relation marketing on relation quality and customer citizenship behavior are significant. That is, a homestay can improve the quality of its relation with customers through instrumental behaviors, such as information communication, and emotional behaviors, such as human investment. Customer citizenship behavior is an important behavioral response to relation marketing. Third, relation quality mediates the relation between marketing and helping behavior, indicating that relation marketing promotes customer trust in homestays and understanding the reciprocity of behavior, which in turn promotes customer helping behavior. Fourth, motivational attribution has a moderating effect on the influence of relation marketing on tolerant behavior. This shows that in altruistic motive attribution, the more customers perceive relation marketing, the more they can feel the good experience brought about by homestay staff, so they voluntarily adopt tolerant behavior in the face of service failure, based on the principle of reciprocity in social exchange theory. This study combines the social exchange and attribution theories to explain the mechanism of customer citizenship behavior in the context of homestay services. While enriching the research content of high-quality development of homestay, it constructs a discourse system with more"relation" characteristics for tourism marketing, broadens the tourism application scenarios of relation marketing theory in practice, helps homestay maintain a good relation between host and client, stimulates customer citizenship behavior, and contributes to the development of homestay tourism services and products.

  • Yu Bao, Haoran Chen
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-04-03

    At the height of the national independence movements in Asia, Africa, and Latin America in the first half of the 20th century, postcolonial thought began to emerge in Brazil, reconstructing the self-other relation between Brazil and the West. The imaginative geography of Brazil, one of the most important southern countries, is of great local and global geopolitical significance. In contrast to the general imagination centered on the West and other developed countries, Brazil has the particular imaginative geographies of another large southern country, China. One of the symbolic imaginaries of China in Brazilian scholarship is human geographer Gilberto Freyre's China Tropical, which he likens to China in Latin America. Freyre studied under American geographer and anthropologist Franz Boas, who was a vocal opponent of scientific racism. Therefore, in China Tropical, Freyre advocates for the equality of Brazilian civilization by imagining its structure, continuing Boas's thoughts, and developing a series of postcolonial critiques. This article uses Freyre and his book China Tropical and related thoughts as analysis objectives to explore Freyre's view of Brazil as a tropical China in the process of spatial othering. This study finds that Freyre constructed his postcolonial ideology of Brazil's nation-state development both geo-culturally and geopolitically by imagining Brazil's tropicality and Chineseness. Freyre's portrayal of Brazil as a third space belonging neither to the West nor the East disrupts the colonial hegemony of the discourse of a uniform and homogeneous culture between suzerain and colony and seeks the subversive power of postcolonialism through hybridity and in-betweenness. Second, Freyre conducted an analysis of the human-environment relation in cultural geography from the perspective of historical science, refuted the natural science perspective of environmental determinism, which was prevalent in Western academia at that time, and reshaped the visual balance within the framework of the human-environment relation. This is a side effect of the transformation and change in human geographical thinking. Third, Freyre's concept of tropical China is a prominent achievement in the embryonic period of postcolonial thought in Brazil as well as an important ideological foundation for contemporary Sino-Brazilian exchanges and cooperation. Freyre proposed commonalities and identities between China and Brazil in this field of thought, offering more possibilities for international cooperation beyond human- and poverty-based interactions. This article focuses on the imaginative geographies of former colonial countries, which are conducive to promoting China's understanding of Brazilian society. In addition, we believe that, in the future, Chinese scholarship should pay greater attention to small languages, such as French, Spanish, and Portuguese, which are widely spoken in the former colonial countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. With these small language texts at the core, we will continue to study imaginative geographies and country and area studies in Asia, Africa, and Latin America to improve the global understanding of Chinese scholarship.

  • Le Che, Yuanyu Li, Miaoxi Zhao, Hongren Ye
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-04-03

    In tropical rainforest regions, rivers face significant challenges from stormwater, flooding, and human activities, making the construction of resilience in their blue-green spaces critical for overall habitat sustainability. While domestic and international studies have focused on resilient flood management practices and quantitative resilience evaluations, there is a lack of assessments specifically addressing the resilience of river blue-green spaces under different ecological pressure impacts. To address this gap, this study incorporates the "pulse" and "pressure" methods into the Pressure-Pulse-Resilience model to measure the resilience of blue-green spaces. This study also develops a theoretical framework for the resilience of aquatic ecosystems by linking societal and ecological factors. The resilience evaluation route consists of four steps: theoretical model construction, pressure-bearing evaluation superposition, analysis of coincidence and conflict points, and resilience planning strategy layout. To achieve the two main objectives of ensuring a balance between water supply and demand for both water security patterns and ecosystem services, this thesis delves into the regulatory mechanisms of river resilience, adaptation, and recovery, providing valuable insights into the spatial resilience planning of rivers in such regions. By focusing on the Nan Sheng river in Wuzhishan city as a practical case, this study conducted a multidimensional resilience assessment to cope with the frequent occurrence of water security vulnerable zones or the imbalance between the supply and demand of ecosystem services under double ecological pressure. Using advanced simulation methods, such as the SCS-CN model, the Equivalent Factor Approach, and the Hot Spot Analysis Method, the study identified distinct zones that are prone to stormwater and flood inundation, zones at risk of water safety threats, and zones experiencing a mismatch between water supply and demand in the blue-green space. Based on the identification of resilience deficiencies, including multiple stormwater threat zones, an imbalance between supply and demand of ecosystem services, and the seasonal nature of slow pressures, the thesis proposes three planning strategies: first, an ecological security pattern and zoning control approach is suggested based on stormwater and flood pulses to improve the resilience to cope with sudden pulses, following the principle of bottom-line control. Second, a demand-oriented blue-green space planning and service supply strategy was proposed to coordinate the slow-onset pressure on the blue-green spaces of rivers caused by the demands of residents for daily life and recreation, integrating land space and other related planning to balance the supply and demand of the social-ecological system. Lastly, the study advocates for the construction of dynamic and adaptive resilience facilities that cater to the seasonal changes in ecological pressure faced by the blue-green space in tropical rainforest regions, in fulfillment of multidimensional and multilevel water resilience requirements, that is, water security, water ecology, water landscape, water function, and water vitality. In summary, this study presents an innovative theoretical framework for water ecosystem resilience, utilizing the measurable concepts of "pulse" and "pressure." Through an empirical case study of the Nan Sheng river in Wuzhishan city, this dissertation established a region-specific evaluation path for the spatial resilience of rivers in tropical rainforest areas.

  • Yanan Jiao, Feixue Li, Zhenjie Chen, Qishun Zhang, Xin Zhao
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-04-03

    High-intensity land use and fragmented habitats are becoming more prevalent with urbanization, thereby accelerating the demand for maintaining and improving the ecological connectivity of habitat patches in high-density built-up areas. Previous studies have shown that small dispersed patches are crucial for enhancing connectivity across an entire landscape. However, as an important component of urban green space, residential green space in high-density built-up areas is often overlooked in ecological connectivity analysis. Taking Futian district, Shenzhen, as a case study, we explored the ecological connectivity in high-density built-up areas considering not only habitat patches but also green areas in residential quarters. We identified ecological patches and green areas in the residential areas of the study area. This was followed by a functional connectivity analysis under different scenarios. Several protection suggestions for improving ecological connectivity have been proposed based on functional connectivity analyses under different scenarios. The results show: 1) The area of residential green space in Futian district is 3.86 km2, covering 26.9% of the total green space in the study area, with the western part being sparser than other regions. The total area of the ecological patches was 14.34 km2, and the importance of the patches was not consistent with their size. The ecological connectivity of Lianhuashan Park in the central region, Lichi Park in the eastern region, and Huanggang Park in the southern region is greatly affected by the contiguous or continuously distributed strips of residential green space around them. 2) Residential green spaces affect eco-connectivity primarily by lowering corridor resistance, creating connectors for regions that require protection, and supporting biological flow. In particular, it had the largest effect on middle-resistance corridors (the unit cost distance was reduced by 29.2%) and alleviated the situation of pinch points formed in narrow low-resistance channels in high-density built-up areas. 3) The ecological pinch points that recurred in the ecological network under different scenarios of connecting residential green spaces and different resistance thresholds were identified as the most valuable primary pinch points for protection. It is recommended to strengthen the intersection of Xinzhou Road and Fumin Road and prioritize the protection of residential green spaces located near the ecological patches and on the topological connection between the ecological patches, with a scale exceeding the average size of 5920.22 m2. Through the analysis of pinch points in various scenarios, it was found that 21 pinch points, including those close to Lianhuashan Park, could be used as substitute green spaces for urban renewal projects when nearby residential green spaces are destroyed or occupied. This supports the preservation of functional connectivity in urban renewal projects. It is increasingly difficult to construct significant habitat patches in high-density built-up areas to compensate for habitat fractures. The results identified the significant location and proportion of residential green spaces as critical bio-flow carriers in Futian District. These findings could encourage more comprehensive urban conservation plans that incorporate both sizable habitat patches and residential green spaces. These findings can be used to create more effective sustainable development plans that encourage biodiversity in urban renewal planning.

  • Yawen Yang, Jinlong Gao
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-03-28

    Local entrepreneurialism provides an important theoretical perspective for the study of economic growth-oriented local governance after the 1980s. This theory originated in the revival of economic liberalism following the Western economic crisis. Influenced by global urbanization and deregulation, cities have been redefined as important scales of spatial governance. Local governments have abandoned "managerialism," which emphasizes regional equilibrium, and turned to "entrepreneurilism," which emphasizes local wealth accumulation, weakening the welfare state system and emphasizing absolute gain. Since the economic reform was launched in 1978, China has experienced a transition from state socialism, conceptualized as a triple process of decentralization, marketization, and globalization. The logic of local government behavior underwent profound changes during the transition. Local governments are increasingly showing behavioral characteristics that originally belonged to enterprises. These local governmental acts create the economic miracle and unique spatial phenomenon of the "Chinese paradigm," widely called "local entrepreneurialism." With the critical period of urbanization, exploring effective ways to improve local governance capabilities has become an important topic of concern for all sectors of society. Sorting out the rise and development of the theory about local entrepreneurialism, this paper seeks to construct an analysis framework for local entrepreneurialism in China by integrating the notions of strategy, discourse, and fashion. Furthermore, this paper proposes the "Chinese characteristics" of local entrepreneurialism by reviewing specific strategies adopted by local governments with multiple identities or acting as different roles, namely the owner of public (land) resources, the user of administrative resources, the urban manager, and the allocator of development rights. Therefore, the following conclusion were drawn: (1) Compared with the extensive participation in the Western system, China's local entrepreneurialism involves more administrative intervention, and all localities play a leading role in local entrepreneurial practice by virtue of their monopoly rights. (2) Although decentralization reform endows local governments with certain powers and responsibilities, state intervention still exists. The goal of an entrepreneurial strategy is to safeguard state powers. (3) In the new stage, the connotation and external form of local entrepreneurialism are expanding. Economic growth is no longer the primary theme of local development. How to pay attention to efficiency and fairness has become an important topic at present, and we argue that the sustainability of local entrepreneurial strategies and their impact on rural governance might be key research directions for future studies. This study aimed to provide a reference for the transformation of governance in this new era.

  • Jinghong Jiang, Baozhang Chen
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-03-15

    Bangkok is a key city in the framework of the "Belt and Road" initiative in Southeast Asia. However, the economy, agriculture, and ecological environment of Bangkok is now facing significant risks due to frequent drought disasters in recent years, resulting in substantial economic losses. This study is based on the theory of natural disaster risk assessment and evaluates the risk of drought disasters by analyzing the factors causing disasters and the vulnerability of affected areas. We examine the spatial distribution of drought hazard risk, vulnerability, and overall risk in the Bangkok node area from 2000 to 2020, employing univariate linear regression analysis and the Mann-Kendall test to assess changing trends and spatial distribution characteristics. The results showed 41.64% of the land in the study area had a moderate or higher risk of drought disasters, with the highest risk areas located in the northwest of Nakhon Pathom and the central part of Pathum Thani. The risk levels in the region are determined by a combination of vulnerability and hazard factors. Furthermore, the risk, vulnerability, and hazard levels in Bangkok exhibit a linear upward trend. The central urban area of Bangkok has the fastest linear increase in vulnerability and risk and the risk level is increasing most rapidly in northern areas, which differs from the other two indicators. The results of the M-K test indicate that vulnerability in Bangkok's central built-up area is not significant but in the surrounding areas there is a strong upward trend. Notably, there are significant areas of decline in the northwest and southeast for Bangkok's vulnerability. Hazard and risk shows an insignificant rising trend in the east and a decreasing trend in the west. Central Bangkok's drought risk is increasing, highlighting a noticeable spatial distribution difference between the linear trend and the M–K test results. The spatial distribution of risk is influenced jointly by the drought disaster hazard and vulnerability in Bangkok, with vulnerability predominantly determining risk distribution. Finally, The significant increase in drought vulnerability and risk in urban built-up areas warrants close attention for future drought disaster risk management. These areas are currently unsuitable for construction, and efforts should be directed toward reducing their vulnerability to mitigate the risk of drought disasters. The use of fine-scale spatial data for analysis can provide a more detailed understanding of spatial characteristics, accurately reflect a region's water resource management capacity, enhance the rationality of risk assessment, and serve as a valuable reference for research on disaster risk management and risk distribution in node cities.

  • Shan Li, Lin Zhang, Jianjun Li, Tingting Chen, Jintang Chen
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-03-15

    Built environments have complex effects on the public's physical and mental health. Revealing the mechanisms and pathways through which the urban built environment influences public health can provide a basis for optimizing built environments. This helps avoid issues, such as environmental pollution, lack of social interaction, and insufficient physical activity, ultimately contributing to the enhancement of public health. Western academia has a more established foundation for research, whereas domestic endeavors are currently in the exploratory phase. A comparative analysis of relevant domestic and international studies can help elucidate the developmental trajectory of research in this field, identify common issues and characteristics, and guide the direction for advancing domestic research. Therefore, based on the Web of Science and China National Knowledge Infrastructure databases, this study systematically reviewed 658 English and Chinese studies published from 2000 to 2022 in the fields of urban and rural planning, geographic sciences, health medicine, and environmental psychology, focusing on the impact of the built environment on public health. Utilizing "Citespace" software, this study conducted a quantitative analysis and systematic review of the theoretical framework, study topics, and emerging trends in the research. The findings revealed disparities between Western and Chinese academies in terms of theoretical innovation, study groups, and research content. Specifically, international studies have pioneered theoretical perspectives, such as social welfare and environmental justice. Guided by these theories, researchers have explored the mechanisms through which the built environment affects public health in diverse population groups. Although domestic studies exhibit a relative lack of theoretical innovation, their primary focus has been the introduction and empirical application of Western theories in the Chinese context. These studies often concentrate on the transmission paths of the impacts on the older and women groups through static empirical evidence, lacking dynamism in their approaches. Furthermore, drawing upon the previously stated theoretical underpinnings, methodological approach, and research content, this paper summarized the analytical framework of "Built Environment Elements, Mediated Impacts, and Public Health." It meticulously examined the differential effects of three spatial elements—green space, land use, and road traffic—on public health. This study provides a detailed analysis of the mechanisms involved, highlighting the ecological and psychological benefits arising from exposure to and interactions with green spaces. It also analyzes how judiciously designed and compact land use patterns shape travel preferences, reduce travel distances, mitigate reliance on motor vehicles, and enhance the frequency of individual activities. Furthermore, the study outlines the ramifications for optimizing the road network system and transitioning travel modes to ameliorate traffic pollution, alleviate traffic pressure, and mitigate pedestrian injuries, among other variables. The purpose of this study was to systematically comprehend the current status and disparities in domestic and international research concerning the impact of the built environment on public health and to explore a series of health issues triggered by the built environment from the perspective of urban planning, with the hope of promoting health geography in China, offering guidance for future academic directions, and prompting local management authorities to formulate precision policies addressing public health challenges.

  • Chun Xiong, Renxu Gu
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-03-15

    Agricultural brand building has been given greater value and attention in the context of brand strategy and rural revitalization. Previous studies have paid more attention to the role of regional brands and their construction paths. However, as micro-subjects, enterprises also play an important role in the construction of agricultural brands. This article discusses the spatial distribution pattern of Chinese agricultural enterprise brands and its influencing factors through analysis methods such as unbalanced index, spatial clustering test, and negative binomial regression analysis, which could provide a reference for the local construction of agricultural enterprise brands and the promotion of rural industrial revitalization. The present study found that (1) affected by natural resource endowment and economic development, agricultural enterprise brands are most distributed in East China. Shandong, Henan, Jiangsu, and other provinces have the largest number of agricultural enterprise brands. The density of agricultural enterprise brands shows a three-level ladder pattern, with the lowest in the northwest, followed by the central region, and the highest in the eastern coastal region. High-high agglomeration and hot spots have formed in the Yellow River, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and the northeastern region, and high-low agglomeration, low-low agglomeration, and cold spots have formed in the western region. (2) The number of regional brands, gross product of primary industry, number of agricultural patents and innovation parks, and number of agricultural anchors are significantly positively correlated with the number of agricultural enterprise brands. The better the agricultural foundation, the stronger the scientific and technological innovation ability; further, the more enterprise brands can adapt and use the new marketing area, the greater the number of enterprise brands that could be constructed. The proportion of the primary industry in the GDP is significantly negatively correlated with the number of agricultural enterprise brands. This is mainly because the higher the proportion of the primary industry in the GDP, the more backward the local economy is to a certain extent, which is not conducive to the development of enterprise brands. The relationship between the number of agricultural experts and corporate brands is not significant; this is because the distribution of agricultural experts is affected by the distribution of agricultural research institutes, and dislocation with the spatial distribution of enterprise brands is observed. In general, in the process of promoting the construction of enterprise brands, localities need to vigorously support agricultural development and regional brand building and focus on the cultivation and flow of innovation as well as the development of new marketing. This study focuses on the distribution of agricultural enterprise brands from the perspective of geography and provides policy recommendations for various places, which has certain theoretical value and practical significance.

  • Hejian Zhu
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-03-15

    In the present state of geography, this study proposes a deep integration of physical and human geography. It involves the integration of knowledge from these two sub-disciplines of geography. Notably, it extracts the integrated thinking of liberal arts and science from the deep integration of physical and human geography. This serves as the focal point of geographical innovation, demonstrating its distinctive allure through three key aspects: Geography is considered as a basic applied discipline with ontological cross connection of liberal arts and science. Establishing an ontological integration of liberal arts and scientific perspectives enhances academic literacy for geographers. The innovation in higher education of geography aims to nurture a new generation of geography talents by integrating liberal arts and scientific thinking. Geographical innovation is primarily rooted in the deep integration of physical and human geography. Thus, geography emerges as an irreplaceable discipline for addressing several issues involving the national economy and social development. With its distinctive allure, geography proudly takes its place among the sciences.

  • Jieying Huang, Ziling Tian, Chen Liu
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-03-06

    With the popularity of digital photography equipment in daily life, photography has emerged as the primary means for people to explore places, document life experiences, and engage in social activities. Taking the Guangzhou youth group as an example, this study combined the research methods of ethnography, field observation, and questionnaire surveys to collect data and analyze the integration of digital photography, social platforms, and daily life. This study discussed how urban photography activities redefine the meaning of places by analyzing their processes, types, and characteristics in the quotidian. The results revealed the following insights: (1) The process and content of everyday urban photography activities are closely related to social platforms and can be divided into three stages: preparation, taking photos, and processing and sharing photos. These three stages are not linear but often intersect, possibly existing simultaneously, and are implemented across platforms. According to the photographic object types, everyday urban photography can be divided into portrait photography, architecture and street landscape photography, and daily life scene photography. (2) Everyday urban photography is characterized as an embodied and emotional process that integrates photographer's expectations, skills, and practices. The visual impact of this process lies in capturing moments and transforming ordinary (close) landscape from a specific time and space into distant and extraordinary scenes. These digital photos, which condense time and space, are no longer the isolated expression of film photos. Instead, with geographical positioning services, they constitute the photographer's personal narrative and movement path on social platforms, containing the photographer's imaginative sense of place, aesthetic concepts, and social relations. (3) The visualization, social attributes, and geotagging of everyday urban photography alter people's perception and experience of places, reshaping the meaning of these locations. Through the interplay of spatial media, geolocation services, and social platforms, photography activities and local experiences are progressively merging. Editable images and interactive social platforms overlay on geotagged places, allowing people to describe places and their activities in novel ways. Consequently, the original attributes of a place may be weakened, emphasizing visual attributes and media significance. Places become backgrounds in portraits, venues for of self-presentation, and geotags on social media. Therefore, places achieve the coexistence of virtual and realistic meanings. The reason for this phenomenon is the development of social media, the growing social demand for self-expression or exhibition, and the expanded accessibility of expression channels. The research results introduce the perspective of daily life into digital photography research, enriching the visual and social media research content of human geography in China.

  • Li Li, Ying Liu, Chenke Tang, Li Peng
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-03-06

    Identifying the network characteristics of settlement intentions of floating populations in urban agglomerations is of great significance in constructing a reasonable spatial distribution of the population and the urbanization of the floating population. Based on China Migrants Dynamic Survey (CMDS) data from 2017, this study used social network and geospatial analyses to examine the network spatial structure of floating population settlement intentions and identify their spatial model. Six major urban agglomerations were selected as case studies, including three coastal agglomerations—Yangtze River Delta (YRD), Pearl River Delta (PRD), and Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region (BTH)—and three inlands agglomerations—Middle Yangtze River (MYR), Chengdu-Chongqing region (CC), and Harbin-Changchun region (HC). The results show that the residential network of urban agglomerations presents different levels of "circle layer" structure on the whole, and the intensity of residential contact exhibits a distance attenuation effect. The floating population in coastal urban agglomerations originates from a wide hinterland. The agglomeration effect of BTH and YRD is significant, and compared to the rest of the urban agglomerations its floating population exhibits a higher settlement intention. PRD has a low intensity of residential contact and a loose structure; the scope of attraction of inland urban agglomerations is limited, settlement intention is low, and the network is balanced. CC urban agglomeration exhibits weak residential connection, balanced internal and external flow of urban agglomeration, and a primary equilibrium state of its network. Furthermore, MYR urban agglomeration exhibits relatively low residential connection and weak agglomeration and slight equilibrium of its network structure. Meanwhile, HC exhibits a compact internal structure and scattered external structure. There are clear differences in the spatial patterns of settlement intention in urban agglomerations at different locations, scales, and development stages. The floating population's settlement choice reveals a clear regional inclination. The integrated, hierarchical, and structural characteristics of the floating population residence network revealed in this study contribute to decision-making regarding urban floating population management and urban spatial pattern optimization from the perspective of urban agglomeration. Coastal urban agglomerations should enhance the development of regional low-centered cities to stimulate the creation of additional employment opportunities, thereby fostering population influx. Inland urban agglomerations should optimize the configuration of their industrial structure to manage population outflows and inflows effectively, mitigating the risk of excessive regional population decline.

  • Xiaoxi Niu, Lifeng Tan, Fang Liu, Xiaofeng Wang
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-03-06

    Marine cultural heritage (MCH) is an essential carrier of marine civilization and a critical component of marine resources. However, it is often neglected in the current marine spatial planning (MSP) of many countries, leading to an imbalance between culture, ecology, and economy. The difficulty in defining specific spatial boundaries for areas with sociocultural value is one reason for this dilemma. This study covers 11 provinces and cities along the coast of China, and it aims to determine the spatial zoning scheme of MCH resources from macroscopic and quantitative perspectives and to provide a reference for the integrated management of marine resources. We analyzed the spatial-temporal pattern of MCH with the help of ArcGIS spatial statistics and analysis tools. We built an indicator system of influencing factors and quantified the weight of each indicator factor by GeoDetector. We drew the following conclusions: (1) The spatial distribution of MCH has significant clustering characteristics. The clustering areas are mainly concentrated in the Shandong Peninsula, the Yangtze River Delta, and the west coast of the Taiwan Straits; MCH in the Yangtze River Delta has the most vital continuity. (2) In different historical periods, the distribution of MCH has had apparent spatial heterogeneity. MCH was most densely distributed around the Shandong Peninsula and Yangtze River Delta during the Pre-Qin Period. During the Qin-Han Period, Guangdong and Guangxi became new hotspots; these moved northward to Fujian during the Sui-Tang Period. During the Song-Yuan to the Ming-Qing Period, the density of heritage in Fujian further increased. After the Modern Times, Liaodong Peninsula, Shandong Peninsula, and Tianjin formed the pattern of arching around the Bohai Sea. (3) The results of geographic correlation analysis show that, overall, watersheds have the greatest explanatory power on the MCH pattern. In contrast, dialects have the greatest explanatory power in the northern and southern coastal areas, respectively. The results of the detection of influencing factor indicators show that, from the overall scope, natural elements are the main factors affecting the spatial and temporal distribution of MCH, with a weight of 37.4%. Economic elements are first in the northern coastal area, weighing 30.2%. In the southern coastal area, natural elements are in the first place, with a contribution value of 32.0%, and the contribution value of cultural and economic elements is similar. (4) Based on the spatial and temporal distribution, relevant influencing factors, and composition characteristics of MCH, the 11 coastal provinces and cities can be divided into four heritage regions, namely, the Bohai Rim, Yangtze River Delta, west coast of the Taiwan Straits, and Lingnan MCH area, in addition to 12 secondary regions. The zoning scheme is consistent with the geographical differentiation of Chinese marine culture, which indicates that spatial statistical analysis and GeoDetector can provide technical support for the spatial zoning of MCH resources. This methodology applies equally to zoning studies of marine intangible cultural heritage and other thematic cultural heritage. The results can provide a reference for managing marine resources under national spatial planning as well as a basis for creating cultural brands in coastal cities.

  • Huixia Li, Shiyi Chen, Jueying Hu, Jinbiao Lin
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-03-06

    With rapid urbanization, the formation of a governance model for spatial stock has become challenging in building a modern governance system. The process of "domainization" in spatial stock constantly affects the biopolitics of different groups during marketization. This paper introduces the perspective of Foucault's biopolitics based on the domain theory and constructs a domain politics framework indicating a tripartite coupling and interaction among social capital, spatial relations, and life politics. Through semi-structured interviews with, and questionnaires administered to, ordinary workers, middle managers, and top directors, we investigate the changing patterns of workers' biopolitics in the "Territorialization" of grassroots governance. The findings show that the "domainization" process relative to industrial parks has gone through three periods: first, when the state strongly shaped the construction of order and the state economy; second, when the government retreated and capital advanced on a large scale; and third, when there was tripartite competition between the government, workers, and capital. The structures of social capital, spatial relations, and biopolitics experienced a dramatic shift during the succession process of the three periods. The economic attributes of industrial parks shape the various spatial relationships of life and production among workers, middle-level cadres, and top directors, causing differences in the accumulation of social capital for the different classes. The compartmentalization of the spatial field has resulted in a reduction in workers' public activities and the weakening of social capital accumulation. The life politics of workers shifted from self-directed ownership of the A town mechanical farm to early economic dependency, then to full dependency on the park. First, this study bridges the gap in the study of "domainization" in production fields and provides a geo-theoretical perspective for understanding how workers' biopolitics is driven by this process in the context of the transformation in economic production relations. Second, the phenomenon of authority transfer in "domainization" is proposed based on the theory of state-society relations. A detailed explanation of the occurrence of semi-centralized governance in modern society is provided herein. Finally, study findings provide theoretical support and case studies on how sphere politics in grassroots governance affects spatial production relations, achieving integration of the disciplines of politics and geography.

  • Yue Gong, Jiyang Cao
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-03-06

    The floating population is at the bottom of the urban housing classes. In recent years, housing class of floating population has become differentiated, affecting new-type urbanization and affordable housing development. This study discusses the characteristics of the floating population's housing class and the influencing factors and mechanisms of its formation. It uses the Latent Class Analysis model to classify housing classes and obtains five classes: multiple houses in inflow and hukou (household registration) areas, one house in the inflow area, one or multiple houses in hukou areas, village houses in hukou areas, and the houseless class. Further analysis shows that: (1) The housing purchase behavior of the floating population in cities is aligned with the urbanization process; most of the floating population with non-agricultural hukou is in the middle and upper housing classes, whereas most of the floating population with agricultural hukou is in the middle and lower classes. (2) The spatial differentiation of the housing class of the floating population follows a north-south pattern. The multiple houses in inflow and hukou areas and one-house in the inflow area classes are mostly distributed in the northern, central, and western parts of China, and are in small- and medium-sized cities. Most one or multiple houses in hukou areas and houseless classes are concentrated in large cities in southeastern and southern China. (3) In addition to socioeconomic, institutional, migration, and regional factors significantly impact housing classes. Compared with the floating population with non-agricultural hukou, the floating population with agricultural hukou is constrained by the market and hukou system, and is easily excluded from the housing market and the affordable housing system. Members in state-owned enterprises and the members of the Communist Party of China still have an advantage in housing stratification, while non-SOEs migrants' disadvantages are worsened. In addition, geographical factors maintain the characteristics of migrants' housing class in inflow areas. (4) Power persistence, market transformation, and housing filtration are mechanisms that form housing classes and spatial patterns. The urban housing welfare policy has made it difficult for the floating population to benefit from housing reform, which has reinforced the differentiation of the housing class. Meanwhile, market transformation differentiates income and education levels of the floating population, affecting their housing class. The differences in urban housing policies and markets in different regions affect migrants' housing choices, resulting in housing filtering in geographical regions, and finally forming the north-south pattern of migrants' housing class. China should expedite reforming the hukou system, implement differentiated affordable housing development based on regions, and allocate more affordable housing to basic public service providers in cities. This study reveals the situation and mechanism of housing differentiation among the floating population, provides empirical support for affordable housing policies, promotes citizenship of the floating population, and facilitates new-type urbanization.

  • Guibo Nie, Han Hu, Shaowei Ai
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-03-04

    The study of cultural adaptation needs to consider the factors of people and places, and the analysis of "geographical factors" is an important research direction. In order to analyze the causes of social kinship culture and the role of geographical factors in the process of acculturation in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River Basin, two groups of acculturation cases were analyzed by using the literature method, participatory observation and semi-structured interviews. The findings show that: (1) the social kinship culture among different groups in northern Henan is formed under a specific geographic scenario of diaspora. The special geographical environment and location are prerequisites for exchange between social kin. Rain praying rituals and common beliefs within a specific radius maintain the ties of social relatives and perpetuate their culture. (2) The two sides follow the cultural adaptation processes of "separation, collision, convergence, and continuity." Integration strategies play an important role in maintaining grassroots unity and achieving social stability in this unique form of cultural adaptation. (3) Different geographical elements play different roles during different stages of cultural adaptation. Spatial and cultural distances must be within a specific range to sustain the culture of social relatives. (4) In scattered and mixed living environments, the culturally similar and different village groups have adopted "integration strategies" to achieve better cultural adaptation, expanding the scope of cultural adaptation in specific scenarios. This study argues that, under similar geographical environment and location conditions, two cultural groups within specific spatial and cultural distances can improve cultural adaptation by exchanging cultural adaptation integration strategies. This study provides a typical empirical case to analyze the geographical factors of cultural adaptation from the perspective of cultural geography, and a deeper explanation of the formation of social kinship culture and its cultural adaptation process. This helps enrich the knowledge and theoretical systems of cultural geography on the relationship between cultural layers.

  • Qiong Sun, Yuxiang An, Lin Li, Li Wang
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-03-04

    The continuous increase in the number of middle-aged and elderly people in China has provided important opportunities for the development of China's tourism industry. Ecotourism—a green, healthy, and high-quality tourism method—is particularly popular among middle-aged adults. Social media use has been widely integrated into the consumption decisions of middle-aged and elderly Chinese tourists. It is of great significance to clarify the impact of social media on tourism consumer behavior among China's elderly middle class, especially on rising ecotourism consumption. This study conducted in-depth interviews with 26 elderly middle-class ecotourists in China, abstracted the impact path based on grounded theory, and constructed a set of impact path models of social media on the consumer behavior of elderly ecotourism in China's middle class. This study found that, because social media has the characteristics of information and communication, its impact on the ecotourism consumer behavior of China's elderly middle class mainly involves five factors: social media information utility, social media support, social media impact, self-value realization, and spiritual needs satisfaction. These five elements do not exist in isolation but are interrelated and mutually influencing. Among them, social media can help fully display ecotourism information, plus its own brand building, reputation, and other factors. Moreover, social media information utility, social media impact, and social media platform support can help stimulate the willingness of China's elderly middle class to promote the occurrence of consumer behavior. With the support of social media, a good ecological tourism consumption experience will help realize the self-worth of China's elderly middle class and meet their spiritual needs. The realization of self-worth and satisfaction of spiritual needs will further strengthen the impact of social media on the willingness of China's elderly middle class to engage in ecotourism. First, this study shows that China's elderly middle class can conveniently access destination-related health and historical and cultural knowledge through social media, thus strengthening the ecological tourism motivation of this special group. Second, social media have strengthened the emotional bond between China's elderly middle class and others, helping them meet their social and spiritual needs. Third, poetic dwellings are a prominent feature of the elderly middle class in ecotourism, which differs from other forms of tourism under the influence of social media. This study systematically summarizes and combs the influence path of social media on the consumer behavior of ecotourism in China's elderly middle class by using grounded theory for the first time, and expounds on the important influencing factors, which can provide a reference for future research and practice. Concurrently, this article focuses on the impact of social media on the ecotourism consumer behavior of China's elderly middle class and proposes that the realization of self-value and satisfaction of spiritual needs is an important result of their participation in ecotourism behavior under the influence of social media.

  • Jialong Wu, Hongju Li, Ting Deng, Sihua Luo, Jie Hu, Zijian Zhang, Chengyu Niu, Kai Wang, Yan Jiang, Shaoqing Su
    Tropical Geography.
    Accepted: 2024-03-04

    The protection of historical and cultural heritage sites is the main focus of land space planning and use control. Its protection and utilization are important for promoting the revitalization of rural culture and building a pattern of historical and cultural protection, and are essential for the research on comprehensive land consolidation in recent years. The historical trail of South China is a linear cultural heritage site of Guangdong's historical development. Exploring the connotative relationship between comprehensive land consolidation and the protection and utilization of linear cultural heritage is conducive to enhancing their synergy and superposition. This study begins with a connotation analysis and trend analysis of comprehensive land consolidation and linear cultural heritage protection and utilization, taking the connecting line of the Gutian section of the ancient Meiguan historical trail of the Southern China historical trail in Guangdong Province as an example to explore the working relationship between comprehensive land consolidation and the protection and utilization of linear cultural heritage. It proposes a comprehensive land consolidation path for linear cultural heritage protection and utilization. Results showed that: 1) The problems faced by the protection of historical trails were closely related to the goal and content of comprehensive land consolidation; 2) The protection of historical trails and the comprehensive land consolidation could be integrated into the implementation of land space planning, rights and interests protection, policy incentives, public participation and landscape coordination to jointly promote the enhancement of land space value; 3) Focusing on the dimensions of development orientation, planning layout, engineering design, overall planning funds and service operation, it is necessary to constantly innovate the path of comprehensive land improvement across the region, and comprehensively promote the protection and utilization of rural cultural heritage. Guangdong Province can fully utilize the platform tools of comprehensive land consolidation in the protection of South China historical trail, achieve the connection and integration of ancient cultural protection and utilization with land consolidation projects, and establish a mutual feedback relationship in work, innovate and establish a working mechanism for the integration and development of comprehensive land consolidation and historical trail protection, which is conducive to the synergistic effect of rural revitalization and historical and cultural protection, better service and support for rural revitalization and high-quality development.