Tropical Geography ›› 2020, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (4): 625-635.doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003227

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Assessing Governance of Interest Relationships within World Cultural Heritage Site Using Social Network Analysis: Case Study of Two Typical Tourism Villages in Yunnan’s Hani Rice Terrace

Shaohua Shi(), Xiang Li()   

  1. Tourism College, Beijing Union University, Beijing 100101, China
  • Received:2019-08-07 Revised:2019-09-23 Online:2020-07-31 Published:2020-08-11
  • Contact: Xiang Li E-mail:lytshaohua@;


Hani Rice Terraces in Yunnan Province of China is listed as UNESCO world Cultural Heritage in 2014 and also Globally Agricultural Heritage Systems in 2010 as the marvelous human wisdom and its outstanding universal value to the human beings. Located in the core area of Hani Rice Terraces, Dayutang Village (DYT) and Pugaolaozhai Village (PGLZ) are small towns where the Hani nationality live. They are also typical agricultural and ecological tourism destinations attracting visitors from all over the world. However, interest disputes and governance among stakeholders have always been challenges to maintaining the sustainability of tourism at world cultural heritage sites. Consequently, it is of great significance to assess the governance of the village interest relationships from the perspective of stakeholders. Social Network Analysis (SNA) provides a good tool for explaining stakeholder relationships, though this has rarely been applied to studies of stakeholder relationship networks in tourism villages related to world heritage sites. This study used SNA to assess two typical tourism villages (DYT and PGLZ) in the Hani Rice Terrace core area with respect to stakeholders including local government agencies, businesses, communities, and pressure groups. Stakeholder relationships in the two villages were then analyzed from five aspects: network cohesion, network reciprocity, network core edge, network transmission, and network broker. The results are as follows. Firstly, the reciprocity between communities and local government agencies, communities and pressure groups is lower than the overall average level. Secondly, the marginal structure in the interest network is more obvious than the core structure, leading to the imbalance of interest relationships. Thirdly, the local government agencies of the two villages have relatively lower transitivity, while the local communities have the highest transitivity. Finally, the interest groups in two villages lack liaison roles. Based on these results, the corresponding suggestions were put forward. Firstly, shape a close interest relation among interest groups to form effective interest coordination mechanism. Secondly, strengthen the internal relationship among the interest groups to form the effective conservation and development force. Thirdly, make full use of the high reciprocity and high transmission feature of interest network. Fourthly, focus on decision-making power and voice power in the interests relation network in local communities to increase the power of the local communities. Last but not the least, cultivate liaison roles such as coordinator, consultant inside and among the interest groups.

Key words: Social Network Analysis (SNA), world cultural heritage site, tourism village, governance of interest relationships, Hani Rice Terraces

CLC Number: 

  • F592.7