Scale is an important concept in geography. The evolution of scale connotation is closely related to the spatial organizational change in Western capitalist economic activities. With the scale shift of Western human geography, it has changed from being static and bounded by spatial entities to one characterized by process, evolution, dynamic social practices, and discourse representation. The Western scale has led to rapid developments in theory and practical applications. The conclusion of the Western scale is conducive to the dialog with Western scale research and is also of certain significance to formulating Chinese scale research . Taking Web of Science core data sets and Google academic literature as data sources, we retrieve keywords such as "scale" and "politics of scale," download relevant literature, and analyze and summarize it to obtain the background, focus, evolution process, and development direction of Western scale research. By clarifying the connotation and main content of Western scale research, it is found that 1) scale includes three main elements: theorizing scale, rhetoric of scale, and scales of praxis. The ontology of scale holds that it is a static hierarchical structure. The metaphor of scale is embodied in the fact that it can be deconstructed and expressed in a variety of ways through discourse. "Scales of praxis" means that scale is constructed in society through the interaction between different actors to re-create it. 2) There is unity and opposition between the three elements of the measure. In terms of unity, the theorizing scale creates the premise for the rhetoric of scale and the scales of praxis, and the rhetoric of scale and the scales of praxis develop the theorizing scale. In terms of opposites, the theorizing scale is the realist standpoint, while the rhetoric of scale and the scales of praxis are the products of constructivism. 3) The core of scale practice is scale politics, which focuses on the political game between different individuals or groups and emphasizes interests and efficiency, and easily causes negative social externalities and imbalances in resource allocation. It is necessary to introduce a third party to intervene, or regulate politics of scale, to realize the political economy of scale. Western scale research has experienced two typical stages, which have been fiercely debated: A. To materialize the scale into a fixed spatial entity; B. Different actors use scale to carry out social practice or discourse expression. In essence, the two stages are not completely separated in terms of time and main viewpoints. They mainly concentrate on the difference in focus, and there is a relationship between inheritance and complementarity. This indicates that the scale research of Sinicization needs to combine the two—to not only recognize the role of material space entities, but also accept the initiative of actors—and to regard scale as the relationship network of human and material interaction. In the specific application of scale, we should first divide the material spatial entity and scale it, subsequently analyzing the social facts shaped by it; then, one needs to analyze how the actors use discourse expression or political strategies to deconstruct and construct the scale, fully considering the possibility that individual interests infringe on social interests in the scale practice, and introduce the intermediary mechanism to intervene therein. This paper presents the conceptual framework of scale and realizes the induction of the application path of scale, which is embodied in three aspects: scale, scale deconstruction, and scale politics. At the same time, it proposes incorporating the effect of resource allocation into the analysis of scales of praxis to realize the political economy of scale, which not only expands the theoretical connotation of scale, but also increases the practical applicability and scope of scale.
Crime geography, as a new interdisciplinary subject in academia, has attracted extensive attention. Based on the "Web of ScienceTM Core Collection" and CNKI data sources, this study clarifies the thematic structure and development of crime geography in China and abroad by using CiteSpace. Specifically, the study comparatively examines the progress of crime geography studies in China and abroad since 2000 and analyzes future development trends from the time of publication, regional and subject distribution, research institutions, and keyword co-occurrence. We hope that this work provides a relatively complete and objective understanding for innovative future research. The results indicate that from 2000 to 2020, a total of 841 articles were published in the Web of Science across three growth stages—slow, medium, and rapid—with the most of these articles come from USA. For the same period, 160 articles were published in CNKI across two stages—initial exploration and slow development—with a relatively slower growth rate. The subject categories were wide, and cooperation networks among research institutions were stronger abroad. The studies were mainly in the fields of criminology and penology geography, environmental sciences and ecology, urban studies, and social sciences. Domestic subjects were relatively concentrated, and institutional connections were weak. Follow-up research is still in developmental stages. Foreign countries experience various crimes, across micro and macro areas, including violence, terrorism, racial discrimination, and gender discrimination. Crime, criminology & geography, space, place, hot spots, routine activity, and neighborhood were the main keywords in foreign studies, forming three thematic modules: crime distribution patterns; crime prevention and control countermeasures; and crime theory and methodology. Research in China focused on robberies, snatching and theft, child trafficking, and drug crimes, including keywords such as crime geography, crime hotspots, crime mapping, and GIS. The number of empirical studies on this topic is increasing. With the increase in interdisciplinary integration, crime geography has undergone significant development. Crime distribution patterns, spatial prevention and control measures, and crime risk simulations are still popular topics. "3S" technology and big data applications will become two parallel lines in future crime geography research. In the future, we need to examine the geographical environment of crime comprehensively and pay close attention to potential fields within crime geography. The development of information technology and the application of econometric models have brought new opportunities for crime geography. We must strengthen research cooperation among individuals, organizations, and institutional groups, and exchange and share results and experiences based on the current international social environment. It is pertinent to explore diverse crime prevention and control models through a global cooperative approach to address crime challenges faced by different regions.
China's rapid urbanization has contributed to an epidemiological transition from infectious diseases to chronic diseases over the last four decades. The aging of the population has also raised considerable challenges for the sustainable development of China's economy and society. Determining the effects of urbanization on older adults' general health in China is helpful for a more comprehensive assessment of current development in urbanization and to find active interventions to achieve healthy aging. Based on a micro-data sample from the 2010 China population census, nighttime light data, and other statistical data, this study employed two-level logistic regression models to estimate the relationships of the level and rate of urbanization with self-rated health among older Chinese adults on the county-level geographic scale and explore the differences in the health effects of urbanization in different groups of older people. We applied propensity score matching to control for self-selection bias. This study found that (1) the level and rate of China's urbanization have a significant positive correlation with older adults' self-reported health, such that older people living in areas with moderate urbanization and experiencing rapid urbanization are more likely to report good health; (2) those with junior high school education or below and those with local hukou benefit more from urbanization development; (3) after controlling for self-selection bias, the level and rate of urbanization are still positively associated with the self-reported health of older adults. In summary, this study used nationally representative census data covering 2805 counties across 31 provinces to provide a more comprehensive picture of urbanization-health relationships across the country. Longitudinal studies are warranted to determine causality, which may help policymakers and practitioners develop effective interventions to promote older adults' health and healthy aging.
The development of the film industry is among the main ways for countries to promote cultural communication, economic and social transformation, as well as upgrading. In China's film industry, the production, economic, and infrastructure construction scales are rapidly expanding, thus forming rapid growth in economic contributions. The scientific evaluation of the film industry is the basis for the objective study and judgment of its development trends and spatial layout. This paper constructs a comprehensive evaluation index system in three dimensions: the industrial environment, industrial scale, and industrial benefit, using the entropy method to comprehensively evaluate China's 2012-2018 provincial-scale film industry. Through a Geographic Information System (GIS) spatial analysis technology and geographic detector model, this paper discusses its evolution process and regional differentiation law from a spatial perspective. Further, it reveals the impact of geographic space on the film industry, which can provide a reference basis for the formulation of policies related to the spatial layout of the film industry. The results show that although the overall level of China's film industry development was poor in 2012-2018, the development pace has increased significantly. It has formed a high-level area in Beijing, Tianjin, and Hebei with Beijing as the core, a medium-level area in the Yangtze River Delta with Shanghai as the core and Jiangsu and Zhejiang as important components, and a rapid development area in the Pearl River Delta with Guangdong as the core. The "T" shaped space structure is gradually forming, it is obvious for the convergence feature of the development of the spatial and economic development patterns of the film industry. The development environment of the film industry is further optimized, and the overall spatial pattern presents a "concave" character that is high in the eastern and western regions and low in the central region. The scale of the film industry has risen rapidly, forming a pattern of industrial scale in the eastern developed regions higher than that in the central and western regions. The benefit of the industry has increased significantly, and it is increasingly clear that the pattern of spatial distribution is high in the southeast and low in the northwest. The discrepancy of the level of development of the film industry is large among provinces, and the trend of equilibrium evolution is becoming increasingly significant. Further, the film production release and box office revenue are the main reasons for the large difference in the provincial film industry index. The development of the film industry and spatio-temporal evolution are mainly driven by the economic aspect and degree of opening to the outside world. The factors of population, policy, culture, and so on work together. The market-oriented characteristics of the film industry are becoming increasingly prominent, and the market-oriented process is being further promoted. China's film industry needs to conduct a comprehensive construction from the industrial environment, scale, and effect subsystem to form a complete industrial system. By cultivating film and television enterprises, building film and television bases, and creating classic film and television products, we can promote the overall development of the film industry and achieve its industrial functions such as improving residents' artistic literacy and expanding employment. To this end, the support of special cash or funds such as film production and distribution and talent cultivation must be increased. For some underdeveloped areas where it is difficult to achieve the sound development of the film industry through the area's own endogenous power, it is necessary to introduce targeted special policies and financial support. The main academic contribution of this paper lies in providing a description path to explore the evolution process of the film industry from a geospatial perspective, and reveal the regional differentiation law of China's film industry. Finally, it serves to quantitatively characterize the driving factors of the evolution of the spatial pattern of China's film industry.
Typhoons, as essential influential factors for the formation and evolution of coastal dunes, are one of the most important aspects of surf zone-beach-dune interaction research. Pingtan Island is located on the eastern coast of Fujian Province, China, and preserves a typical type of coastal dunes on China's coastline. These dunes are well-known for their typical shape, volume, and limited human disturbance. Pingtan Island suffers frequent, unavoidable damage from typhoons, and was therefore selected as the study site for this research. Field investigations were conducted on the island before and after typhoon events, by using high-precision RTK GPS technology and surveying methods. The field site was visited 16 times between 2014 and 2017. We analyzed the morphological responses of coastal sand sheets to typhoons, and the related morphological changes. Finally, we summarized the morphological response patterns of coastal sand sheets to typhoons. This study is of great importance for comprehensively understanding the morphological evolution of coastal dunes, which is fundamental for effective coastal planning and management. The following results were obtained: (1) The typhoon imposed significant morphological changes on coastal sand sheets, which can be summarized as a decrease in the height of the beach and frontal coastal sand sheets (maximum erosional depth of 0.92 m), minor variations in the height of coastal sand sheets at middle sites (≤ 0.15 m), and a slight increase in the height of coastal sand sheets at the trailing edge (maximum accumulation thickness of 0.75 m). (2) After the typhoon season, the morphological changes in coastal sand sheets are more consistent, and they mainly manifest as a decrease in volume and a slight increase in the height of the beach and frontal coastal sand sheets (maximum accumulation thickness of 0.78 m). There was a very slight decrease in the height of the middle coastal sand sheets (≤ 0.10 m), and a slight decrease in height at trailing edge of the coastal sand sheets (maximum erosion depth of 0.47 m). (3) Coastline direction is an important factor that affects the response of regional coastal dunes to typhoons. At sites that lack sand resources and experience dominantly offshore wind, typhoons play a prominent role in frontal coastal sand sheet erosion, and can result in a receding coastline (up to 4.0-5.0 m).
Unlike previous ecological restoration programs, the main focus of ecological restoration of national land space has changed from a single element in the natural ecology to the whole social-ecological system. The approach of this ecological restoration has changed from applying the pipe-end treatment to a single process to employing system restoration of the community of life consisting of mountains, rivers, forests, fields, lakes, and seas. Additionally, the aim has evolved from improving the health and stability of the ecological system to building a complex system in which humans and nature can coexist and develop a harmonious relationship. As the research on ecological restoration of national land space is developing a systemic and comprehensive view, it urgently requires support from multidisciplinary theories and methodologies. Ecological restoration planning of national land space at the provincial level is an action guide and programmatic document for provinces to further promote the construction of ecological civilization in this new era. This is a new but arduous and complex strategic task that allows extensive discussion on its research theories and methods. Accordingly, multidisciplinary theories and methods and participation from different parties and places are required. This study begins with the analysis of the scientific connotation and theoretical basis of ecological restoration planning of national land space, uses the man-land relationship theoretical framework as the guidance, integrates landscape ecology and nature-based solutions, and considers the local practice of ecological restoration planning of national land space in Guangdong Province. This paper presents the ideas and methods of provincial-level ecological restoration planning of national land space by focusing on the key points and difficulties, such as targets, indicators, major patterns, regional layout, and engineering systems. This is summarized as follows: the overall thinking of "six steps," the target system of "four dimensions," the zoning task of "three spaces," the spatial layout of "three levels," and the engineering system of "three scales." The study enriches the research on the method of ecological restoration planning of national land space by refining thoughts and methods and providing a reference for the ongoing ecological restoration planning of provincial-level national land space in China.
Territorial spatial planning is the optimization and adjustment of territories for modern countries in response to environmental changes in development. Since 2018, China has gradually established a territorial spatial planning system and has carried out the compilation of territorial spatial planning. In recent years, significant changes have taken place in the development environment—both domestically and abroad—illustrating the trends of shortened-chains and the regionalization of the global economy, intelligent and digital production and manufacturing, low-carbon and green social development, aging populations, and the presence of minority populations, all of which have a systematic and profound impact on China's economic and social development, as well as territory development and protection. Territorial spatial planning must be a response to the prevailing context timely. On one hand, China has a vast territory, a large population, obvious regional differences, and a huge market space. Therefore, it is necessary to build a new pattern of territory development and protection to coordinate both economic and social development and territory development, promote the matching between humans and nature, and improve the quality of economic development and people's quality of life. Territorial spatial planning should (1) support the "dual circulation" pattern with the domestic cycle as the main body and improve the efficiency of the national economy; (2) strengthen the comprehensive competitiveness and innovation capabilities of urban agglomerations and metropolitan areas to increase the carrying capacity of populations and industries; (3) build a new type of infrastructure that adapts to the new development concept; (4) and reconstruct the spatial patterns to respond to demographic changes. On the other hand, it is necessary to further improve the territorial spatial planning system, enhance the strategy of overall spatial planning, give full play to the professionalism of special planning, improve the humanistic nature of detailed planning, formulate and implement cross-regional spatial planning, improve the institutional mechanism of continuous spatial governance, and comprehensively improve the capacity of spatial governance and the modernization level of the governance system.
Through the establishment of the territorial spatial planning system, the logic of territorial spatial governance in the new era has gradually become clear, with ecological civilization construction as the strategic guidance, five development concepts(innovative, coordinated, green, open and shared development concept) as the ideological guidance, and territorial spatial planning as the basic tool. Based on the implications of territorial spatial and spatial planning, this study analyzed the internal value transmission relationship under territorial spatial governance and explored the logic of the general territorial spatial planning index system at the city and county scale required to meet high-quality development. Three main points regarding strategies to enhance territorial spatial planning were highlighted in this study. First, there is a strict internal transmission relationship between spatial planning goals and governance indicators. At present, territorial spatial governance for high-quality development faces complex problems. The government's multi-level strategic objectives and spatial governance concepts differentiate and evolve during the transmission, which leads to differences in the planning index system with respect to aspects such as attention, control, and overall planning. The guidance and control of planning implementation through planning indicators at all levels helps to achieve development goals and manage spatial issues. Second, the development of the index system for general territorial spatial planning at city and county scale requires not only the transmission of top-down hierarchical management and spatial governance for specific problems but also the exertion of index control based on constraints and expectations. Additionally, the index system also needs to consider the supporting role of new urbanization, rural revitalization, marine economy, ecological civilization, and other strategic objectives. Simultaneously, we should grasp the boundaries of developmental, regional, and spatial planning; carry out classified management around the territorial spatial using control objectives; and increase the proportion of spatial indicators in the index system. Third, the consensus on the planning index system in the era of multi-planning parallelism is to break down and reorganize. To build a planning index system for high-quality development, we need to recognize the strategic and fundamental roles of territorial spatial planning and respond to the incremental implementation of national strategies and improvement in the ability of territorial spatial governance. Under different resource endowments with different strategic development layouts and social and economic development stages, relying on the evolving logic of the index system will facilitate the development of a more practical planning index system with unified implications and provide support for the compilation, implementation, supervision, investigation, and evaluation of territorial spatial planning in the new era.
China is the advocator and builder of the thought of a community with a shared future for mankind. The international dissemination of its discourse requires more solid theoretical supporting research. Hence, the thought of a community with a shared future for mankind is China's intelligent contribution to the world and has been instrumental in solving major regional and global problems. Consequently, the Chinese academic community has the responsibility and obligation to convey the thought of a community with a shared future for mankind to the world in an understandable, objective, and authentic discourse. Further, it is responsible for continuously enhancing the scientific aspect and feasibility of the thought through academic achievements and excellence, thus establishing a leading research system. Currently, COVID-19 jeopardizes global public health security, including in political, economic, and social arenas. However, countries across the world are already in a state of close ties and destiny. Amid global public security incidents, the thought of a community with a shared future for mankind is connected by common interests, values, and responsibilities. Through the value resonance of its theoretical connotation, contacts and cooperation between countries are promptly promoted to form a close community of interests, health, destiny, and responsibilities to jointly respond to global crises and disasters. Therefore, amid the critical global fight against COVID-19, society urgently needs to forge an international consensus for fighting against this virus and maintaining global public health and safety with the thought of a community of a shared future for mankind. Accordingly, based on the perspectives of geopolitics and community, this paper first attempts to explore a theoretical analysis of the thought of a community with a shared future for mankind regarding scientific connotation, historical evolution, and contemporary values. Then, we examine specific cases to explain the practical applications of the thought of a community with a shared future for mankind in the fight against COVID-19 from the perspective of domestic practice, the Chinese program, and Western practice. Further, in doing so, we aim to demonstrate its dual value in spread and practice as well as its plight. Finally, we propose that governance and responsibility in the post-COVID-19 era, based on the thought of a community with a shared future for mankind, should be implemented by countries globally. Doing so involves playing a significant role in promoting global cooperation, maintaining world public health security, preventing a global recession, eliminating secondary disasters arising from COVID-19, transforming global governance, and reshaping international geopolitical relations. Therefore, this article may contribute to human society in fully and objectively understanding the thought of a community with a shared future for mankind, thus leading it to play a greater role in solving major global issues such as public health emergencies.
Under global economic competition, rescaling has become an important cross-border governance means to control the development of domestic space to attract capital flows and foster regional economic development momentum. City integration is a kind of urban regional scale, and its mechanism of cross-border governance has gradually become an important regional integration issue. At present, research on cross-border governance from the perspective of rescaling focuses on urban areas represented by urban agglomerations and metropolitan areas and new functional areas represented by state-level new areas, with limited research on the scale of city integration at the meso level. The discussion on the role and status of corresponding governance subjects, construction mechanisms, and incentive mechanisms needs to be enriched. In this paper, the evolution of cross-border governance is discussed from the perspective of rescaling, taking Guangfo city integration, which is relatively mature in the process of domestic city integration, as an example. The study finds that, taking the introduction of the outline of the reform and development plan for the Pearl River Delta region in 2008 and the outline of the development plan for the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area in 2019 as the target, the city integration process of Guangfo has experienced two stages of rescaling: from the governance scale of an "administrative area" to that of a "functional area" represented by the pilot zone for the high-quality development integration of Guangfo. By comparing and analyzing the cross-border governance mechanisms of city integration across different scales, this study finds that the city integration governance stage of the "functional area" scale, first, enriches the participation of multiple governance subjects, extending from "city-district-town" multi-level government to the functional platform management committee and platform joint venture company. Second, on the basis of the project implementation mechanism led by municipal departments, the construction mechanism strengthens the planning, construction, and operation mechanisms guided by functional areas and, taking the whole cycle as the concept, increases emphasis on integrated planning, construction, and operation. Third, the incentive mechanism has shifted from the driving of political instructions and economic benefits to the striving for policy and the sharing of institutional dividend. Both "administrative area" and "functional area" are the positive scales restructuring strategy of Guangfo to deal with the global competitive environment and respond to the requirements of national strategy. The two-stage cross-border governance mechanism is neither beneficial nor harmful, but is a choice to adapt to the different development stages of city integration. The governance mechanism of the "functional area" scale can be regarded as the experience retention and gradual reform of Guangfo's original governance mechanism, to improve the governance efficiency of the city integration and competitiveness. Guangfo's practice of using rescaling to promote cross-border governance reform and deepening in the last ten years can provide a certain reference for cross-border governance in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area and other metropolitan areas in China. However, it should be pointed out that at present, the rescaling of the pilot area is more reflected in spatial planning and cooperation agreements, and has failed to produce a spatial governance subject that is fully integrated with the new scale. In addition, the deeper benefit sharing and risk responsibility sharing mechanism still needs to be strengthened.
With a strong emphasis on historical heritage and culture-making, culture-led redevelopment has become an important policy in many megacities to revitalize declining areas, such as urban villages. However, local governments have different understandings of cultural development and historic preservation and often take them at face value while ignoring the internal mechanisms. For cities of migration, cultural identity has richer connotations. The time-space nexus between the origins and destinations of migrants is highly significant for fostering a diverse and more inclusive urban culture. Taking three urban villages in Singapore and Shenzhen as empirical cases and using the theoretical perspective of cultural identity, this paper explores the culture-making process in the redevelopment of urban villages. We argue that the essence of cultural identity lies in social relations, not merely in visual symbols and images, and understanding cultural identity requires comprehending the relations between the global and the local, as well as between the past and the present embedded in places. The paper starts with an interpretation of the culture-led macro policy, followed by an analysis of urban redevelopment's internal political and economic driving forces. Based on data from participant observation and semi-structured interviews in both cities, a qualitative analysis on the modality, mechanism, and influences of identity-making in urban village redevelopment was conducted. Research findings include differences in the dominant stakeholders' attitudes toward cultural identity, especially migrants' identity, in the redevelopment modalities in the two aforementioned cities. These differences have led to different outcomes. The case of Singapore's Geylang Serai Village centered on the living needs and activities of Malay migrants, who were the main residents there, to conduct the regeneration. Further, the Housing and Development Board (HDB) issued a policy to ensure residents' housing rights. Therefore, the program maintained the continuity of the existing community by protecting the spontaneously formed identity while developing the showcase economy based on simultaneous market activities. Regarding Shenzhen, developers of Nantou Ancient City and Gankeng Hakka Town focused on specific historical periods and designated the architectural style as the local characteristic in order to develop the tourism economy. However, the top-down imposed identity had little to do with the migrants' community, which led to their exclusion and broke down their established social networks, indicating that the mere focus on beautifying the physical environment will lead to gentrification catering to middle-class aesthetics. The study findings point to the conclusion that the designation of the cultural identity of a place is, effectively, the use of cultural capital. The voice of identity in cultural discourses represents the social right of a community to urban spaces. Therefore, culture-led urban village redevelopment should focus more on local communities' social relations and actual needs in order to promote a more just, inclusive, and sustainable urban redevelopment.
Drawing upon the existing literature and practice, the study revealed two main ways to renew urban villages, namely demolition and reconstruction and on-site rectification. However, it is challenging to meet the sustainable development needs of the city regarding economy, society, and environment using these approaches. Accordingly, they have become the key factors restricting the process and effect of urban renewal. Therefore, this study introduces the theory of sustainability science, draws lessons from the three-dimensional analysis framework of "object-subject-process" in management science, and establishes the research framework of sustainable renewal mode in urban villages by taking communities and individual projects as the spatial scale of research. This model emphasizes several dimensions. The object dimension entails pursuing economic and social prosperity under the premise that the key natural capital is not reduced. The process dimension consists of conducting the whole process reform of the causal chain. The main dimension encompasses pursuing the cooperative governance of the government, enterprises, villagers, and village collective. The empirical study of Huanghe Village in Hou Lake, Changsha, was planned by the government, contracted by enterprises, and coordinated by village communities through house preparation. In addition, this paper evaluates the renewal path of "moving but not demolishing and overall development and comprehensive renovation" from the perspective of sustainable development. The results show that the model has a positive impact on balancing the interests of multiple parties, revitalization of the stock of land resources, promotion of the upgrading of industrial structure, improvement of the urban space quality, and protection of the village culture. However, since the model does not involve the changes of the property rights of farmers' self-built houses, it is difficult to fundamentally solve the historical problems originating from the process of urban village renewal, such as the transformation of farmers' citizenship status and farmers' livelihood risks. In addition, the case selected by the empirical study is specific in terms of the location and evolution process, which may directly affect the copy effect of the case. Nevertheless, this study is an attempt to interpret the practice of urban renewal using the theory of sustainability science, which provides new insight into promoting the sustainable renewal of urban villages, as well as experiences in China.
With the transformation from a focus on material spaces to spatial experiences within the field of gentrification-displacement, the lifeworld constituted by daily experiences was the fundamental starting point of this study. Daily experiences as such do not only refer to unconscious universal experiences but also contingent ones, so that the lifeworld at issue is a field of care as well as a field of suffering simultaneously, within which both rootedness and rootlessness are concerned. Therefore, the field of displacement integrates into the frame of Lefebvre's spatial triad in such a way that the lifeworld at issue is manifested as representational space and spatial practice. The lifeworld, as a pivotal concept of phenomenology, as well as the spatial triad can both be seen to merge into the field of displacement and further induce the transformation of the focus from direct displacement to indirect displacement, which regards daily experiences as its base. Meanwhile, a qualitative analysis of local symbols, within which local agencies act and react, has been adopted in this study field as an effective spatial practice in the production of representational space. Representational space as one side of the spatial triad tends to be regarded as the opposite side of spatial representation, in many cases, and both are linked by spatial practice. Within the frame of spatial triad, this study mainly concerns the experiences of lifeworld stemming from gentrification-displacement which is regarded as the representational space represented through the locals' practice. Based on the theoretical context in question, the authors conducted an investigation of gentrification-displacement experiences in the Xiahao community of Nan'An District of Chongqing, which is a very typical historical and cultural district confronting displacement by tourism gentrification. In addition, another item by Lefebvre, "social space," was also included in this study to place a stronger emphasis on hierarchical social groups catering for this case study on recognition, action, and emotion at a local level. The findings of this study included two main aspects. First, the displacement experiences were demonstrated by distinguishing the features within three main social groups: residents, migrants, and tourists. (1) Residents' experiences comprised the loss of memories related to their own families' life history in the long term as well as the disappearance of the routine of intimate interpersonal relationships in the neighborhood. (2) The displacement experiences of migrants were manifested as the loss of a free lifestyle that was far removed from the lifestyle of metropolises. (3) The displacement experiences of tourists were illustrated as the loss of an authentic place where these people could conduct their own authentic experiences based on nostalgia. Second, within the process of gentrification-induced displacement, migrants' cultural and commercial activities played an important role in bridging the gap between the inside authentic space and the outside commercial space, thereby provoking the arrival of numerous tourists in the community, resulting in long-term indirect displacement. Along with the prominent activities of migrants, an outside capital logic was thereafter involved in this community, leading to a completely irreversible transformation as a commercialized space.
With the continuous collision of localization and globalization, the transmutation and development of local culture is constantly advancing. Ethnic and cultural borders are blurred, so that social memory is gradually lost. How to maintain the uniqueness of the destination is worth thinking about for destination marketing organizations. In this context, foodscape is deemed to establish the vivid branding image of the destination and plays a significant role in the process of creating social memory. With the rapid evolution of digital technology and mass media, the impact of videos is becoming increasingly obvious. Documentary is one of the most significant ways to save and share social memory, and its greatest feature is that it is drawn from the real living environment. A Bite of China is
more well-known compared with many other domestic and foreign food documentaries because of its strong humanistic spirituality. Thus, we use commentary and interview texts of A Bite of China as research materials. In this article, sentiment analysis, sematic network analysis, and ground theory are applied to analyze the video material, which aims to illustrate the representation and creation of foodscape on social memory. The main conclusions are summarized as follows: (1) In terms of the results of sentiment analysis, people mainly have a positive attitude toward daily food experience. The formation of social memory is based on people's self-awareness and emotional cognition. People's emotional identity forms the mainstream ideology of society and frames the development orientation of social memory. (2) According to the semantic network diagram, food taste, food culture, and family are the most significant in people's memory, which enrich the connotation of social memory. Moreover, from the perspective of time-space dimension, people can activate the path of retaining social memory and construct memorial space via ancient books, anecdotes, bodily practices, and memorial ceremonies; (3) Finally, the representation of foodscape on social memory is divided into three dimensions: environmental, functional, and emotional. First, as far as environmental memory is concerned, a specific food environment can evoke people's memory, which plays a basic role in the formation of social memory. Second, in terms of functional memory, food relies on various carriers with distinctive features, such as villages, classics, legends, customs, and folk songs, which can play social and cultural functions. Third, emotional memory emphasizes the symbolism and emotional value of food, which plays a leading role in the formation of social memory. Overall, the study reveals the mechanism of creation of foodscape on social memory. On the one hand, the research, particularly localized research, enlarges and enriches the study on food and memories. On the other hand, the role of mass media must be recognized. Additionally, destination marketing organizations ought to take active steps to create local foodscape for locals and tourists.
Over the past forty years of reform and opening up, the urban center system in the Pearl River Delta Region has been rapidly restructured. Its two central cities, Guangzhou and Shenzhen, have been fiercely competing in the field of economic development. Dealing with the functional positioning of the two cities has constituted a long-term concern for regional planning and policy making. Under the new circumstances of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, there is an urgent need to clarify the functional positioning of the two central cities of Guangzhou and Shenzhen. Further, there is a need to coordinate the relationship between competition and cooperation, the premise of which lies in the dynamic and accurate identification of urban functional characteristics. Previous studies directly used economic and industrial statistical data to study and analyze urban functions. However, due to the relative low frequency and high cost of data collection and analysis, it is difficult to carry out real-time analysis using these data. Based on the theoretical understanding of the projection of city functions to the city network, this article uses inter-city air passenger flow as its research medium. Further, it uses the air passenger flow data extracted from Baidu location-based services (LBS) big data. Taking the Chinese city network as its overall scope, it adopts the following two approaches. First, it compares the functional characteristics of the cities where the air passenger flows toward Guangzhou and Shenzhen are sourced. Second, it compares the functional characteristics of the employment places in the two megacities of Beijing and Shanghai, where the air passenger flows toward Guangzhou and Shenzhen are sourced. Therefore, the functional attributes and the functional areas of the source cities are used as the basis for identifying the comparative functional features of Guangzhou and Shenzhen to judge their overall functional characteristics in the Chinese urban network. The research results show the following. 1) First, compared with Shenzhen, Guangzhou's network connection with cities across China and Beijing and Shanghai focuses on administrative management and business functions. It plays the role of an administrative and business center within the spatial scale of the Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration. 2) Second, compared with Guangzhou, Shenzhen focuses on technological innovation, finance, and high-tech manufacturing functions, and plays the role of a technological innovation and financial center and high-tech manufacturing base under the scale of the Pearl River Delta. 3) Third, as the two major service industry centers in the Pearl River Delta region, Guangzhou focuses on public and general producer services, and Shenzhen focuses on advanced producer services such as finance and technological research and development. Shenzhen has a higher status within the Chinese urban network system based on the producer service industry. The method provided by this article, which involves locational big data to flexibly extract urban functional characteristics from the city network, is novel. Further, it can serve as a supplementary approach to the studies on urban functions which relied on traditional economic and industrial statistics. Meanwhile, the research results of this article provide evidence for deepening the theoretical understanding of the urban function-space-network mapping relationship.
China's social and economic development is currently transitional. There is great incompatibility between the traditional construction land allocation model and the requirements of social and economic development, marked by a prominent contradiction between the supply and demand of construction land that has severely restricted the sustained and healthy development of China's social economy. Improving the efficiency of land resource allocation has become a new driving force for economic growth. With the limited driving power of this factor input for economic development, it is important to explore the occurrence and mechanism of rare construction land resource misallocation to secure the structural benefits of construction land allocation and sustainable economic development, as correcting construction land misallocation would greatly advance land supply-side reform and improve the efficiency of land resource allocation. To explain the mechanism of construction land misallocation, the article builds models for the measurement of both construction land misallocation and its mechanism, applying methods such as spatial autocorrelation model and the spatial Dubin model (SDM). Using these models, we focus on the space-time characteristics, driving factors, and spatial effects of construction land misallocation in China from 2001 to 2016. The sample data in this article come from 235 prefecture-level cities in China. The results show that the misallocation of construction land in China tends to decrease, followed by an increase, with a spatial distribution high in the West and low in the East. There were obvious spatial agglomeration and association features of construction land misallocation and its influencing factors in China, but the spatial correlation effect has weakened. Land financial dependence, industrial structure optimization, and market development have a significant negative impact on construction land misallocation, while government corruption and economic development have a significant positive impact and exert a space spillover effect. We find that the misallocation of construction land in our country is widespread and shows an upward trend. Changing the mode of economic development, increasing government governance, and improving market mechanisms and regional integration can effectively alleviate the misallocation of regional construction land. This paper is significant in discussing the driving factors of construction land misallocation from both theoretical and empirical perspectives, and in analyzing their spatial effect for the first time. It provides research directions and ideas for quantitatively exploring the problem of land resource misallocation, and indicates a feasible way to correct the misallocation of land resources.
A highly educated workforce is an important driving factor for urban innovation and development. A better understanding of spatial patterns and location determinants of highly educated workers is valuable for designing policies to attract them. The existing literature has investigated the impacts of economic variables and urban amenities on the patterns of highly educated workers. However, the relationship between urban amenities and highly educated workers needs to be investigated further. Moreover, few studies have examined the impact of urban size on the agglomeration of highly educated workers. Thus, this study employed a spatial analysis method to examine the pattern of highly educated workers across 300 cities in China, based on 2010 census data. We used a negative binomial regression model to identify the determinants of highly educated workers' locations. The results are numerous. First, the size of highly educated workers varied greatly among cities of different ranks, and its rank-size distribution was consistent with power function characteristics. It was characterized by spatial convergence and zonal differentiation from East to West. Highly educated workers were distributed mostly across the eastern coastal area, the central-southern area of Liaoning peninsula, the Harbin-Changchun urban agglomeration, and in inland provincial capitals. Second, the share of highly educated workers in total employment in the resource-dependent cities of north China and eastern coastal urban agglomeration was significantly higher, while it was obviously low in central and southwest China. Comparing the rank-size distribution characteristics of highly educated workers along with their total employment, the cities with rich attractions for highly educated workers were mainly located in Inner Mongolia, Northeast China, the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei metropolitan area, the Shandong Peninsula, the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta, and inland provincial capitals. Third, the estimated results show that the spatial pattern of highly educated workers was affected by urban amenities, economic opportunities, and the agglomeration effect. At the national level, economic opportunities, city size, and housing prices dominated the spatial pattern of highly educated workers, while the cool summer climate, high quality education resources, and recreation and transportation resources also played important roles. Fourth, the distribution of highly educated labors was affected by both economic opportunities and amenities, but the role of amenities was quite different in different size-ranked cities. The main amenity factors for the disparities of highly educated workers in large cities were found to be those of temperature in January and July, high-quality early childhood education resources, recreation resources, and traffic conditions. For the medium-sized cities, the dominant amenities included high-quality primary and secondary education resources and cultural and artistic services. Regarding the disparities of highly educated workers among small cities, the main contributing amenity factors were high-quality preschool and middle-school education resources, high-quality medical resources, recreation resources, and air quality. This study supports previous opinion that the amenities contribute to attracting talent. It also reveals the role of the agglomeration effect in the spatial distribution of the highly educated labors, which enriches our understanding for the location choice of highly educated workers in economic geography. This study enlightens us in the sense that the policies to attract talent should not only take labor market into account but also work to improve the amenities that such people work in.
As an emerging industry formed by the integration of multiple industries, the e-sports industry contributes to urban development, economic growth, and promotion of urban image owing to the characteristics of low pollution, strong driving effect, and high social influence. However, the e-sport industry is a new industry with limited studies about the general features, evolutionary mechanism, and spatial dynamics. As an e-sports industry center in China, Shanghai has the most complete e-sports industry chain and the largest industrial scale. This study takes Shanghai as a classical case to explore the spatial evolution process, features, and influencing factors of the e-sports industry using the spatial analysis methods, including the kernel density estimation, nearest neighbor index, and the Kriging spatial interpolation analysis based on the data mining of Shanghai e-sports enterprises from 2006 to 2018. The results show that, first, according to factors such as historical background, policy support, and development characteristics, the e-sports industry in Shanghai can be divided into the initial stage from 2006 to 2010, the rapid development stage from 2010 to 2014, and the explosive growth stage from 2014 to 2018. Second, the spatial distribution of the e-sports industry in Shanghai has evolved from a dual-core aggregation to a multi-core aggregation with the characteristics of central aggregation and simultaneous outward expansion. The south and north are the main directions of the expansion of e-sports enterprises. Third, high-capital e-sports enterprises tend to focus on software parks and universities in the surrounding area. There are currently four high-capital hotspots, namely, Zizhu Science Park in Minhang District, Zhaojiabang Road in Xuhui District, Lantian Enterprise Development Industrial Park in Jiading District, and Tiandi Software parks in Putuo District. These hotspots will have more opportunities to extend more competitive e-sports enterprises in the future because spin-off firms can inherit excellent capabilities from the parent firms. Fourth, based on the analysis framework of agglomeration economy—enterprise spin-off—institutional environment, this study analyzes the evolution mechanism of e-sports industry cluster in Shanghai. The agglomeration economy plays a centripetal role, the enterprise spin-off enables new enterprises to inherit successful routines from the parent company, and the institutional environment is conducive to the formation and management of industries. Compared with previous studies which showed that the government plays a smaller role in promoting the cultural industry, the development of the e-sports industry is affected more by the institutional environment. Finally, at an urban scale, government policy planning has a guiding effect on the location selection of the e-sports industry. High-quality human resources, economic development level, e-sports market environment, and transportation convenience are the key factors for the aggregation of e-sports enterprises. In addition, compared with traditional industries, the e-sports industry has the characteristics of competition as a sporting activity. Furthermore, the excitement of competition and the holding of big e-sports events will have a significant impact on the development of the e-sports industry. This study explores the spatial-temporal pattern, evolution process, influencing factors, and evolution mechanisms of the e-sports industry in Shanghai from the perspective of evolutionary economic geography. This study verifies and enriches the theory of evolutionary economic geography from an empirical perspective, providing a theoretical basis for optimizing the spatial distribution of the e-sports industry, developing an e-sports industry cluster district, and enhancing the urban cultural brand. It also provides a decision-making reference for other cities to develop the e-sports industry.
On December 31st, 2019, the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission issued the first report of the pneumonia epidemic of novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19). Studies regarding the relationships between traffic and the epidemic situation are far from systematic. When the epidemic broke out in Wuhan, Hubei province, an important transportation hub of China, it occurred at the peak of Spring Festival-related travel. Therefore, the relationships between the spread of the epidemic and the impact of traffic have remained underexplored. This paper systematically analyzes the spatiotemporal characteristics, hazards, and the growth trend of COVID-19 spread from a macroscopic and full sample perspective, to provide a comprehensive understanding toward epidemic prevention and control in China and abroad. The analysis performed in this article is based on the publicly available data, using the basic reproductive number measure and complex network method. This study found the following. First, the overall growth of the epidemic is exponential, and the outbreak of Hubei province in China has a strong spread in the eastern and southern directions. Provinces such as Jiangsu, Hunan, and Fujian have seen rapid day-to-day growth rates, and the epidemic situation is generally more serious in the capital or the developed city in each province. Based on analyzing the disturbance of the spread of the epidemic through traffic control, the average incubation period of COVID-19 was approximately found to be four days and the number of basic regenerations showed a downward trend in fluctuation. As of April 8th, the R0 in all regions of China tended to be one. The ratio of cure to death outside Hubei province is much higher than that within Hubei province, indicating that with sufficient medical resources, the risk of the epidemic can be greatly reduced, and it is not to be feared. Second, the quarantine policy of Hubei has a greater impact on cities with higher centrality. From the perspective of changes in centrality, most cities in the northern region have increased their centrality, indicating that the region's connection with Hubei Province is relatively weak. The cities with decreasing centrality are mainly located in the Beijing-Guangzhou line and the Yangtze River Delta. Similarly, the changes in the bottom 20 cities on the centrality ranking are also analyzed. Except for a slight change in the ranking, the cities have been not affected. Additionally, before and after the "closing of the Hubei province", the number of edges of China's railway network, Beta and gamma indicators all declined, but the decline was not significant. Thus, although Hubei plays an important role in China's railway network, in general, the " quarantine of the Hubei province" does not have a particularly large impact on China's entire railway network.
With more than 26 million confirmed cases and over two million case-fatalities worldwide, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has transformed the dynamics of human lives globally. It has been designated as a pandemic by the World Health Organization. The COVID-19 virus can be transmitted through droplets, aerosols, or direct contact. It possesses evident characteristics of human-to-human transmission. Additionally, COVID-19 is a highly pathogenic new coronavirus, and people are prone to serious respiratory diseases resulting in high mortality after becoming infected. It has posed a great security threat to the entire human society and caused hundreds of billions of economic losses. The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic spread from Wuhan to all other cities in China before Spring Festival, causing serious public health issues and preventing the growth of the social economy. Analyzing the spatial-temporal spread pattern of COVID-19 can support the prevention of the epidemic. Thus, this study aims to analyze the temporal-spatial spread characteristics of COVID-19 in Hubei Province. First, a regression model with variables of migration big data (mobility scale index (MSI) and traffic intensity) is employed to explore the temporal pattern of the spread of the epidemic. Second, the spatial spread characteristics of COVID-19 are analyzed using a regression model comprising transportation information (primary and secondary road transportation networks) and social economic information (2018 GDP data). The results illustrate the following. First, the regression model based on population migration data and daily COVID-19 cases in each city was significant (Sig.=0.00), with R2 up to 0.715, indicating that the independent variable could explain the dependent variable. As indicated by the standardized coefficient results, MSI (0.85) has a greater impact on the daily new cases in each city. Second, the cumulative infection rate per 10000 people was positively correlated with the number of medical institutions and GDP with correlation coefficients of 0.689 and 0.774, respectively, Sig. was less than 0.05. However, it was not correlated with the number of beds (Sig. > 0.05). Third, the spatial regression model based on the traffic network, socio-economic data and cumulative infection rate of ten thousand people in each city of Hubei was also significant. The independent variables in the model can explain the variability of 67.2% of the dependent variables. The results of the standardized coefficient show that the GDP ratio of each city has a greater impact on the model. The results of the study are expected to provide scientific data support for the government and epidemic prevention workers to formulate efficient epidemic prevention and policy decisions. In conclusion, the model fit of multiple regression on the time scale is better than that on the spatial scale. Population migration has the greatest impact on the spread of the epidemic. That is, population mobility has a greater effect on the prevention and control of epidemic situations. The results of the study are expected to provide scientific data support for the government on formulating epidemic prevention policies.
The COVID-19 interrupted the lives of Wuhan residents. This study attempted to understand the psychological loss and emotional changes in urban residents in this unusual period by exploring the relationship between city, residents, and landscape. By comparing the typicality of Wuhan's representative landscape during this period, we chose cherry blossoms as representative of the landscape of Wuhan. We then selected six cities as data sources for non-Wuhan regions (i.e., Beijing, Shenyang, Xi'an, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Kunming). Using crawler software, we collected Sina micro-texts that contained Wuhan cherry blossoms and were published by residents of Wuhan and non-Wuhan areas. After eliminating the invalid text, using the big data text analysis tools ROST CM6 and Gephi, we obtained the key nodes in the micro-texts expression. Then, using coding analysis of grounded theory, we explored the emotional relationship between the urban representative landscape and the residents in different regions and identified the emotional effect of Wuhan cherry blossoms during the epidemic. The study reached the following conclusions: 1) There were many indications of scattered concern in the posts of cherry blossoms from local residents, which were closely related to the details of life and emotional changes during the epidemic. Non-natives had fewer concerns and were more focused, mainly expressing blessings for Wuhan and China. 2) The average emotion value of Wuhan residents' micro-texts was negatively correlated with the number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 during its rising period and positively correlated during its declining period, while the emotional value of non-Wuhan residents was negatively correlated with the number of confirmed COVID-19 patients. 3) The impact of the urban representative landscape on the emotions of residents in different regions was closely related to the development of the epidemic situation. In particular, the Wuhan cherry blossoms had an emotional support effect on Wuhan local residents during the epidemic, which gave people the power to face the epidemic positively, while at the same time, having an emotional cohesion effect on non-Wuhan residents during the epidemic, which prompted people to help Wuhan positively. (4) The epidemic changed the background of human emotions and landscape interpretation, giving the landscape new meaning. This new landscape meaning in turn affects human emotions and constitutes a closed emotional circuit. Based on the research conclusion, different emotional effects were discussed based on the theory of sense of place and national identity. The research conclusion had not only theoretical value but also practical significance. Finally, we suggest that anti-epidemic recovery work should pay more attention to residents' psychological problem and start with the emotional relationship between residents, the city, and the landscape to convey the idea of better urban life to Wuhan residents.
This study analyzed the radiocarbon chronology, lithology, and diatom and mollusk shell assemblages obtained from the profile of the Jiefang Middle Road archeological site in Yuexiu District, Guangzhou. It is determined that the Guangzhou Old Town, which lies on the northern bank of the Pearl River, was in a river bed and an estuarine wetland or lowland during the pre-Qin period. Microfossils of organisms with a high salinity tolerance were not observed in the sediment as the inflow of fresh water reduced the estuarine salinity; only estuarine-marine diatom taxa were found, with the mollusk shell fragments being mostly those of freshwater species and a few brackish water species. Therefore, we postulate that the salinity of the water bodies within the Guangzhou region was completely different during the pre-Qin period than during the mid-Holocene. In the former period, the area along the riverbanks of the Pearl River was mainly affected by riverine freshwater discharge and upward tidal convergence. In addition, radiocarbon dating results and the absence of enclosed bivalve mollusk shells in situ suggested that most of the freshwater and brackish water mollusk shells excavated at the site were food waste discarded by the ancient Nanyue people during the period in which their fishing tradition boomed in the pre-Qin (Eastern Zhou Dynasty) period. This also suggested that the shell deposits were relocated to the later strata via constant digs by the Nanyue successors, most probably due to the expansion of the town and restoration of the river, development of agricultural irrigation, or redeposition caused by the flooding that occurred throughout the Tang Dynasty. Since the establishment of the Nanyue Kingdom, signs of frequent human activity–particularly during the Tang Dynasty–can be recognized in the study area, which was then still a wetland or lowland area influenced mainly by fluvial and tidal dynamic forces, with its soil fertility serving as a foundation for the flourishing of agriculture. This is also consistent with the human-driven shoreline reorganization of the Pearl River noted in the Tang historical records. During the period from the late Tang Dynasty to the Five Dynasties, rulers expanded the wetland in the south due to a marked growth in population. Moreover, the region was exposed above water and gradually developed into the Guangzhou Old Town during the Northern Song Dynasty, despite having been affected-to some extent-by multiple flood events, as recorded in the history of the Kaibao reign (AD 968-976) and Zhidao reign (AD 995-997). The expansion and development of the Guangzhou Old Town continued during the Song Dynasty, with the expansion of agricultural and industrial practices, and the shoreline of the Pearl River was pushed farther south. In conclusion, the environmental and urban transformation of the Pearl River Delta region since ca. 2 ka BP were mainly related to the influence of Holocene sea level alterations, the quantity of river sediment being discharged, pressure from human use of the land, and the practice of river restoration. This study also suggests that the archeological records coincide with the historical records and the general course of the progressive transformation of the Pearl River Delta region, thereby providing new evidence for environmental archeological research.
On the 40th anniversary of Tropical Geography, a Bibliometric analysis based on CiteSpace was made on 2 938 articles published in tropical geography during1980-2019. At the interval of every 10 years, this paper conducted keyword co-occurrence analysis, keyword emergent detection, author co-occurrence analysis and institution co-occurrence analysis, aiming to explore the trends of the themes, historical burst terms, the core author partnerships and the core institutions partnerships in Tropical Geography. As a result, in the first 20 years, the research topics and areas of Tropical Geography were concentrated, mostly focusing on south China and the development and utilization of its resources. The cooperation among the core authors was weak and overall dispersed. Besides, it mainly reported the research results of Guangzhou institute of Geography and the cooperation among the core institutions was less. Since 2000, the number of research themes has increased significantly and has formed diversified research hotspots. The research area has been expanded, but it is still concentrated in southern China. More cooperative teams were formed among the core authors, and the inter-team cooperation and communication were significantly enhanced. The proportion of research results of universities and other institutes has increased greatly, and cooperation between institutions has been strengthened also.
Against the background of the construction of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, the development of ancient towns is faced with new challenges, such as the expansion of urban scale, the weakening of traditional cultural values, the lack of continuity between new and old urban areas, and the inconsistent pattern of old urban areas. This research takes the Shawan Ancient Town, Panyu District, Guangzhou City, as its research object and conducts a spatial syntactic analysis of urban morphology in 2002, 2008, and 2017, based on the axis model. The research shows that: 1) Shawan Ancient Town has experienced three stages of development in terms of overall shape, from "single nucleus cohesion" to "axis growth" and then to "divergence and spread." The town's core has been expanding and its shape has been perfected. 2) The direction of expansion of the ancient town's spatial form is consistent with expansion in the direction of the integrated nuclear center, with which the town's new business is in line. The central transfer is synchronized with the evolution of the spatial form. 3) The phenomenon that the integration core of ancient towns and the development of commercial centers are out of sync is related to modern cities' orthogonal grid form and traditional ancient towns' relatively dense and complex spatial texture. This study reveals the law of development of the traditional village spatial form in the process of rapid urbanization and provides a useful reference for the traditional village's new spatial design and the inheritance and reconstruction of the spatial development structure and order. Finally, the research proposes the following suggestions for the spatial protection of ancient towns: 1) The development of ancient towns should extract the spatial rhythm from the traditional space and follow similar rules to update and develop the town, so as to protect the sense of scale and the traditional daily living space. 2) Good traffic planning can ensure that the original space is only minimally affected. At the same time, the use of transit rail to connect the ancient towns old and new districts can improve continuity between the spaces and ensure efficient operation. 3) Demonstrating the need for the rational control of tourism development., Shawan Ancient Town is in the stage of high tourism development, which makes residents' living space overlap with tourists' visiting space, often resulting in the occupation and destruction of the original settlement space to meet the needs of "others." As a characteristic element of traditional ancient towns, their protection and continuation need to be respected during tourism development. Planning should fully analyze ancient towns' spatial rules and development needs to avoid excessive transformation of the space due to commercial development and the timely restoration of some places worth preserving" if applicable..
With the acceleration of urbanization in China, the transformation from increment planning to inventory planning in large cities has initiated the upsurge of urban village redevelopment. However, this redevelopment has overemphasized the economic benefits while neglecting the social benefits behind the redevelopment, resulting in villagers' difficulties in re-employment, inadequate social security, and other problems regarding citizenization. Taking the Liede redeveloped community as a case study, and using the field theory of Bourdieu, this paper adopts descriptive statistics and qualitative analysis based on data from questionnaires and in-depth interviews to measure urban villagers' level of citizenization after the redevelopment. The level of citizenization is measured through the four dimensions of economic integration, socio-cultural adaptation, structural integration, and social identity. The research indicates that to some extent, although the redevelopment of Liede village has brought new changes to community management, the village collective economic organization continues to undertake a large number of community services and livelihood security functions closely related to the daily life of villagers. The villagers and the village collective have formed an exclusive and closed pattern based on their common interests. Villagers have sought safety strategies for action and decision-making when facing social transformation, and their conservative economic strategies and homogenous social networks have resulted in little changes in the structure and quantity of their capital. In essence, the new village community has not been restructured along with the redevelopment of the physical environment, and the capital of stakeholders is in a relative state of equilibrium, which has not motivated the villagers to adapt to their new environment and reconstruct the structure of the field. After the redevelopment of Liede village, the villagers' living environment improved, their basic rights were secured, and their newly-moved in neighbors also exerted a demonstration effect, which considerably improved villagers' consciousness of their roles as citizens, their behaviors, and their way of thinking. However, many villagers have not achieved self-empowerment or integrated into the urban society, judging from the four dimensions of citizenization. In terms of economic integration, the difficulty of employment persists. Regarding socio-cultural adaptation, the younger generation can effectively adapt to urban society, while the older generation's habits and ways of thinking are solidified. In terms of structural integration, without a platform to interact with other social groups, it is difficult for villagers to expand their social network. Finally, regarding social identity, villagers' social status has not improved with their economic status, and the recognition of their roles as citizens is inadequate. Therefore, the government is advised to promote the transformation of village communities, regard the citizenization of villagers in cities as long-term social work, and carry out community activities and skills training to enhance the human and social capital of villagers, and facilitate their integration into urban society.
Optimizing medical behavior is an important way to promote health equity for older adults. Foreign studies have reported on the phenomenon of bypass behavior, in which patients choose to receive medical services from a hospital farther away instead of a closer one. The distribution of medical facilities in rural areas of foreign countries is relatively scattered, therefore, bypass behavior is fairly common. However, in China, community health service sites have a standard configuration, in accordance with regulations designed to meet the needs of older adults with general and chronic diseases. However, remarkably, many older adults still prefer medical service institutions that are farther away from them over those that are closer. In an analysis of questionnaire survey data from 13 communities in Guangzhou, with graph analysis and linear regression to explore the characteristics and influencing factors of older adult bypass, it was found that there were two critical points in the distance of older adults with general and chronic diseases in Guangzhou: 1 km is the critical point of "in-community bypass" and 5 km is the critical point of "near bypass-far bypass". This forms a core-peripheral bypass circle. Unlike foreign studies that suggest that bypass behavior mainly occurs in rural areas, this study found that bypass behavior in Guangzhou occurs not only in rural communities, but also in urban ones. Another important difference is that most foreign researchers believe that bypass distance is more than 25 km, whereas findings in the present study show that bypass distance in Guangzhou is distance that is more than 1 km. Older adult men have longer bypass distances than older adult women, and older adult men are more likely to choose higher-grade hospitals. Residential community type is a key influencing factor of bypass behavior, and incomplete medical grade configuration also has a great influence on bypass distance, which is also an important reason for the difference in bypass distance between older adults in urban and rural communities. Older adults who are more satisfied with their community are more likely to choose to seek medical care locally in the community. This finding supports those of foreign studies indicating that high community satisfaction promotes closer medical treatment among older adults and that high community satisfaction has a "pull" factor that attracts older adults to local medical treatment. There are important differences between bypass behavior in China and other countries. Applying the index of community satisfaction to the Anderson healthcare utilization model in the research on personal characteristics is more suitable for studies in China. Older adults with low self-rated health had longer bypass distances. Therefore, bypass distance, to a certain extent, can reflect the circumstance of health equity. The average bypass distance among older adults in a certain community is shorter when the community has more health equity. Predisposing characteristics, enabling resources, and medical needs jointly affect bypass distance among older adults, which in turn affects the level of health equity. Therefore, balancing the medical grade configuration and improving the community satisfaction among older adults will greatly reduce bypass distance and effectively improve health equity in the community.
Against the background of urban-rural integration and the increasingly complex human-land relationship in rural areas, rural spatial restructuring has emerged as an important subject in rural geography. This article preliminarily defines the connotation of rural spatial restructuring. It examines and reviews the theoretical research progress in the field of western post-productionism, domestic rural territorial system, and political economy. In addition, the article also constructs a multi-perspective, multi-element, multi-theoretical framework of rural spatial restructuring. The research shows that first, in the context of western "post-productivism," as the study of the rural spatial restructuring begins to demonstrate the consumption, social-cultural and post-modern turns, the research on multi-function, global rural transformation, and spatial reconstructing becomes the focus area. Second, based on the territorial system of human-environment interaction of rural geography, domestic research emphasizes the process-mechanism-regulation of rural spatial reconstructing and farmers' economic spatial behavior from the micro perspective. Third, accompanied by land capitalization and the increasing importance of rural labor mobility, rural spatial reconstructing presents the Chinese characteristics of top-down political and economic transformation and focuses on the space-power relationship between rural collective organizations and other subjects, such as governments, enterprises, individuals, etc. This has become an important perspective of rural spatial reconstructing. Fourth, the political and economic geography and "social-spatial" dual dialectics provide good research paradigms and methods. Moreover, the theoretical study of rural space reconstructing should systematically integrate political and economic theories (spatial production, subject initiative, land capitalization, social relation network, the territorial system of human-land interaction, and peasant household geography) and strengthen the studies on multi-factor interactions and their spatial response mechanisms (nature, economy, society, and culture). To achieve this, the formation and evolution of rural spatial pattern with multi elements and multi dimensions, rural social spatial reproduction, rural labor spatial production from the perspective of initiative, government policy system, and finally, the innovation of urban and rural spatial governance system should be emphasized.
According to the land rent theory, innovative activities return to a megacity's downtown based on the formation of land rent residual in the area occupied by factories. The city government regularly modifies the regeneration policy to balance the distribution of land rent residual between different principals and supply space for innovation. City governments have different opinions on the distribution of land rent residuals. Therefore, methods of supplying space for innovation and shaping diverse urban landscapes also differ. Since the city government of Shenzhen relies less on land finance than other megacities in China, and it lacks land resources, they regenerate industrial land into innovative space. With less constraint on function transformation, development density, and property rights, the city government gives out much of the land rent residual and supplies several high quality spaces for innovation at a medium-cost. The city government of Guangzhou chooses to acquire massive land rent residuals by regenerating state-owned factories and business areas under financial pressure and debts into residency. However, the land rent residual of village-owned factories can only be extracted from informal regeneration under the strict constraints posed and acquired by the city government, while supplying medium to lost cost innovation spaces of medium and low qualities. Consequently, it is suggested that the Guangzhou government should thoroughly research on existing industrial land where old state-owned factories and village industrial parks are located. Spatial planning and reformation of the city and resolving problems in old village-owned factories for a complete and legal upgradation will provide a decent space for the innovation industry. To ensure enough land and space for the innovation industry, the Shenzhen government needs to employ precaution against over-exploitation of industrial regeneration policy when real estate gets involved.
Innovation regularly appears at different venues and areas within cities, and its spatial stickiness has been widely studied and confirmed. However, most current research on spatial innovation has not been conducted in a micro-scale manner to decode the inner-city potentials. From an urban research perspective, this makes understanding the internal clustering mechanism a significant challenge. Thus, this article uses Points Of Interest (POI) data to explore a Scientific and Technological (S&T) spatial index system focusing on innovation potential with a consideration of three dimensions: knowledge, technology, and environment. It analyzes the micro-scale agglomeration structure of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA). First, an inverted U-style innovative core belt embracing the Pearl River in the middle is formed. This area has more substantive innovation potentials on the east than the west coast. Guangdong-Foshan and Shenzhen-Dongguan innovation clusters are then built simultaneously. In both practice and theory, these research findings are consistent with the metropolitan agglomeration pattern and research on the GBA. Additional results are: 1) A notable cluster effect emerges in the spatial distribution of GBA's innovation potentials. Considering the division of dimension, knowledge-based innovation is likely to be led by Guangzhou and Hong Kong, while technological innovation stretches in strong belt-style spillovers along the Guangzhou-Shenzhen S&T Innovation Corridor. However, there is a dearth of innovation in these incubators' environments, and collaboration between them needs to be drastically improved. 2) The hotspot structure shows characteristics such as node clustering, group linking, and multicenter coexistence, while 16 Innovation-intensive Zones (IIZs) emerged in four distinct innovative pathways. These are knowledge-and-research-based, industry-led, environment-incubated, and comprehensively developed, and being close to rivers and streams are significantly influenced by the hydrophilic clustering effect, with a free and comfortable atmosphere inspiring innovation. Traditional administrative forces also have a significant impact, especially on the peripheral areas where innovative activities rely on government planning and the pull-forces from downtown. 3) From the perspective of industry differences, a robust functional differentiation is spatially mirrored. The innovation of intelligent equipment manufacturing has a strong outward diffusion, and the energy, chemical and core electronic industries display an inward node effect. While biomedicine innovation spreads across the two core areas, it is necessary to strengthen information and communication in a broader region with higher potential. 4) In a micro-scale way, an indistinct boundary shapes the Guangzhou-Dongguan-Shenzhen-Hong Kong innovation corridor. However, the need is still urgent to calibrate the regional imbalance and intensify deeply-integrated innovation in light of the vast spatial differentiation and insufficient cooperation between the east and west coasts, the Pearl River Delta and Hong Kong-Macao, and the central and peripheral areas of innovation development. Based on these issues, it is essential to strengthen the emergence of an innovative environment and integrate it with knowledge-based and technology innovation. The aim is to promote the diffusion of pivotal innovative nodes and then specify the differentiated positions of innovative industries to create a region free from boundary constraints conducive to innovation, communication, and cooperation. Thus, for spatial planning in the GBA, the quest for a higher level of innovative potential is imperative, and the integration of collaborative innovation needs to be pursued vigorously.
The south hilly and mountainous area is an important ecological functional area in China. As the main economic activity subject, farmers' perception of ecosystem services directly affects the eco-environment behavior, economic production activities, social life style and so on. The contribution of well-being is the core of ecosystem services. In order to explore the relationship between farmers' well-being and ecosystem services and promote the healthy development of ecosystem, eight villages in Lechang city of Guangdong Province, which are located in the key ecological functional areas of hilly and mountainous areas in south China, are selected as the research objects. Based on field survey and questionnaire interview, the structural equation model was used to comprehensively analyze the relationship between the development level of rural communities and farmers' welfare and the changes in ecosystem services, emphasizing the changes in that occurred between 2005 and 2018. The results show the following: 1) From 2005 to 2018, the well-being level of farmers has somewhat improved. The income level and living conditions of farmers have increased significantly; their evaluation values have increased from 0.294 and 0.245 in 2005 to 0.385 and 0.422 in 2018, respectively. Meanwhile, the awareness of farmers on ecological protection has been gradually strengthened. 2) The awareness of the four major service functions of the system is rising; particularly, the degree of understanding of cultural service functions and support service functions has improved significantly. The perceived value of farmers increased from 0.251 in 2005 to 0.370 in 2018. 3) The four service functions of the ecosystem have a certain coupling relationship with the level of community development, among which the relationship between supply services, cultural services and farmers' well-being is close. 4) To enhance the cultural service capacity of the ecosystem and develop the low impact economic development mode is conducive to the maintenance of ecosystem services and the improvement of farmers' well-being, and promote the sustainable development of ecological environment and rural socio-economic in key ecological function areas.
Based on research into climate suitability and employing a species distribution model, this paper examines climatic data from six periods from the mid-Holocene (MH), 1970-2000 (the 1980s), RCP4.5 and 8.5 under 2041-2060 (2050s4.5, 2050s8.5) and 2061-2080 (2070s4.5, 2070s8.5), combined with data from Camellia oleifera specimens. The study uses the MaxEnt model to analyze the temporal and spatial characteristics of the suitability of C. oleifera growth under climate change scenarios. The suitability results are divided into four levels, from low to high, and the spatial distribution changes of the suitability of each transition period, the change of the northern boundary and the geometric center, and the displacement of the most suitable area are analyzed. The results show that: 1) According to the specimens and growth habits, C. oleifera is mainly distributed in the hilly areas of southern China, with latitude and longitude ranging from 18°31' to 33°15' N and 101°34' to 121°51' E, respectively, and the area is mainly in the subtropical East Asian monsoon climatic belt and has plenty of sunshine and heat. 2) The area under the curve (AUC) values of the training data set and the test data set of the MaxEnt model are 0.848 and 0.817, respectively, and the evaluation results reach the "good" standard, so that this model can be used for climate suitability analysis for the growth of C. oleifera. Taking the distribution probability P≥0.35 as the standard, the annual precipitation ≥1 100 mm, precipitation of the wettest quarter ≥550 mm, a mean temperature of the warmest quarter ≥20℃, a temperature seasonality <8.9, precipitation of the driest month ≥15 mm, a mean temperature of the wettest quarter 17-28℃, and a mean temperature of the coldest quarter ≥4℃ are the seven main environmental factors and ranges suitable for the growth of C. oleifera. Their contribution rates are all over 4%, and the cumulative contribution rate reaches 90.1%. 3) The areas with the highest climate suitability for C. oleifera in China are mainly south of the Yangtze River and east of the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, with a range of south of 30°N and east of 107°E. In general, the suitable level and above accounted for 34.9%-61% of the study area, and Hunan, Jiangxi, and Guangdong areas are the most suitable. Concerning the suitability changes, the southwest region fluctuates in space, and the most suitable area in the southeast hilly area is relatively stable. The areas of stable type and decrease type account for a relatively high proportion, which is 58.1%-71.5% and 9.3%-33.6%, respectively. 4) The northern boundary of the most suitable region for C. oleifera mainly lies between 24 ° N and 33 ° N in the central subtropical zone, which varied greatly in Qinling Mountains, Chongqing, Guizhou, and Guangxi in different periods. On the whole, it moved to the south from the middle Holocene to the 1980s, and moved northward from the 1980s to the 2050s and 2070s. The geometric center and displacement shifted to the East and North as a whole, and the most suitable center was located in Chenzhou, Hunan Province, in the middle Holocene. In the 1980s, it moved southeast to Shaoguan, Guangdong Province, in the 2050s, it will move northeast to Ji'an, Jiangxi Province, and in 2070s, it will move to the southwest and northeast in the RCP4.5 and 8.5 scenarios, but will still be present in Ji'an. 5) When climate scenario data and the MaxEnt species distribution model are used to analyze the temporal and spatial characteristics of C. oleifera climatic suitability in southern China, the results have a good correspondence with similar research results and China's C. oleifera production statistics. This correlation indicates that the results are reliable and can be used as a reference for C. oleifera planting divisions.
Mangroves have critical ecological functions and social and economic value, and are an important target for protection in the coastal wetland ecosystem. By monitoring long-term dynamic changes in mangrove ecosystems, the overall change process can be systematically and accurately recorded, providing data support and a basis for decision-making on scientific protection and effective management of the ecosystem. This study focuses on mangrove forests in coastal areas of Guangdong Province. A map of the mangrove forest, from 1986 to 2018, was made using Landsat remote sensing image based on Google Earth Engine (GEE),which is a cloud computing platform. The Random Forest (RF) method was used to extract mangrove trees from 32 periods from 1986 to 2018, in Guangdong Province. The interannual variation in mangrove characteristics in coastal cities of Guangdong province were compared. In addition, the evolution characteristics of mangrove patches in Guangdong province were analyzed. The results show that 1) The computing capacity and massive data of the GEE cloud platform provide data support for analyzing the inter-annual evolution of mangroves in Guangdong province, which greatly improves the computing efficiency. From 1986 to 2018, the overall classification accuracy of mangrove remote sensing was higher than 90%, with high classification accuracy and reliable results. In general, the coastal mangrove area of Guangdong province first decreased and then increased, and the range of change gradually declined after 2014, remaining at about 11 000 hm2. Mangrove forests are unevenly distributed in the province and occur mainly in the west. 2) Concerning coastal cities, mangroves are distributed in 14 cities, among which Zhanjiang and Yangjiang have the largest mangrove area, which is about 70% of the mangrove area of Guangdong province. The mangrove area changes in each city fall under three categories: decreasing first and increasing later, increasing fluctuation, and no obvious change. 3) From 1986 to 2018, the overall number of patches in mangrove forests in Guangdong province showed a decreasing trend, but the average patch area (MPS) showedan increasing trend, and mangrove fragmentation was reduced. In 2018, the mangrove MPS was 4.11 hm2 in Guangdong province, and the total number of patches was 2 782. From 1986 to 2018, when the change trend of MPS in mangrove forests in Guangdong province was opposite to that of patch quantity, the changes of patches were mainly expansion and fragmentation. When MPS change trend was consistent with the change trend of plaque number, the increase and decrease in the change of plaque were dominant. Information on annual mangrove area distribution and structural changes can provide more detailed data and reference for the rational development and protection of mangroves and support ecological restoration and finely tuned mangrove management.
With industrialization, urbanization, informatization, and economic globalization, there is significant diversification in rural areas, including the social and economic devolopment and rural landscape, land-use structure, urban—rural relationship, consumption structure, and governance pattern. Development and evolution are types of spatial transformation, and their differentiation is significant in rural areas. With changes in the relationship between human beings and the environment in rural areas, problems such as the gradual disappearance of traditional villages, loss of regional identity, precariousness of villagers’ development prospects, and loss of autonomy tend to arise. The renaissance and revitalization of rural areas have become the core target of regional and rural development in this new era. Development, together with the theoretical construction of rural geography, now faces a critical period of opportunity. The mechanism of interaction between the internal and external motivations of rural spatial differentiation needs to be clarified, and geographic parameters concerning the reconstruction of rural multidimensional space need to be examined carefully, as they take a scientific approach in exploring comprehensive rural governance. These are beneficial in strengthening both rural construction and the framework of governance theory. This paper systematically reviews the progress of research on rural spatial differentiation, reconstruction, and governance both at home and abroad. We found that, internationally, research on rural geography is more diverse, and theories and methods from the field of political economics and sociology are widely used. These research methods are mainly qualitative, focusing on the theoretical interpretation of the construction and translation of the actor-network of cognition, differentiation, and reconstruction of rural space. Further, the main body and framework of rural community governance are analyzed deeply. Domestic research, in contrast, focuses on the differentiation and reorganization of rural material space, but the content framework and methodology of rural spatial differentiation, reconstruction, and governance remain insufficient. Accordingly, this paper—guided by the theory of territorial system of human—environment interaction on a macro scale—systematically examines the spatial differentiation types and dynamic mechanism of rural development and transformation under multiple external environments in China. On a medium-micro scale, the comprehensive study of the rural human—environment relationship in a regional system is implemented, focusing on element structure, function change, element reconstruction, and space governance. We performed a space gradient analysis using urban—rural continuous spectrum geographic transects, which analyzed internal multidimensional space differentiation and reconstructed the scientific logic of governance in different locations and with different types of rural space. By integrating geography, sociology, politics, management, and other subjects, we constructed a unique theory framework for the transformation of rural space in China. Rural space governance is an important part of territorial space control and social governance, and is of interest across multiple academic disciplines. The collaborative mechanism between the governance of space and the participating community, as well as the approaches and models of village construction management and spatial governance used, needs an urgent conclusion and summary.
As a means of inter-regional resource complementarity and win-win cooperation, cooperation zones play an important role in promoting coordinated regional development, narrowing regional gap, enhancing the regional whole competitiveness, and achieving high-quality regional integration. Cooperation zones are a significant topic in trans-regional cooperation research. Correlational research employs the enclave economy theory, the space production and space restructuring theories, the social capital theory, growth alliance, and the cross-border region theory to explore the type, cooperation impetus, and effects of cooperation zones through the lens of collaborative agents, management systems, spatial governance, and benefit sharing. This research adopts the relevant theories of geography to promote innovative research in cooperation zones. The research methods for the classification of cooperation zones mainly include stakeholder, organizational behavior, and empirical case comparison analyses. The diverse types of cooperation zones form a hierarchical classification system, according to the main body of participation, the form of cooperative governance, and the industrial functions of a park. The cooperation impetus includes government-driven, market-driven, social-driven, and benefit sharing driven, and the driving forces interact. The combination of government and market factors is the key driving force for cooperation. The driving force of government gradually gives way to market-driven forces. Common interests are the core element of cooperation, and benefit sharing is the prime power for the development of cooperation zones. Benefit coordination is the key to their sustainable development, while benefit compensation mechanisms among cooperating subjects constantly innovate. The cooperation effect is various and comprehensive. By fostering regional economic growth poles, cooperation zones can promote regional economic growth and speed up the free flow of elements and industrial transfer between regions. This, in turn, promotes industrial layout optimization, transformation, and upgrading. In addition, the cooperation effect also manifests in narrowing the gap in regional economic development, promoting regional coordinated development, accelerating urbanization progress, strengthening inter-regional economic cooperation, and improving regional comprehensive competitiveness. However, problems persist. The classification criteria of some types are not unified; the quantitative research and coupling relationship studies on cooperation motivation are insufficient; the research on cooperation effect lags behind and lacks scientific and objective systematic evaluation systems. Therefore, this paper makes a prospect of innovative research on cooperation zones that can focus on three aspects. 1) Few studies have covered the types, dynamics, and effects of cooperation. The systematic and comprehensive study of cooperation zones should be further strengthened and innovated. 2) Regional cooperative governance’s reflection in cooperation zones has been preliminarily discussed; however, in-depth theoretical research on the driving mechanism of trans-regional cooperation governance must be further explored. 3) Current research focuses on the development of cooperation zones. At the macro level, cooperation zone research can also be extended to the evaluation of regional integration policies. Future in-depth theoretical and empirical studies on evaluating regional integration policies should be carried out based on the case of cooperation zones.
Since the beginning of the 21st century, informationization and globalization have greatly impacted the development of cities. This was not the rapid growth of all cities within the national urban system, but the development of certain key cities linked to the process of globalization. In other words, the functions undertaken by cities determined their future development potential and status. The topic of “first-tier cities” is presently being debated in all sectors of society. Several media and research institutions have been racing to release series of rankings such as “new first-tier cities” and “quasi-first-tier cities,” in an attempt to continually re-rank the major cities in China. Behind such public opinion is a comprehensive consideration of the functions of a city, with an empirical understanding of its development potential and status. However, although different evaluation indexes directly affect the score of a city, there is currently no set or recognized system by which to conduct the evaluation of a city. This study explores the mechanism that influences urban status via a “theory to empirical” approach. By sorting the research on cities globally, this study extracted the internal logic by which urban functions drive the change in the status of big cities and constructed a role model for “strategic function–basic function-city status.” This study suggests that the functions of international cities can be classified as strategic and basic, of which the former is the fundamental force driving the status changes of big cities. Big cities play the role of a control center in national economies and regional layouts and can create a regional influence in areas including economic, financial, political, trade, information, and scientific innovation functions. The basic function of such a city is an important external manifestation of its strategic function and guarantee of the maintenance and betterment thereof. Big cities play the role of a hub and node, that can provide highly modernized infrastructure and international service functions that will simultaneously and indirectly impact the effect of their strategic functions and the transformation of their status. Using this logical framework, this study demonstrates the path by which the urban status of Hangzhou is being upgraded, identifies the functioning of a digital economy as the strategic function of this city, confirms the rapid development of the former and the promotion of the urban status of the latter, and responds to public opinion that Hangzhou is now a “first-tier city.” By introducing the concept and characteristics of strategic functions, this study highlights and emphasizes the importance for the rapid development and status upgradation of big cities in China. The development of such cities need to judge other cities worldwide, based on their own advantages. With a leading edge such cities can join the globalized system, conform to the scientific and strategic function of global development trends in a reasonable way, and stand out from others. Furthermore, with new “city business card”, such cities can enter the fast lane of benign development.
Drawing on data from the 2016 "Migrants' Dynamic Monitoring Survey", using descriptive analysis and three multinomial logistic regression models, this paper describes the latest status and characteristics of return migration intentions, and explores the relationship between migration characteristics and return migration intentions. Findings showed that migrants’ return intentions is particularly weak; more than 40% of migrants plan to return in the near future; the return regions are diverse and dispersed. They present a multi-location interactive mode of "destination place, namely the original location as the main part and administrative townships and counties (districts) as the auxiliary part." Among the migrants who return to their administrative townships and counties (districts), the proportion of those who return to their administrative county is higher than that those who return to their administrative township. The results of the models show that migration characteristics have a significant influence on return migration intentions. Intra-provincial migrants are more likely to return than inter-provincial migrants. Compared with migrants with shorter migration times, migrants with longer migration times are more likely to return; to do so within 2 years; and return to their point of origin. Migrants within the category of non-whole family migration are more likely to return; to do so within 2 years; and return to their point of origin than in the case of whole-family migration. Compared with migrants who have no children left behind, migrants who have left children behind are more likely to return and to do so within 2 years than those who have not. Migrants' return intentions is obviously influenced by characteristics such as career, income, education level, age, and other variables. Relatively speaking, those with lower occupational prestige, income and education levels and those of older age are more likely to return. Based on the above results, it is suggested that the government should implement the strategy of “holding local citizenization as essential, with reflux citizenization as a supplement”; continue to deepen systemic reform to clear up institutional barriers and provide equal public service to migrant workers; and promote the economic and social development of the Central, Western and Northeastern regions, formulating preferential policies to encourage farmers to return.
Hani Rice Terraces in Yunnan Province of China is listed as UNESCO world Cultural Heritage in 2014 and also Globally Agricultural Heritage Systems in 2010 as the marvelous human wisdom and its outstanding universal value to the human beings. Located in the core area of Hani Rice Terraces, Dayutang Village (DYT) and Pugaolaozhai Village (PGLZ) are small towns where the Hani nationality live. They are also typical agricultural and ecological tourism destinations attracting visitors from all over the world. However, interest disputes and governance among stakeholders have always been challenges to maintaining the sustainability of tourism at world cultural heritage sites. Consequently, it is of great significance to assess the governance of the village interest relationships from the perspective of stakeholders. Social Network Analysis (SNA) provides a good tool for explaining stakeholder relationships, though this has rarely been applied to studies of stakeholder relationship networks in tourism villages related to world heritage sites. This study used SNA to assess two typical tourism villages (DYT and PGLZ) in the Hani Rice Terrace core area with respect to stakeholders including local government agencies, businesses, communities, and pressure groups. Stakeholder relationships in the two villages were then analyzed from five aspects: network cohesion, network reciprocity, network core edge, network transmission, and network broker. The results are as follows. Firstly, the reciprocity between communities and local government agencies, communities and pressure groups is lower than the overall average level. Secondly, the marginal structure in the interest network is more obvious than the core structure, leading to the imbalance of interest relationships. Thirdly, the local government agencies of the two villages have relatively lower transitivity, while the local communities have the highest transitivity. Finally, the interest groups in two villages lack liaison roles. Based on these results, the corresponding suggestions were put forward. Firstly, shape a close interest relation among interest groups to form effective interest coordination mechanism. Secondly, strengthen the internal relationship among the interest groups to form the effective conservation and development force. Thirdly, make full use of the high reciprocity and high transmission feature of interest network. Fourthly, focus on decision-making power and voice power in the interests relation network in local communities to increase the power of the local communities. Last but not the least, cultivate liaison roles such as coordinator, consultant inside and among the interest groups.
This report analyzes the spatiotemporal spread characteristics and the spatial variation of the coronavirus epidemic based on detailed information of confirmed COVID-19 cases released by the city health commissions in Guangdong Province. The report finds that: 1) the confirmed cases in Guangdong Province maintain certain age distribution characteristics. Middle-aged people represented the largest number of cases, followed by young people, and lastly, the elderly. These results are similar to national statistics; 2) the epidemic spread ratio in Guangdong is 0.198, which indicates that the anti-epidemic measures in Guangdong have effectively suppressed the spread of the epidemic; 3) the difference between the epidemic spread pattern and comprehensive risk pattern in Guangdong Province is significant. Medium-sized cities （third and fourth tier） have higher diffusion risk and medium comprehensive risk. Developed cities have lower diffusion risk but higher comprehensive risks, whereas undeveloped areas in eastern and western Guangdong are safer. Medium-sized cities are apparently weak areas that can be easily overlooked in anti-epidemic work; therefore the control of such areas should be strengthened; 4) the results of Guangdong's epidemic prevention measures can be actively promoted in the future to reduce public anxiety. The current priority should be the prevention of a second epidemic shock caused by returning workers and school students. In the middle-late stages of epidemic prevention, the implementation of risk management should be differentiated according to the epidemic risk levels among different cities for the sake of restoring social production and avoiding the negative impacts towards society stemming from the over use of anti-epidemic measures, especially for vulnerable and underdeveloped areas.
The rapid spatial spread of the Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) in China during the Spring Festival has seriously endangered human health and garnered tremendous public attention via the Internet and social media. Although public attention plays a critical role in risk surveillance and epidemic prevention, there is a lack of comprehensive discussion related to its spatial-temporal differences and influence mechanism. This study focused on Internet public attention on COVID-19 using spatial analysis, spatial-temporal visualization, regression analysis of panel data, and other methods to investigate provincial spatial-temporal differences and possible influence factors of public attention in China from January 9 to March 2, 2020. In terms of data collection, the Baidu Index (BDI) was used as the measurement of public attention, disease-related data were recorded from the National Health Commission of PRC, and the population movement of Wuhan was based on geographic services of Baidu Qianxi. As per the findings 1) The spatial distribution pattern of public attention can be described as “large differences between east and west regions, higher in coastal areas than inland areas, and consistent with the areas of epidemic distribution.” In terms of temporal characteristics, there was a significant increase in the daily average of public attention in all provinces after the “Wuhan Lockdown,” and the same distribution pattern of overall levels of public attention was observed before and after the “Wuhan Lockdown.” Public attention reached its peak during the Spring festival and subsequently experienced a fluctuating decline with the periodic routine (incubation-outbreak) of the development of the epidemic. The themes of public attention moved from “searching information on related viruses in the early stage”, to “focusing on clinical diagnosis” and “the recent status of the development of the epidemic.” 2) Public attention is influenced by daily dynamic levels, including disease factor and population movement related to Wuhan, and economic/social development levels with fixed regional features. 3) Different phases of the issue—attention cycle receive different levels of attention. The effect of influence mechanisms on public attention before and after the virus outbreak is significantly different. Prior to the outbreak, information disease-related factors of confirmed cases and deaths could increase the public’s awareness and satisfy their fact exploration. After the outbreak, public attention was focused on population outflows from Wuhan. Compared to the first stage, the effect of regional factors on public attention increased after the outbreak, indicating that as the epidemic becomes gradually controlled, regional factor may have a sustainable and stable impact on public attention. 4) Media technology indirectly affects the public’s searching behavior during the epidemic. Higher amounts of available online information correspond to less searching behavior as the public becomes more informed. 5) The announcement of the “Wuhan Lockdown” did not cause a massive population movement as compared to the travel rush (Chunyun) during the Spring Festival. This indicates that the role of the incubation period may have had a negative impact of population movement on public attention before the epidemic outbreak, and that the media agenda and intervention from state authorities could arouse public attention on population outflow from Wuhan after the outbreak. Based on the findings, it is suggested that the government should focus on public searching volumes and enforce timely measures to surpass the speed of epidemic spread.
Air transportation plays an important role in connecting countries and promoting global economic development. Recently, China’s international air transport network expanded rapidly in terms of navigable countries and cities and the number of air routes and flights. In this context, the connectivity and stability of the air transportation network attracted significant attention, which could be threaten by many factors such as public health emergencies, poor weather conditions, policies, etc. Focusing on COVID-19, this paper depicted the spatial patterns of canceled flights after the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic across Chinese cities and the impact on connected countries and cities overseas. Next, this paper investigated the impacts of public health emergencies on the connectivity of China’s international air transportation network by comparing the changes of the average shortest path and weighted average shortest path before and after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. The results could be summarized as follows. First, the spread of this pandemic has significantly impacted the connectivity of China's international air transport networks. The number of navigable cities, routes and flights has substantially reduced, as has the efficiency of China's international air transportation. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has not significantly influenced the worldwide air transport network in this period. Additionally, the degree of effect of COVID-19 on air transportation connection was various across regions. For example, the air route suspension has the greatest impact on China's aviation network connectivity with Central Asia, West Asia and Oceania, while flight reduction has the greatest impact on China's aviation network connectivity with Northeast Asia, Central Asia and Southeast Asia. Second, there are no significant differences between the spatial patterns of the connectivity of China’s international air transportation network before and after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic; the connectivity between China and Northeast Asia, Southeast Asia, North America, and Europe remains better than other areas. The findings indicate that labor mobility, economic communication, and trade are vital in shaping the spatial pattern of the connectivity of China’ international air transport network. However, the flight aggregation degree for international flights has increased. The proportion of flights among the top 5 countries has increased from 58.1% to 67.2%, which is also closely related to factors such as the proximity and necessity of personnel, economy, and trade links. The international route networks in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou are more reliable than other cities. Thus, following the outbreak of COVID-19, the distribution of China’s international routes and flights has been concentrated in these major cities. The proportion of international air routes increased from 28.8% to 38.9%. Moreover, the concentration of international flights increased from 46.6% to 76.4%, which is a higher concentration than international air routes. While expanding its focus on the depth and breadth of international air transport links, China should focus on strengthening the reliability of international air transportation networks to cope with the impact of various emergencies and ensure basic connectivity and stable operation of international air transportation networks.