Tropical Geography ›› 2022, Vol. 42 ›› Issue (6): 867-877.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003496

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A Study of Farmer' Livelihoods in "Azheke Plan": Based on the DFID Sustainable Livelihood Framework

Yang Xu1(), Jigang Bao2()   

  1. 1.School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
    2.School of Tourism Management, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275, China
  • Received:2021-08-06 Revised:2022-01-20 Online:2022-06-05 Published:2022-06-29
  • Contact: Jigang Bao;


Farmer' livelihoods are an important issue for rural revitalization and rural sustainable development. It has been proven in recent years that rural tourism influences farmers' livelihoods and its impacts vary based on different tourism development modes. The DFID sustainable livelihoods framework has been widely used in research on rural tourism development and farmer' livelihoods. It offers a comprehensive perspective that links elements from the external livelihood environment, to investigate farmer' livelihoods. This study developed an evaluation index for farmer' livelihood capital based on the DFID sustainable livelihoods framework. The evaluation index was used to analyze the farmer' livelihood capital. Azheke village, Yunnan Province was chosen as an example in the present study, which successfully launched a tourism poverty reduction program, the "Azheke Plan", in 2018. The data used in this study were collected through questionnaire survey from July 2020 to February 2021, during which the first author lived in Azheke Village. The findings of this study were summarized as follows: (1) Farmers in Azheke used to have only one livelihood mode: farming or working in cities. Now rural tourism development has allowed local villagers to work within local tourism businesses or operate their own tourism businesses in the village. thus, farmers has formed a diversified livelihood mode. (2) Families with different livelihood modes have manifested different features and livelihood capital. Ranking from high to low, the livelihood modes are: tourism-oriented, tourism involved + working in cities, tourism-involved, working in cities, and farming + working in cities. The sequence highly correlates with the degree of farmer' participation in tourism. (3) Farmers whose livelihoods are tourism-oriented, tourism involved + working in cities and tourism-involved have the highest degree of participation in tourism, their household labor and livelihood capacity has improved, it have created more livelihood outcomes for their households, and has a higher level of livelihood capital. Farmers who work in cities and farming + working in cities experienced the growth of physical capital and financial capital mainly throughout the "Azheke Plan", but their livelihood capital is lower than the other three livelihood modes relating to tourism. (4) From the institution perspective, this study explores the relationship between tourism development and changes in livelihood. Several notes are summarized on villagers' livelihoods through "Azheke Plan" from basic conditions, external support, internal factors, livelihood strategies and livelihood results. Finally, the future research direction of tourism development and farmer' livelihood, as well as the possibility of replicating the "Azheke plan" in other regions are discussed.

Key words: farmer' livelihoods, livelihood capital, DFID sustainable livelihood framework, rural tourism, Azheke plan

CLC Number: 

  • F592.7