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    The Spatiotemporal Characteristics and Risks of COVID-19 Pandemic Based on the Effects of Traffic Control
    Fangqu Niu, Zhongling Xin, Fang Wang
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (1): 1-11.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003312
    Abstract13)   HTML2)    PDF (2024KB)(5)      

    On December 31st, 2019, the Wuhan Municipal Health Commission issued the first report of the pneumonia epidemic of novel coronavirus infection (COVID-19). Studies regarding the relationships between traffic and the epidemic situation are far from systematic. When the epidemic broke out in Wuhan, Hubei province, an important transportation hub of China, it occurred at the peak of Spring Festival-related travel. Therefore, the relationships between the spread of the epidemic and the impact of traffic have remained underexplored. This paper systematically analyzes the spatiotemporal characteristics, hazards, and the growth trend of COVID-19 spread from a macroscopic and full sample perspective, to provide a comprehensive understanding toward epidemic prevention and control in China and abroad. The analysis performed in this article is based on the publicly available data, using the basic reproductive number measure and complex network method. This study found the following. First, the overall growth of the epidemic is exponential, and the outbreak of Hubei province in China has a strong spread in the eastern and southern directions. Provinces such as Jiangsu, Hunan, and Fujian have seen rapid day-to-day growth rates, and the epidemic situation is generally more serious in the capital or the developed city in each province. Based on analyzing the disturbance of the spread of the epidemic through traffic control, the average incubation period of COVID-19 was approximately found to be four days and the number of basic regenerations showed a downward trend in fluctuation. As of April 8th, the R0 in all regions of China tended to be one. The ratio of cure to death outside Hubei province is much higher than that within Hubei province, indicating that with sufficient medical resources, the risk of the epidemic can be greatly reduced, and it is not to be feared. Second, the quarantine policy of Hubei has a greater impact on cities with higher centrality. From the perspective of changes in centrality, most cities in the northern region have increased their centrality, indicating that the region's connection with Hubei Province is relatively weak. The cities with decreasing centrality are mainly located in the Beijing-Guangzhou line and the Yangtze River Delta. Similarly, the changes in the bottom 20 cities on the centrality ranking are also analyzed. Except for a slight change in the ranking, the cities have been not affected. Additionally, before and after the "closing of the Hubei province", the number of edges of China's railway network, Beta and gamma indicators all declined, but the decline was not significant. Thus, although Hubei plays an important role in China's railway network, in general, the " quarantine of the Hubei province" does not have a particularly large impact on China's entire railway network.

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    Impact Factors of COVID-19 Epidemic Spread in Hubei Province Based on Multi-Source Data
    Wenyue Liao, Meiwei Sun, Chuying Yu, Yingbin Deng, Miao Li, Ji Yang, Yong Li, Jianhui Xu, Yuchan Chen, Yingwei Yan
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (1): 12-24.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003315
    Abstract14)   HTML3)    PDF (2833KB)(6)      

    With more than 26 million confirmed cases and over two million case-fatalities worldwide, the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has transformed the dynamics of human lives globally. It has been designated as a pandemic by the World Health Organization. The COVID-19 virus can be transmitted through droplets, aerosols, or direct contact. It possesses evident characteristics of human-to-human transmission. Additionally, COVID-19 is a highly pathogenic new coronavirus, and people are prone to serious respiratory diseases resulting in high mortality after becoming infected. It has posed a great security threat to the entire human society and caused hundreds of billions of economic losses. The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic spread from Wuhan to all other cities in China before Spring Festival, causing serious public health issues and preventing the growth of the social economy. Analyzing the spatial-temporal spread pattern of COVID-19 can support the prevention of the epidemic. Thus, this study aims to analyze the temporal-spatial spread characteristics of COVID-19 in Hubei Province. First, a regression model with variables of migration big data (mobility scale index (MSI) and traffic intensity) is employed to explore the temporal pattern of the spread of the epidemic. Second, the spatial spread characteristics of COVID-19 are analyzed using a regression model comprising transportation information (primary and secondary road transportation networks) and social economic information (2018 GDP data). The results illustrate the following. First, the regression model based on population migration data and daily COVID-19 cases in each city was significant (Sig.=0.00), with R2 up to 0.715, indicating that the independent variable could explain the dependent variable. As indicated by the standardized coefficient results, MSI (0.85) has a greater impact on the daily new cases in each city. Second, the cumulative infection rate per 10000 people was positively correlated with the number of medical institutions and GDP with correlation coefficients of 0.689 and 0.774, respectively, Sig. was less than 0.05. However, it was not correlated with the number of beds (Sig. > 0.05). Third, the spatial regression model based on the traffic network, socio-economic data and cumulative infection rate of ten thousand people in each city of Hubei was also significant. The independent variables in the model can explain the variability of 67.2% of the dependent variables. The results of the standardized coefficient show that the GDP ratio of each city has a greater impact on the model. The results of the study are expected to provide scientific data support for the government and epidemic prevention workers to formulate efficient epidemic prevention and policy decisions. In conclusion, the model fit of multiple regression on the time scale is better than that on the spatial scale. Population migration has the greatest impact on the spread of the epidemic. That is, population mobility has a greater effect on the prevention and control of epidemic situations. The results of the study are expected to provide scientific data support for the government on formulating epidemic prevention policies.

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    Emotional Effect of Cherry Blossoms in Wuhan during the COVID-19 Epidemic
    Tenghui Xing, Xiaofeng Wang
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (1): 25-35.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003297
    Abstract16)   HTML3)    PDF (1813KB)(1)      

    The COVID-19 interrupted the lives of Wuhan residents. This study attempted to understand the psychological loss and emotional changes in urban residents in this unusual period by exploring the relationship between city, residents, and landscape. By comparing the typicality of Wuhan's representative landscape during this period, we chose cherry blossoms as representative of the landscape of Wuhan. We then selected six cities as data sources for non-Wuhan regions (i.e., Beijing, Shenyang, Xi'an, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Kunming). Using crawler software, we collected Sina micro-texts that contained Wuhan cherry blossoms and were published by residents of Wuhan and non-Wuhan areas. After eliminating the invalid text, using the big data text analysis tools ROST CM6 and Gephi, we obtained the key nodes in the micro-texts expression. Then, using coding analysis of grounded theory, we explored the emotional relationship between the urban representative landscape and the residents in different regions and identified the emotional effect of Wuhan cherry blossoms during the epidemic. The study reached the following conclusions: 1) There were many indications of scattered concern in the posts of cherry blossoms from local residents, which were closely related to the details of life and emotional changes during the epidemic. Non-natives had fewer concerns and were more focused, mainly expressing blessings for Wuhan and China. 2) The average emotion value of Wuhan residents' micro-texts was negatively correlated with the number of confirmed cases of COVID-19 during its rising period and positively correlated during its declining period, while the emotional value of non-Wuhan residents was negatively correlated with the number of confirmed COVID-19 patients. 3) The impact of the urban representative landscape on the emotions of residents in different regions was closely related to the development of the epidemic situation. In particular, the Wuhan cherry blossoms had an emotional support effect on Wuhan local residents during the epidemic, which gave people the power to face the epidemic positively, while at the same time, having an emotional cohesion effect on non-Wuhan residents during the epidemic, which prompted people to help Wuhan positively. (4) The epidemic changed the background of human emotions and landscape interpretation, giving the landscape new meaning. This new landscape meaning in turn affects human emotions and constitutes a closed emotional circuit. Based on the research conclusion, different emotional effects were discussed based on the theory of sense of place and national identity. The research conclusion had not only theoretical value but also practical significance. Finally, we suggest that anti-epidemic recovery work should pay more attention to residents' psychological problem and start with the emotional relationship between residents, the city, and the landscape to convey the idea of better urban life to Wuhan residents.

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    Late Holocene Environmental Changes and Human Activity in Guangzhou City Area, China
    Ka Ian Lei, Zhuo Zheng, Junjie Gu, Ting Ma, Xibing Yi, Yongjie Tang
    Tropical Geography    2021, 41 (1): 67-81.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003304
    Abstract9)   HTML0)    PDF (3390KB)(5)      

    This study analyzed the radiocarbon chronology, lithology, and diatom and mollusk shell assemblages obtained from the profile of the Jiefang Middle Road archeological site in Yuexiu District, Guangzhou. It is determined that the Guangzhou Old Town, which lies on the northern bank of the Pearl River, was in a river bed and an estuarine wetland or lowland during the pre-Qin period. Microfossils of organisms with a high salinity tolerance were not observed in the sediment as the inflow of fresh water reduced the estuarine salinity; only estuarine-marine diatom taxa were found, with the mollusk shell fragments being mostly those of freshwater species and a few brackish water species. Therefore, we postulate that the salinity of the water bodies within the Guangzhou region was completely different during the pre-Qin period than during the mid-Holocene. In the former period, the area along the riverbanks of the Pearl River was mainly affected by riverine freshwater discharge and upward tidal convergence. In addition, radiocarbon dating results and the absence of enclosed bivalve mollusk shells in situ suggested that most of the freshwater and brackish water mollusk shells excavated at the site were food waste discarded by the ancient Nanyue people during the period in which their fishing tradition boomed in the pre-Qin (Eastern Zhou Dynasty) period. This also suggested that the shell deposits were relocated to the later strata via constant digs by the Nanyue successors, most probably due to the expansion of the town and restoration of the river, development of agricultural irrigation, or redeposition caused by the flooding that occurred throughout the Tang Dynasty. Since the establishment of the Nanyue Kingdom, signs of frequent human activity–particularly during the Tang Dynasty–can be recognized in the study area, which was then still a wetland or lowland area influenced mainly by fluvial and tidal dynamic forces, with its soil fertility serving as a foundation for the flourishing of agriculture. This is also consistent with the human-driven shoreline reorganization of the Pearl River noted in the Tang historical records. During the period from the late Tang Dynasty to the Five Dynasties, rulers expanded the wetland in the south due to a marked growth in population. Moreover, the region was exposed above water and gradually developed into the Guangzhou Old Town during the Northern Song Dynasty, despite having been affected-to some extent-by multiple flood events, as recorded in the history of the Kaibao reign (AD 968-976) and Zhidao reign (AD 995-997). The expansion and development of the Guangzhou Old Town continued during the Song Dynasty, with the expansion of agricultural and industrial practices, and the shoreline of the Pearl River was pushed farther south. In conclusion, the environmental and urban transformation of the Pearl River Delta region since ca. 2 ka BP were mainly related to the influence of Holocene sea level alterations, the quantity of river sediment being discharged, pressure from human use of the land, and the practice of river restoration. This study also suggests that the archeological records coincide with the historical records and the general course of the progressive transformation of the Pearl River Delta region, thereby providing new evidence for environmental archeological research.

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    The Bibliometric Analysis on the 40th Anniversary of Tropical Geography Based on CiteSpace
    Kai Liu, Minying Lu, Xiaoling Li
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (6): 957-969.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003285
    Abstract177)   HTML14)    PDF (3067KB)(108)      

    On the 40th anniversary of Tropical Geography, a Bibliometric analysis based on CiteSpace was made on 2 938 articles published in tropical geography during1980-2019. At the interval of every 10 years, this paper conducted keyword co-occurrence analysis, keyword emergent detection, author co-occurrence analysis and institution co-occurrence analysis, aiming to explore the trends of the themes, historical burst terms, the core author partnerships and the core institutions partnerships in Tropical Geography. As a result, in the first 20 years, the research topics and areas of Tropical Geography were concentrated, mostly focusing on south China and the development and utilization of its resources. The cooperation among the core authors was weak and overall dispersed. Besides, it mainly reported the research results of Guangzhou institute of Geography and the cooperation among the core institutions was less. Since 2000, the number of research themes has increased significantly and has formed diversified research hotspots. The research area has been expanded, but it is still concentrated in southern China. More cooperative teams were formed among the core authors, and the inter-team cooperation and communication were significantly enhanced. The proportion of research results of universities and other institutes has increased greatly, and cooperation between institutions has been strengthened also.

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    Spatio-Temporal Evolution of Shawan Ancient Town in Guangzhou from the Perspective of Spatial Syntax
    Wei Tao, Kefeng Lin, Hengyu Gu, Chaoming Liao, Shiying Liu, Qianyi Ou
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (6): 970-980.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003282
    Abstract135)   HTML6)    PDF (3912KB)(91)      

    Against the background of the construction of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, the development of ancient towns is faced with new challenges, such as the expansion of urban scale, the weakening of traditional cultural values, the lack of continuity between new and old urban areas, and the inconsistent pattern of old urban areas. This research takes the Shawan Ancient Town, Panyu District, Guangzhou City, as its research object and conducts a spatial syntactic analysis of urban morphology in 2002, 2008, and 2017, based on the axis model. The research shows that: 1) Shawan Ancient Town has experienced three stages of development in terms of overall shape, from "single nucleus cohesion" to "axis growth" and then to "divergence and spread." The town's core has been expanding and its shape has been perfected. 2) The direction of expansion of the ancient town's spatial form is consistent with expansion in the direction of the integrated nuclear center, with which the town's new business is in line. The central transfer is synchronized with the evolution of the spatial form. 3) The phenomenon that the integration core of ancient towns and the development of commercial centers are out of sync is related to modern cities' orthogonal grid form and traditional ancient towns' relatively dense and complex spatial texture. This study reveals the law of development of the traditional village spatial form in the process of rapid urbanization and provides a useful reference for the traditional village's new spatial design and the inheritance and reconstruction of the spatial development structure and order. Finally, the research proposes the following suggestions for the spatial protection of ancient towns: 1) The development of ancient towns should extract the spatial rhythm from the traditional space and follow similar rules to update and develop the town, so as to protect the sense of scale and the traditional daily living space. 2) Good traffic planning can ensure that the original space is only minimally affected. At the same time, the use of transit rail to connect the ancient towns old and new districts can improve continuity between the spaces and ensure efficient operation. 3) Demonstrating the need for the rational control of tourism development., Shawan Ancient Town is in the stage of high tourism development, which makes residents' living space overlap with tourists' visiting space, often resulting in the occupation and destruction of the original settlement space to meet the needs of "others." As a characteristic element of traditional ancient towns, their protection and continuation need to be respected during tourism development. Planning should fully analyze ancient towns' spatial rules and development needs to avoid excessive transformation of the space due to commercial development and the timely restoration of some places worth preserving" if applicable..

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    Citizenization of Villagers in City Based on Field Theory: A Case Study of Liede Redeveloped Community, Guangzhou
    Zhuolin Pan, Ye Liu, Yuqi Liu, Zhigang Li
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (6): 981-992.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003287
    Abstract76)   HTML9)    PDF (1682KB)(57)      

    With the acceleration of urbanization in China, the transformation from increment planning to inventory planning in large cities has initiated the upsurge of urban village redevelopment. However, this redevelopment has overemphasized the economic benefits while neglecting the social benefits behind the redevelopment, resulting in villagers' difficulties in re-employment, inadequate social security, and other problems regarding citizenization. Taking the Liede redeveloped community as a case study, and using the field theory of Bourdieu, this paper adopts descriptive statistics and qualitative analysis based on data from questionnaires and in-depth interviews to measure urban villagers' level of citizenization after the redevelopment. The level of citizenization is measured through the four dimensions of economic integration, socio-cultural adaptation, structural integration, and social identity. The research indicates that to some extent, although the redevelopment of Liede village has brought new changes to community management, the village collective economic organization continues to undertake a large number of community services and livelihood security functions closely related to the daily life of villagers. The villagers and the village collective have formed an exclusive and closed pattern based on their common interests. Villagers have sought safety strategies for action and decision-making when facing social transformation, and their conservative economic strategies and homogenous social networks have resulted in little changes in the structure and quantity of their capital. In essence, the new village community has not been restructured along with the redevelopment of the physical environment, and the capital of stakeholders is in a relative state of equilibrium, which has not motivated the villagers to adapt to their new environment and reconstruct the structure of the field. After the redevelopment of Liede village, the villagers' living environment improved, their basic rights were secured, and their newly-moved in neighbors also exerted a demonstration effect, which considerably improved villagers' consciousness of their roles as citizens, their behaviors, and their way of thinking. However, many villagers have not achieved self-empowerment or integrated into the urban society, judging from the four dimensions of citizenization. In terms of economic integration, the difficulty of employment persists. Regarding socio-cultural adaptation, the younger generation can effectively adapt to urban society, while the older generation's habits and ways of thinking are solidified. In terms of structural integration, without a platform to interact with other social groups, it is difficult for villagers to expand their social network. Finally, regarding social identity, villagers' social status has not improved with their economic status, and the recognition of their roles as citizens is inadequate. Therefore, the government is advised to promote the transformation of village communities, regard the citizenization of villagers in cities as long-term social work, and carry out community activities and skills training to enhance the human and social capital of villagers, and facilitate their integration into urban society.

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    Bypass Behavior and Influencing Factors Among Older Adults with General and Chronic Diseases in Guangzhou
    Lin Lin, Chengqi Yan, Ying Yang, Yixin Fan, Qing Wu
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (6): 993-1003.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003296
    Abstract38)   HTML3)    PDF (2042KB)(19)      

    Optimizing medical behavior is an important way to promote health equity for older adults. Foreign studies have reported on the phenomenon of bypass behavior, in which patients choose to receive medical services from a hospital farther away instead of a closer one. The distribution of medical facilities in rural areas of foreign countries is relatively scattered, therefore, bypass behavior is fairly common. However, in China, community health service sites have a standard configuration, in accordance with regulations designed to meet the needs of older adults with general and chronic diseases. However, remarkably, many older adults still prefer medical service institutions that are farther away from them over those that are closer. In an analysis of questionnaire survey data from 13 communities in Guangzhou, with graph analysis and linear regression to explore the characteristics and influencing factors of older adult bypass, it was found that there were two critical points in the distance of older adults with general and chronic diseases in Guangzhou: 1 km is the critical point of "in-community bypass" and 5 km is the critical point of "near bypass-far bypass". This forms a core-peripheral bypass circle. Unlike foreign studies that suggest that bypass behavior mainly occurs in rural areas, this study found that bypass behavior in Guangzhou occurs not only in rural communities, but also in urban ones. Another important difference is that most foreign researchers believe that bypass distance is more than 25 km, whereas findings in the present study show that bypass distance in Guangzhou is distance that is more than 1 km. Older adult men have longer bypass distances than older adult women, and older adult men are more likely to choose higher-grade hospitals. Residential community type is a key influencing factor of bypass behavior, and incomplete medical grade configuration also has a great influence on bypass distance, which is also an important reason for the difference in bypass distance between older adults in urban and rural communities. Older adults who are more satisfied with their community are more likely to choose to seek medical care locally in the community. This finding supports those of foreign studies indicating that high community satisfaction promotes closer medical treatment among older adults and that high community satisfaction has a "pull" factor that attracts older adults to local medical treatment. There are important differences between bypass behavior in China and other countries. Applying the index of community satisfaction to the Anderson healthcare utilization model in the research on personal characteristics is more suitable for studies in China. Older adults with low self-rated health had longer bypass distances. Therefore, bypass distance, to a certain extent, can reflect the circumstance of health equity. The average bypass distance among older adults in a certain community is shorter when the community has more health equity. Predisposing characteristics, enabling resources, and medical needs jointly affect bypass distance among older adults, which in turn affects the level of health equity. Therefore, balancing the medical grade configuration and improving the community satisfaction among older adults will greatly reduce bypass distance and effectively improve health equity in the community.

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    Rural Spatial Restructuring: Theoretical Research Progress and Framework Construction
    Lixia Jin, Zhimin Wen, Jianhong Fan, Zhiwei Du
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (5): 765-774.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003278
    Abstract189)   HTML11)    PDF (1365KB)(92)      

    Against the background of urban-rural integration and the increasingly complex human-land relationship in rural areas, rural spatial restructuring has emerged as an important subject in rural geography. This article preliminarily defines the connotation of rural spatial restructuring. It examines and reviews the theoretical research progress in the field of western post-productionism, domestic rural territorial system, and political economy. In addition, the article also constructs a multi-perspective, multi-element, multi-theoretical framework of rural spatial restructuring. The research shows that first, in the context of western "post-productivism," as the study of the rural spatial restructuring begins to demonstrate the consumption, social-cultural and post-modern turns, the research on multi-function, global rural transformation, and spatial reconstructing becomes the focus area. Second, based on the territorial system of human-environment interaction of rural geography, domestic research emphasizes the process-mechanism-regulation of rural spatial reconstructing and farmers' economic spatial behavior from the micro perspective. Third, accompanied by land capitalization and the increasing importance of rural labor mobility, rural spatial reconstructing presents the Chinese characteristics of top-down political and economic transformation and focuses on the space-power relationship between rural collective organizations and other subjects, such as governments, enterprises, individuals, etc. This has become an important perspective of rural spatial reconstructing. Fourth, the political and economic geography and "social-spatial" dual dialectics provide good research paradigms and methods. Moreover, the theoretical study of rural space reconstructing should systematically integrate political and economic theories (spatial production, subject initiative, land capitalization, social relation network, the territorial system of human-land interaction, and peasant household geography) and strengthen the studies on multi-factor interactions and their spatial response mechanisms (nature, economy, society, and culture). To achieve this, the formation and evolution of rural spatial pattern with multi elements and multi dimensions, rural social spatial reproduction, rural labor spatial production from the perspective of initiative, government policy system, and finally, the innovation of urban and rural spatial governance system should be emphasized.

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    Supplying Space for Innovation from the Old Factory from the Perspective of Land Rent Residual: Comparison between Guangzhou and Shenzhen
    Jiaping Chen, Jing Li, Yaohong Wen
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (5): 795-807.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003273
    Abstract85)   HTML2)    PDF (2727KB)(81)      

    According to the land rent theory, innovative activities return to a megacity's downtown based on the formation of land rent residual in the area occupied by factories. The city government regularly modifies the regeneration policy to balance the distribution of land rent residual between different principals and supply space for innovation. City governments have different opinions on the distribution of land rent residuals. Therefore, methods of supplying space for innovation and shaping diverse urban landscapes also differ. Since the city government of Shenzhen relies less on land finance than other megacities in China, and it lacks land resources, they regenerate industrial land into innovative space. With less constraint on function transformation, development density, and property rights, the city government gives out much of the land rent residual and supplies several high quality spaces for innovation at a medium-cost. The city government of Guangzhou chooses to acquire massive land rent residuals by regenerating state-owned factories and business areas under financial pressure and debts into residency. However, the land rent residual of village-owned factories can only be extracted from informal regeneration under the strict constraints posed and acquired by the city government, while supplying medium to lost cost innovation spaces of medium and low qualities. Consequently, it is suggested that the Guangzhou government should thoroughly research on existing industrial land where old state-owned factories and village industrial parks are located. Spatial planning and reformation of the city and resolving problems in old village-owned factories for a complete and legal upgradation will provide a decent space for the innovation industry. To ensure enough land and space for the innovation industry, the Shenzhen government needs to employ precaution against over-exploitation of industrial regeneration policy when real estate gets involved.

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    Mapping the Micro-Scale Scientific and Technological Innovation Potentials of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area: A Response to Spatial Planning
    Jianjian Qiu, Yihua Liu, Li Yuan, Chengjing Chen, Qingyao Huang
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (5): 808-820.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003270
    Abstract107)   HTML7)    PDF (2739KB)(45)      

    Innovation regularly appears at different venues and areas within cities, and its spatial stickiness has been widely studied and confirmed. However, most current research on spatial innovation has not been conducted in a micro-scale manner to decode the inner-city potentials. From an urban research perspective, this makes understanding the internal clustering mechanism a significant challenge. Thus, this article uses Points Of Interest (POI) data to explore a Scientific and Technological (S&T) spatial index system focusing on innovation potential with a consideration of three dimensions: knowledge, technology, and environment. It analyzes the micro-scale agglomeration structure of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA). First, an inverted U-style innovative core belt embracing the Pearl River in the middle is formed. This area has more substantive innovation potentials on the east than the west coast. Guangdong-Foshan and Shenzhen-Dongguan innovation clusters are then built simultaneously. In both practice and theory, these research findings are consistent with the metropolitan agglomeration pattern and research on the GBA. Additional results are: 1) A notable cluster effect emerges in the spatial distribution of GBA's innovation potentials. Considering the division of dimension, knowledge-based innovation is likely to be led by Guangzhou and Hong Kong, while technological innovation stretches in strong belt-style spillovers along the Guangzhou-Shenzhen S&T Innovation Corridor. However, there is a dearth of innovation in these incubators' environments, and collaboration between them needs to be drastically improved. 2) The hotspot structure shows characteristics such as node clustering, group linking, and multicenter coexistence, while 16 Innovation-intensive Zones (IIZs) emerged in four distinct innovative pathways. These are knowledge-and-research-based, industry-led, environment-incubated, and comprehensively developed, and being close to rivers and streams are significantly influenced by the hydrophilic clustering effect, with a free and comfortable atmosphere inspiring innovation. Traditional administrative forces also have a significant impact, especially on the peripheral areas where innovative activities rely on government planning and the pull-forces from downtown. 3) From the perspective of industry differences, a robust functional differentiation is spatially mirrored. The innovation of intelligent equipment manufacturing has a strong outward diffusion, and the energy, chemical and core electronic industries display an inward node effect. While biomedicine innovation spreads across the two core areas, it is necessary to strengthen information and communication in a broader region with higher potential. 4) In a micro-scale way, an indistinct boundary shapes the Guangzhou-Dongguan-Shenzhen-Hong Kong innovation corridor. However, the need is still urgent to calibrate the regional imbalance and intensify deeply-integrated innovation in light of the vast spatial differentiation and insufficient cooperation between the east and west coasts, the Pearl River Delta and Hong Kong-Macao, and the central and peripheral areas of innovation development. Based on these issues, it is essential to strengthen the emergence of an innovative environment and integrate it with knowledge-based and technology innovation. The aim is to promote the diffusion of pivotal innovative nodes and then specify the differentiated positions of innovative industries to create a region free from boundary constraints conducive to innovation, communication, and cooperation. Thus, for spatial planning in the GBA, the quest for a higher level of innovative potential is imperative, and the integration of collaborative innovation needs to be pursued vigorously.

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    Relationship between Farmer's Well-Being and Ecosystem Services in Hilly and Mountainous Areas of South China Based on Structural Equation Model: A Case Study of Lechang in Guangdong Province
    Ying Xiong, Kelun Hou, Sirui Zheng, Kun Zhang, Tianhao Yang, Dandan Zhao, Bing Sun, Lei Chen
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (5): 843-855.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003266
    Abstract78)   HTML3)    PDF (2804KB)(37)      

    The south hilly and mountainous area is an important ecological functional area in China. As the main economic activity subject, farmers' perception of ecosystem services directly affects the eco-environment behavior, economic production activities, social life style and so on. The contribution of well-being is the core of ecosystem services. In order to explore the relationship between farmers' well-being and ecosystem services and promote the healthy development of ecosystem, eight villages in Lechang city of Guangdong Province, which are located in the key ecological functional areas of hilly and mountainous areas in south China, are selected as the research objects. Based on field survey and questionnaire interview, the structural equation model was used to comprehensively analyze the relationship between the development level of rural communities and farmers' welfare and the changes in ecosystem services, emphasizing the changes in that occurred between 2005 and 2018. The results show the following: 1) From 2005 to 2018, the well-being level of farmers has somewhat improved. The income level and living conditions of farmers have increased significantly; their evaluation values have increased from 0.294 and 0.245 in 2005 to 0.385 and 0.422 in 2018, respectively. Meanwhile, the awareness of farmers on ecological protection has been gradually strengthened. 2) The awareness of the four major service functions of the system is rising; particularly, the degree of understanding of cultural service functions and support service functions has improved significantly. The perceived value of farmers increased from 0.251 in 2005 to 0.370 in 2018. 3) The four service functions of the ecosystem have a certain coupling relationship with the level of community development, among which the relationship between supply services, cultural services and farmers' well-being is close. 4) To enhance the cultural service capacity of the ecosystem and develop the low impact economic development mode is conducive to the maintenance of ecosystem services and the improvement of farmers' well-being, and promote the sustainable development of ecological environment and rural socio-economic in key ecological function areas.

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    Suitability Characteristics of Camellia oleifera Growth under Climate Change Scenarios
    Xiaojun Wang, Guangxu Liu, Tong Xiao
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (5): 868-880.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003267
    Abstract79)   HTML6)    PDF (2716KB)(46)      

    Based on research into climate suitability and employing a species distribution model, this paper examines climatic data from six periods from the mid-Holocene (MH), 1970-2000 (the 1980s), RCP4.5 and 8.5 under 2041-2060 (2050s4.5, 2050s8.5) and 2061-2080 (2070s4.5, 2070s8.5), combined with data from Camellia oleifera specimens. The study uses the MaxEnt model to analyze the temporal and spatial characteristics of the suitability of C. oleifera growth under climate change scenarios. The suitability results are divided into four levels, from low to high, and the spatial distribution changes of the suitability of each transition period, the change of the northern boundary and the geometric center, and the displacement of the most suitable area are analyzed. The results show that: 1) According to the specimens and growth habits, C. oleifera is mainly distributed in the hilly areas of southern China, with latitude and longitude ranging from 18°31' to 33°15' N and 101°34' to 121°51' E, respectively, and the area is mainly in the subtropical East Asian monsoon climatic belt and has plenty of sunshine and heat. 2) The area under the curve (AUC) values of the training data set and the test data set of the MaxEnt model are 0.848 and 0.817, respectively, and the evaluation results reach the "good" standard, so that this model can be used for climate suitability analysis for the growth of C. oleifera. Taking the distribution probability P≥0.35 as the standard, the annual precipitation ≥1 100 mm, precipitation of the wettest quarter ≥550 mm, a mean temperature of the warmest quarter ≥20℃, a temperature seasonality <8.9, precipitation of the driest month ≥15 mm, a mean temperature of the wettest quarter 17-28℃, and a mean temperature of the coldest quarter ≥4℃ are the seven main environmental factors and ranges suitable for the growth of C. oleifera. Their contribution rates are all over 4%, and the cumulative contribution rate reaches 90.1%. 3) The areas with the highest climate suitability for C. oleifera in China are mainly south of the Yangtze River and east of the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau, with a range of south of 30°N and east of 107°E. In general, the suitable level and above accounted for 34.9%-61% of the study area, and Hunan, Jiangxi, and Guangdong areas are the most suitable. Concerning the suitability changes, the southwest region fluctuates in space, and the most suitable area in the southeast hilly area is relatively stable. The areas of stable type and decrease type account for a relatively high proportion, which is 58.1%-71.5% and 9.3%-33.6%, respectively. 4) The northern boundary of the most suitable region for C. oleifera mainly lies between 24 ° N and 33 ° N in the central subtropical zone, which varied greatly in Qinling Mountains, Chongqing, Guizhou, and Guangxi in different periods. On the whole, it moved to the south from the middle Holocene to the 1980s, and moved northward from the 1980s to the 2050s and 2070s. The geometric center and displacement shifted to the East and North as a whole, and the most suitable center was located in Chenzhou, Hunan Province, in the middle Holocene. In the 1980s, it moved southeast to Shaoguan, Guangdong Province, in the 2050s, it will move northeast to Ji'an, Jiangxi Province, and in 2070s, it will move to the southwest and northeast in the RCP4.5 and 8.5 scenarios, but will still be present in Ji'an. 5) When climate scenario data and the MaxEnt species distribution model are used to analyze the temporal and spatial characteristics of C. oleifera climatic suitability in southern China, the results have a good correspondence with similar research results and China's C. oleifera production statistics. This correlation indicates that the results are reliable and can be used as a reference for C. oleifera planting divisions.

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    Analysis of Mangrove Annual Changes in Guangdong Province during 19862018 Based on Google Earth Engine
    Ziyu Wang, Kai Liu, Liheng Peng, Jingjing Cao, Yingxue Sun, Yuxin Qian, Shuyue Shi
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (5): 881-892.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003268
    Abstract98)   HTML9)    PDF (8047KB)(39)      

    Mangroves have critical ecological functions and social and economic value, and are an important target for protection in the coastal wetland ecosystem. By monitoring long-term dynamic changes in mangrove ecosystems, the overall change process can be systematically and accurately recorded, providing data support and a basis for decision-making on scientific protection and effective management of the ecosystem. This study focuses on mangrove forests in coastal areas of Guangdong Province. A map of the mangrove forest, from 1986 to 2018, was made using Landsat remote sensing image based on Google Earth Engine (GEE),which is a cloud computing platform. The Random Forest (RF) method was used to extract mangrove trees from 32 periods from 1986 to 2018, in Guangdong Province. The interannual variation in mangrove characteristics in coastal cities of Guangdong province were compared. In addition, the evolution characteristics of mangrove patches in Guangdong province were analyzed. The results show that 1) The computing capacity and massive data of the GEE cloud platform provide data support for analyzing the inter-annual evolution of mangroves in Guangdong province, which greatly improves the computing efficiency. From 1986 to 2018, the overall classification accuracy of mangrove remote sensing was higher than 90%, with high classification accuracy and reliable results. In general, the coastal mangrove area of Guangdong province first decreased and then increased, and the range of change gradually declined after 2014, remaining at about 11 000 hm2. Mangrove forests are unevenly distributed in the province and occur mainly in the west. 2) Concerning coastal cities, mangroves are distributed in 14 cities, among which Zhanjiang and Yangjiang have the largest mangrove area, which is about 70% of the mangrove area of Guangdong province. The mangrove area changes in each city fall under three categories: decreasing first and increasing later, increasing fluctuation, and no obvious change. 3) From 1986 to 2018, the overall number of patches in mangrove forests in Guangdong province showed a decreasing trend, but the average patch area (MPS) showedan increasing trend, and mangrove fragmentation was reduced. In 2018, the mangrove MPS was 4.11 hm2 in Guangdong province, and the total number of patches was 2 782. From 1986 to 2018, when the change trend of MPS in mangrove forests in Guangdong province was opposite to that of patch quantity, the changes of patches were mainly expansion and fragmentation. When MPS change trend was consistent with the change trend of plaque number, the increase and decrease in the change of plaque were dominant. Information on annual mangrove area distribution and structural changes can provide more detailed data and reference for the rational development and protection of mangroves and support ecological restoration and finely tuned mangrove management.

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    Progress and Prospects in Rural Space Diversification, Reconstruction, and Governance from a Development Perspective
    Ren Yang, Xiuli Luo
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (4): 575-588.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003240
    Abstract155)   HTML11)    PDF (1532KB)(116)      

    With industrialization, urbanization, informatization, and economic globalization, there is significant diversification in rural areas, including the social and economic devolopment and rural landscape, land-use structure, urban—rural relationship, consumption structure, and governance pattern. Development and evolution are types of spatial transformation, and their differentiation is significant in rural areas. With changes in the relationship between human beings and the environment in rural areas, problems such as the gradual disappearance of traditional villages, loss of regional identity, precariousness of villagers’ development prospects, and loss of autonomy tend to arise. The renaissance and revitalization of rural areas have become the core target of regional and rural development in this new era. Development, together with the theoretical construction of rural geography, now faces a critical period of opportunity. The mechanism of interaction between the internal and external motivations of rural spatial differentiation needs to be clarified, and geographic parameters concerning the reconstruction of rural multidimensional space need to be examined carefully, as they take a scientific approach in exploring comprehensive rural governance. These are beneficial in strengthening both rural construction and the framework of governance theory. This paper systematically reviews the progress of research on rural spatial differentiation, reconstruction, and governance both at home and abroad. We found that, internationally, research on rural geography is more diverse, and theories and methods from the field of political economics and sociology are widely used. These research methods are mainly qualitative, focusing on the theoretical interpretation of the construction and translation of the actor-network of cognition, differentiation, and reconstruction of rural space. Further, the main body and framework of rural community governance are analyzed deeply. Domestic research, in contrast, focuses on the differentiation and reorganization of rural material space, but the content framework and methodology of rural spatial differentiation, reconstruction, and governance remain insufficient. Accordingly, this paper—guided by the theory of territorial system of human—environment interaction on a macro scale—systematically examines the spatial differentiation types and dynamic mechanism of rural development and transformation under multiple external environments in China. On a medium-micro scale, the comprehensive study of the rural human—environment relationship in a regional system is implemented, focusing on element structure, function change, element reconstruction, and space governance. We performed a space gradient analysis using urban—rural continuous spectrum geographic transects, which analyzed internal multidimensional space differentiation and reconstructed the scientific logic of governance in different locations and with different types of rural space. By integrating geography, sociology, politics, management, and other subjects, we constructed a unique theory framework for the transformation of rural space in China. Rural space governance is an important part of territorial space control and social governance, and is of interest across multiple academic disciplines. The collaborative mechanism between the governance of space and the participating community, as well as the approaches and models of village construction management and spatial governance used, needs an urgent conclusion and summary.

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    Research Progress and Prospects of Cooperation Zones: Cooperation Type, Cooperation Motivation, and Cooperation Effect
    Peng Zhang, Wen Chen, Jiawei Wu, Feng Yuan
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (4): 589-603.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003253
    Abstract95)   HTML5)    PDF (2162KB)(33)      

    As a means of inter-regional resource complementarity and win-win cooperation, cooperation zones play an important role in promoting coordinated regional development, narrowing regional gap, enhancing the regional whole competitiveness, and achieving high-quality regional integration. Cooperation zones are a significant topic in trans-regional cooperation research. Correlational research employs the enclave economy theory, the space production and space restructuring theories, the social capital theory, growth alliance, and the cross-border region theory to explore the type, cooperation impetus, and effects of cooperation zones through the lens of collaborative agents, management systems, spatial governance, and benefit sharing. This research adopts the relevant theories of geography to promote innovative research in cooperation zones. The research methods for the classification of cooperation zones mainly include stakeholder, organizational behavior, and empirical case comparison analyses. The diverse types of cooperation zones form a hierarchical classification system, according to the main body of participation, the form of cooperative governance, and the industrial functions of a park. The cooperation impetus includes government-driven, market-driven, social-driven, and benefit sharing driven, and the driving forces interact. The combination of government and market factors is the key driving force for cooperation. The driving force of government gradually gives way to market-driven forces. Common interests are the core element of cooperation, and benefit sharing is the prime power for the development of cooperation zones. Benefit coordination is the key to their sustainable development, while benefit compensation mechanisms among cooperating subjects constantly innovate. The cooperation effect is various and comprehensive. By fostering regional economic growth poles, cooperation zones can promote regional economic growth and speed up the free flow of elements and industrial transfer between regions. This, in turn, promotes industrial layout optimization, transformation, and upgrading. In addition, the cooperation effect also manifests in narrowing the gap in regional economic development, promoting regional coordinated development, accelerating urbanization progress, strengthening inter-regional economic cooperation, and improving regional comprehensive competitiveness. However, problems persist. The classification criteria of some types are not unified; the quantitative research and coupling relationship studies on cooperation motivation are insufficient; the research on cooperation effect lags behind and lacks scientific and objective systematic evaluation systems. Therefore, this paper makes a prospect of innovative research on cooperation zones that can focus on three aspects. 1) Few studies have covered the types, dynamics, and effects of cooperation. The systematic and comprehensive study of cooperation zones should be further strengthened and innovated. 2) Regional cooperative governance’s reflection in cooperation zones has been preliminarily discussed; however, in-depth theoretical research on the driving mechanism of trans-regional cooperation governance must be further explored. 3) Current research focuses on the development of cooperation zones. At the macro level, cooperation zone research can also be extended to the evaluation of regional integration policies. Future in-depth theoretical and empirical studies on evaluating regional integration policies should be carried out based on the case of cooperation zones.

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    Inherent Logic for Municipal Functionality and Positionality Change and Their Methods of Implementation: A Case Study of Hangzhou
    Jigang Bao, Zi'ang Zhang, Mingya Qu
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (4): 604-611.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003256
    Abstract118)   HTML8)    PDF (1261KB)(56)      

    Since the beginning of the 21st century, informationization and globalization have greatly impacted the development of cities. This was not the rapid growth of all cities within the national urban system, but the development of certain key cities linked to the process of globalization. In other words, the functions undertaken by cities determined their future development potential and status. The topic of “first-tier cities” is presently being debated in all sectors of society. Several media and research institutions have been racing to release series of rankings such as “new first-tier cities” and “quasi-first-tier cities,” in an attempt to continually re-rank the major cities in China. Behind such public opinion is a comprehensive consideration of the functions of a city, with an empirical understanding of its development potential and status. However, although different evaluation indexes directly affect the score of a city, there is currently no set or recognized system by which to conduct the evaluation of a city. This study explores the mechanism that influences urban status via a “theory to empirical” approach. By sorting the research on cities globally, this study extracted the internal logic by which urban functions drive the change in the status of big cities and constructed a role model for “strategic function–basic function-city status.” This study suggests that the functions of international cities can be classified as strategic and basic, of which the former is the fundamental force driving the status changes of big cities. Big cities play the role of a control center in national economies and regional layouts and can create a regional influence in areas including economic, financial, political, trade, information, and scientific innovation functions. The basic function of such a city is an important external manifestation of its strategic function and guarantee of the maintenance and betterment thereof. Big cities play the role of a hub and node, that can provide highly modernized infrastructure and international service functions that will simultaneously and indirectly impact the effect of their strategic functions and the transformation of their status. Using this logical framework, this study demonstrates the path by which the urban status of Hangzhou is being upgraded, identifies the functioning of a digital economy as the strategic function of this city, confirms the rapid development of the former and the promotion of the urban status of the latter, and responds to public opinion that Hangzhou is now a “first-tier city.” By introducing the concept and characteristics of strategic functions, this study highlights and emphasizes the importance for the rapid development and status upgradation of big cities in China. The development of such cities need to judge other cities worldwide, based on their own advantages. With a leading edge such cities can join the globalized system, conform to the scientific and strategic function of global development trends in a reasonable way, and stand out from others. Furthermore, with new “city business card”, such cities can enter the fast lane of benign development.

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    Migration Characteristics and Return Migration Intentions of Migrants in the Context of New Urbanization
    Yongfei Xie, Yanqing Ma, nd Li Hongjuan
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (4): 612-624.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003245
    Abstract155)   HTML6)    PDF (1270KB)(73)      

    Drawing on data from the 2016 "Migrants' Dynamic Monitoring Survey", using descriptive analysis and three multinomial logistic regression models, this paper describes the latest status and characteristics of return migration intentions, and explores the relationship between migration characteristics and return migration intentions. Findings showed that migrants’ return intentions is particularly weak; more than 40% of migrants plan to return in the near future; the return regions are diverse and dispersed. They present a multi-location interactive mode of "destination place, namely the original location as the main part and administrative townships and counties (districts) as the auxiliary part." Among the migrants who return to their administrative townships and counties (districts), the proportion of those who return to their administrative county is higher than that those who return to their administrative township. The results of the models show that migration characteristics have a significant influence on return migration intentions. Intra-provincial migrants are more likely to return than inter-provincial migrants. Compared with migrants with shorter migration times, migrants with longer migration times are more likely to return; to do so within 2 years; and return to their point of origin. Migrants within the category of non-whole family migration are more likely to return; to do so within 2 years; and return to their point of origin than in the case of whole-family migration. Compared with migrants who have no children left behind, migrants who have left children behind are more likely to return and to do so within 2 years than those who have not. Migrants' return intentions is obviously influenced by characteristics such as career, income, education level, age, and other variables. Relatively speaking, those with lower occupational prestige, income and education levels and those of older age are more likely to return. Based on the above results, it is suggested that the government should implement the strategy of “holding local citizenization as essential, with reflux citizenization as a supplement”; continue to deepen systemic reform to clear up institutional barriers and provide equal public service to migrant workers; and promote the economic and social development of the Central, Western and Northeastern regions, formulating preferential policies to encourage farmers to return.

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    Assessing Governance of Interest Relationships within World Cultural Heritage Site Using Social Network Analysis: Case Study of Two Typical Tourism Villages in Yunnan’s Hani Rice Terrace
    Shaohua Shi, Xiang Li
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (4): 625-635.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003227
    Abstract93)   HTML8)    PDF (1563KB)(41)      

    Hani Rice Terraces in Yunnan Province of China is listed as UNESCO world Cultural Heritage in 2014 and also Globally Agricultural Heritage Systems in 2010 as the marvelous human wisdom and its outstanding universal value to the human beings. Located in the core area of Hani Rice Terraces, Dayutang Village (DYT) and Pugaolaozhai Village (PGLZ) are small towns where the Hani nationality live. They are also typical agricultural and ecological tourism destinations attracting visitors from all over the world. However, interest disputes and governance among stakeholders have always been challenges to maintaining the sustainability of tourism at world cultural heritage sites. Consequently, it is of great significance to assess the governance of the village interest relationships from the perspective of stakeholders. Social Network Analysis (SNA) provides a good tool for explaining stakeholder relationships, though this has rarely been applied to studies of stakeholder relationship networks in tourism villages related to world heritage sites. This study used SNA to assess two typical tourism villages (DYT and PGLZ) in the Hani Rice Terrace core area with respect to stakeholders including local government agencies, businesses, communities, and pressure groups. Stakeholder relationships in the two villages were then analyzed from five aspects: network cohesion, network reciprocity, network core edge, network transmission, and network broker. The results are as follows. Firstly, the reciprocity between communities and local government agencies, communities and pressure groups is lower than the overall average level. Secondly, the marginal structure in the interest network is more obvious than the core structure, leading to the imbalance of interest relationships. Thirdly, the local government agencies of the two villages have relatively lower transitivity, while the local communities have the highest transitivity. Finally, the interest groups in two villages lack liaison roles. Based on these results, the corresponding suggestions were put forward. Firstly, shape a close interest relation among interest groups to form effective interest coordination mechanism. Secondly, strengthen the internal relationship among the interest groups to form the effective conservation and development force. Thirdly, make full use of the high reciprocity and high transmission feature of interest network. Fourthly, focus on decision-making power and voice power in the interests relation network in local communities to increase the power of the local communities. Last but not the least, cultivate liaison roles such as coordinator, consultant inside and among the interest groups.

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    Diffusion Characteristics of the Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Outbreak in Guangdong Province
    Liu Yi, Li Yuan, Li Zhuoling, Han Fangfei
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (3): 367-374.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003217
    Abstract246)   HTML15)    PDF (2497KB)(141)      

    This report analyzes the spatiotemporal spread characteristics and the spatial variation of the coronavirus epidemic based on detailed information of confirmed COVID-19 cases released by the city health commissions in Guangdong Province. The report finds that: 1) the confirmed cases in Guangdong Province maintain certain age distribution characteristics. Middle-aged people represented the largest number of cases, followed by young people, and lastly, the elderly. These results are similar to national statistics; 2) the epidemic spread ratio in Guangdong is 0.198, which indicates that the anti-epidemic measures in Guangdong have effectively suppressed the spread of the epidemic; 3) the difference between the epidemic spread pattern and comprehensive risk pattern in Guangdong Province is significant. Medium-sized cities (third and fourth tier) have higher diffusion risk and medium comprehensive risk. Developed cities have lower diffusion risk but higher comprehensive risks, whereas undeveloped areas in eastern and western Guangdong are safer. Medium-sized cities are apparently weak areas that can be easily overlooked in anti-epidemic work; therefore the control of such areas should be strengthened; 4) the results of Guangdong's epidemic prevention measures can be actively promoted in the future to reduce public anxiety. The current priority should be the prevention of a second epidemic shock caused by returning workers and school students. In the middle-late stages of epidemic prevention, the implementation of risk management should be differentiated according to the epidemic risk levels among different cities for the sake of restoring social production and avoiding the negative impacts towards society stemming from the over use of anti-epidemic measures, especially for vulnerable and underdeveloped areas.

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    Spatial-Temporal Distribution and Influence Mechanism of Internet Public Attention on COVID-19: A Case Study on the Baidu Searching Index
    Sun Yuting, Xiao Fan, Zhou Yong, Tian Guangzeng
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (3): 375-385.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003244
    Abstract235)   HTML7)    PDF (1613KB)(90)      

    The rapid spatial spread of the Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19) in China during the Spring Festival has seriously endangered human health and garnered tremendous public attention via the Internet and social media. Although public attention plays a critical role in risk surveillance and epidemic prevention, there is a lack of comprehensive discussion related to its spatial-temporal differences and influence mechanism. This study focused on Internet public attention on COVID-19 using spatial analysis, spatial-temporal visualization, regression analysis of panel data, and other methods to investigate provincial spatial-temporal differences and possible influence factors of public attention in China from January 9 to March 2, 2020. In terms of data collection, the Baidu Index (BDI) was used as the measurement of public attention, disease-related data were recorded from the National Health Commission of PRC, and the population movement of Wuhan was based on geographic services of Baidu Qianxi. As per the findings 1) The spatial distribution pattern of public attention can be described as “large differences between east and west regions, higher in coastal areas than inland areas, and consistent with the areas of epidemic distribution.” In terms of temporal characteristics, there was a significant increase in the daily average of public attention in all provinces after the “Wuhan Lockdown,” and the same distribution pattern of overall levels of public attention was observed before and after the “Wuhan Lockdown.” Public attention reached its peak during the Spring festival and subsequently experienced a fluctuating decline with the periodic routine (incubation-outbreak) of the development of the epidemic. The themes of public attention moved from “searching information on related viruses in the early stage”, to “focusing on clinical diagnosis” and “the recent status of the development of the epidemic.” 2) Public attention is influenced by daily dynamic levels, including disease factor and population movement related to Wuhan, and economic/social development levels with fixed regional features. 3) Different phases of the issue—attention cycle receive different levels of attention. The effect of influence mechanisms on public attention before and after the virus outbreak is significantly different. Prior to the outbreak, information disease-related factors of confirmed cases and deaths could increase the public’s awareness and satisfy their fact exploration. After the outbreak, public attention was focused on population outflows from Wuhan. Compared to the first stage, the effect of regional factors on public attention increased after the outbreak, indicating that as the epidemic becomes gradually controlled, regional factor may have a sustainable and stable impact on public attention. 4) Media technology indirectly affects the public’s searching behavior during the epidemic. Higher amounts of available online information correspond to less searching behavior as the public becomes more informed. 5) The announcement of the “Wuhan Lockdown” did not cause a massive population movement as compared to the travel rush (Chunyun) during the Spring Festival. This indicates that the role of the incubation period may have had a negative impact of population movement on public attention before the epidemic outbreak, and that the media agenda and intervention from state authorities could arouse public attention on population outflow from Wuhan after the outbreak. Based on the findings, it is suggested that the government should focus on public searching volumes and enforce timely measures to surpass the speed of epidemic spread.

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    The Impacts of COVID-19 on the Connectivity of China's International Air Transport Network and the Spatial Differences
    Du Fangye, Wang Jiao'e, Wang Han
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (3): 386-395.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003248
    Abstract319)   HTML7)    PDF (2576KB)(88)      

    Air transportation plays an important role in connecting countries and promoting global economic development. Recently, China’s international air transport network expanded rapidly in terms of navigable countries and cities and the number of air routes and flights. In this context, the connectivity and stability of the air transportation network attracted significant attention, which could be threaten by many factors such as public health emergencies, poor weather conditions, policies, etc. Focusing on COVID-19, this paper depicted the spatial patterns of canceled flights after the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic across Chinese cities and the impact on connected countries and cities overseas. Next, this paper investigated the impacts of public health emergencies on the connectivity of China’s international air transportation network by comparing the changes of the average shortest path and weighted average shortest path before and after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic. The results could be summarized as follows. First, the spread of this pandemic has significantly impacted the connectivity of China's international air transport networks. The number of navigable cities, routes and flights has substantially reduced, as has the efficiency of China's international air transportation. However, the COVID-19 pandemic has not significantly influenced the worldwide air transport network in this period. Additionally, the degree of effect of COVID-19 on air transportation connection was various across regions. For example, the air route suspension has the greatest impact on China's aviation network connectivity with Central Asia, West Asia and Oceania, while flight reduction has the greatest impact on China's aviation network connectivity with Northeast Asia, Central Asia and Southeast Asia. Second, there are no significant differences between the spatial patterns of the connectivity of China’s international air transportation network before and after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic; the connectivity between China and Northeast Asia, Southeast Asia, North America, and Europe remains better than other areas. The findings indicate that labor mobility, economic communication, and trade are vital in shaping the spatial pattern of the connectivity of China’ international air transport network. However, the flight aggregation degree for international flights has increased. The proportion of flights among the top 5 countries has increased from 58.1% to 67.2%, which is also closely related to factors such as the proximity and necessity of personnel, economy, and trade links. The international route networks in Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou are more reliable than other cities. Thus, following the outbreak of COVID-19, the distribution of China’s international routes and flights has been concentrated in these major cities. The proportion of international air routes increased from 28.8% to 38.9%. Moreover, the concentration of international flights increased from 46.6% to 76.4%, which is a higher concentration than international air routes. While expanding its focus on the depth and breadth of international air transport links, China should focus on strengthening the reliability of international air transportation networks to cope with the impact of various emergencies and ensure basic connectivity and stable operation of international air transportation networks.

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    The Impact of COVID-19 on China’s Economy and Discussion of Policies‒Evidence from Listed Companies
    Zhang Kaihuang, Qian Qinglan
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (3): 396-407.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003252
    Abstract503)   HTML12)    PDF (1011KB)(194)      

    The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has collapsed the world’s economy. A discussion of the reaction to structural and regional policies is imperative for the Chinese government because the implementation of policies is limited. As the state of the stock market indicates the direction of the economy, the financial reports of some enterprises from China’s Stock market for the first quarter of 2020 were collected and analyzed. This was the period in which the productivity of the enterprises were severely impacted by the coronavirus pandemic with respect to industry, actors’ scale, and region. The results show: 1) Except agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, and fishery, all other industries had lesser profit and limited operating cash flow, and their balance sheets had deteriorated. The services industry faced more challenges than the others. The behavioral decisions made by individuals, the governmental policies for lock-down, and the nature of industries were responsible for these detrimental changes; 2) The companies with small and medium market value were affected more than big enterprises. In Q1, big companies made more profits, optimized their operating cash flows, and stabilized their balance sheets. This is mainly because of the difference of operating ability among actors and the Matthew effect; 3) Owing to the differences in the population structure and land price in different regions, the manufacture, service, and building and estate industries faced greater challenges in the developed provinces than in the less developed regions. The pandemic adversely affected the finance industry in Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangdong; however, it showed improvement in Jiangsu. It has been observed that the financial structure in regions, and operating ability of companies were the main reasons for the negative impact on the finance industry. The medical industry was affected but progressed in areas with better industrial basement. This was because the demand for certain medicines and devices peaked during the period and the areas with better industrial base played more important role in fighting the virus. In this context, the authors discussed the two approaches: “Adopting a more proactive fiscal policy and deeply optimizing financial environment of enterprises,” and “Choosing policies implements regionally.” It can be argued that unilateral expansion of demand will result in a larger gap between demand and supply. This is disadvantageous because the global production system mainly depends on the manufacturing industry in China. The government should not only focus on resumption, but also start investment of new or traditional infrastructures. Moreover, owing to the uncertainty of the market, the factors that improve the balance sheet are few. Therefore, helping more entities by financial market and making the social capital more active have become the priorities for the government. In order to improve the manufacturing and service industry, undeveloped regions are encouraged to expand job opportunities, and the residents in developed regions are encouraged to consume more services and decrease the operating costs of the service industry. This can positively contribute to restoring the economy. Some measures adopted to benefit financial and building and estate industries are encouraging local commercial banks in medium-sized and small cities to provide loans to Small and Medium-Sized Enterprises (SMEs), boost infrastructure construction in developed regions, and loosen control of estate development. The policy makers of the medical industry were advised to focus on long-term development. Optimizing the financial environments for SMEs in medical industry and developing a multi-core, nation-wide distribution of industry are necessary for China.

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    Development and Accuracy Assessment of a Hyperspectral Data-Based Model for Leaf Nutrient Content Extraction in Wetland Tree Species
    Li Dan, Huang Yuhui, Sun Zhongyu, Zhang Weiqiang, Gan Xianhua, Wang Zuolin, Sun Hongbin, Yang Long
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (2): 175-183.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003241
    Abstract190)   HTML16)    PDF (1219KB)(58)      

    Plant nutrient status is a comprehensive response to soil nutrient supply, crop nutrient demand, and crop nutrient abilities. Detecting variations in plant nutrient content is an important aspect of forest management. However, conventional chemical analysis techniques are often time and labor intensive, particularly when applied over large areas. In recent years, some convenient and non-destructive tools have been applied to monitor plant biochemical properties; however, there is no agreement about which methods are most reliable. Among the available methods, some employ hyperspectral data to nondestructively estimate levels of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium in plants, thus providing a theoretical framework to support scientific forest management. Certain optical characteristics in the visible and near-infrared regions are closely associated with the absorption features of chlorophyll, other pigments, water, and chemicals in leaves and canopies. However, the efficacy of utilizing spectral data to detect various nutrient parameters is dependent on the data processing methods employed. In this study, we applied near-infrared spectroscopy to examine the leaves of nineteen wetland forest species and assessed various models’ performances in estimating Total Nitrogen (TN), Total Phosphorus (TP) and Total Potassium (TK) content in the vegetation. Eleven spectral preprocessing methods and three spectral data dimensionality reduction methods were used to preprocess the spectra. And two of algorithms, the Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) and Support Vector Machine Regression (SVR), were used to develop the nutrients prediction models. The determination coefficients (R 2) and Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of the models were used to evaluate the performance of the models for calibration, cross validation and prediction datasets. The Relative Percent Difference (RPD) for the prediction dataset was also used to assess the models. Results showed that the Standard Normal Variate (SNV) approach combined with the first derivative (1 st) preprocessing method had the highest accuracy among the 11 data pretreatment approaches, with RPD values of 2.35, 2.39, and 2.45 for TN, TP, and TK, respectively. Among the different dimensional-reduction methods, the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) performed the best, and SVR outperformed PLSR in parameter estimation. Models incorporating the SVR algorithm and data preprocessed using the SNV+1 st approach yielded the best prediction results for the three parameters. The best model for TN had ${R^{2}}_{p}$, RMSEp, and RPD values of 0.85, 2.82% and 2.50, respectively; best model for TP had ${R^{2}}_{p}$, RMSEp, and RPD values of 0.90, 0.55%, and 2.83, respectively; and best model for TK had ${R^{2}}_{p}$, RMSEp, and RFD values of 0.85, 3.80%, and 2.60, respectively. The results indicated that visible and near-infrared spectra can be used to estimate the leaf TN, TP, and TK content of wetland trees. However, before model calibration, the proper preprocessing of the spectral data is necessary to improve the performance of the models.

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    A Research Framework for the Application of Volunteered Geographic Information in Post-Disaster Recovery Monitoring
    Yan Yingwei, Ma Dawei, Fan Hongchao
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (2): 184-193.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003239
    Abstract183)   HTML8)    PDF (2297KB)(82)      

    In recent years, many studies on the application of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) to natural disaster management have been reported. To date, it has been shown that VGI can provide big geospatial data, incorporating rich content and extensive spatiotemporal coverage, in a real-time and cost-effective manner. Thus, it can facilitate disaster management by filling information voids known to occur in traditional geospatial datasets. However, existing studies have mostly focused on disaster prevention, preparedness, and response phases, and few studies have focused on post-disaster recovery. The aim of the proposed work is to help bridge this research gap by investigating how VGI data can facilitate post-disaster recovery monitoring, both in general, and for specific aspects such as tourism, business, industry, and the daily routines of residents. In the work reported here, we first review the development of VGI research in the decade since 2007, and then propose a research framework for post-disaster recovery monitoring, based on VGI data. The research framework involves three key components—data acquisition, data quality control, and data mining. Data acquisition is generally referred to as VGI collection (for example, OpenStreetMap, Twitter, and Flickr data), while authoritative data (such as remote sensing data, official statistics, and field survey data) can be collected as ancillary information. Data quality control is based on a fuzzy expert system, which considers Linus’ law, metadata, data lineage and provenance, geographic contexts (Tobler’s first law of geography), user credibility, spatiotemporal data density, and user activeness, and leverages artificial neural networks (deep learning) for optimizing the fuzzy rule sets of the expert system. Data mining is based on the transformative paradigm, using a combination of quantitative and qualitative approaches, involving text mining, spatial statistics, and machine learning. Using this combination, the status of infrastructure (roads, electricity, water, transport, housing, buildings, and telecoms), the economy (external sources of economy, internal sources of economy, and services), and safety (reputation, secondary disasters, health, security, and stability), which are the three main measures of post-disaster recovery, are investigated. This work thus paves a way for future studies related to this topic, identifying both research and practical implications. We also identify limitations in using VGI for post-disaster recovery management. The first of these is that a VGI source may rapidly become obsolete due to the fast development of cyberspace, making it imperative for researchers to keep the technique up-to-date, adapting it to the diverse and emerging VGI sources. The second limitation is that certain VGI platforms do not provide all the data available in their databases, and have imposed constraints on their Application Programing Interfaces (APIs). The third limitation is related to privacy issues pertinent to VGI data use. We suggest that the future work should also focus on seamlessly integrating VGI with traditional post-disaster recovery monitoring approaches, such as remote sensing, field surveys, and resident interviews.

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    Calculation of the System Delay Elasticity of the Beijing-Guangzhou Air Corridor with Analysis of the Air Flow Operation Structure
    Zhang Yinuo, Lu Zi, Ding Jianghui
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (2): 194-205.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003219
    Abstract174)   HTML6)    PDF (11563KB)(27)      

    During the last 10 years, aviation demand in China grew faster than transport capacity, leading to the intensification of the conflict between airspace capacity and flight flow and causing significant route congestion and flight delays. The Beijing-Guangzhou air corridor is considered the core component of the “inverted N-shaped north-south frame” of China’s air corridor pattern. In this study, a multi-level measurement framework that includes delay, duration-delay and accumulation-delay elasticity coefficient was constructed. By applying the actual track point data of 848 flights during a 24 h period in the Beijing-Guangzhou air corridor, the duration of the delay of a single flight, the system delay accumulation, and the system delay elasticity coefficient were calculated. The delay elasticity of the Beijing-Guangzhou air corridor system was evaluated, and its relationship with the air flow structure was analyzed. The improvement of the node-link settings and grid division reflected the characteristics of fine-grained research and the reasons for the heterogeneity of the delay elasticity were analyzed based on the airline network structure. The research suggests that: 1) overall, the flights in this air corridor primarily generate delay and show delay absorption capacity in low traffic periods. The average delay time for flights is 1.4 min. The mean delay of departure flights is generally higher than that of arrival flights. With the increase of flow intensity between hub airports, the mean and peak amplitudes of flight delay increase. According to the standard statistics of delay duration >15 min, the probability density and mean delay of each confluent flight are higher than those of a direct flight between the hub airports; 2) the delay of the Beijing-Guangzhou air corridor system presents a dynamic process that accumulates in the central route while peripheral routes recover. The accumulated delay of central airlines is 689 min, while the recovery of peripheral airlines is 936 min. The preference of the operators for central routes makes high-density traffic convergence the principal cause of delay accumulation; 3) the delay elasticity of the Beijing-Guangzhou air corridor system varies greatly among different air route segments and improves significantly with an increase in the number of paths and the dispersion of traffic flow between nodes. Multi-link air route segments trigger active delay absorption and thus have a strong delay recovery ability. The relationship between the delay elasticity and the air flow operation structure of the air corridor system is established by three key elements: the central route, the peripheral route, and the track clusters. This article provides a new perspective for the measurement and understanding of system delay elasticity and a basis for the selection of diverse routes and flight schedules in air corridors. Contrary to the previous elastic strategy of adjusting the allocation of flight slot resources and retaining the remaining capacity, this study reflects that flexible airspace utilization and dynamic airspace management, namely, adaptive route reconstruction and optimization of connections, would improve the efficiency of the system elasticity guarantee system.

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    Identification and Patterns of Employment and Residential Centers in a Cross-Border Region Based on Mobile Phone Signaling Data: A Case Study of Guangzhou and Foshan
    Li Ying, Chen Tingting, Li Xun, Xu Weipan, Lang Wei
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (2): 206-216.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003211
    Abstract296)   HTML14)    PDF (4526KB)(85)      

    Based on mobile phone signaling data, this study uses the Guangzhou-Foshan area as the focus area of a case study. The spatial structure is determined using the Lorenz method, and the spatio-temporal characteristics of job-housing are analyzed in a cross-border region. The findings of the study are as follows. First, the job-housing space of Guangzhou exhibits the characteristics of a single employment center and suburbanization, which is mismatched. The job-housing space of Foshan is mixed and presents a spatial pattern of "large scatter, small cluster," which is related to the urban development mode. Second, the job-housing space presents a new trend that emerged after the cities of Guangzhou and Foshan were integrated. The cross-border region, including Jinshazhou, Fangcun, and Guicheng, has formed a continuous high-intensity commuting area. Third, the job-housing patterns of the five cross-border regions are quite different. The Huadu airport area and the new station area (also referred to as a traffic hub type) support the airport economy and the high-speed rail economy, which affects the flow of labor and capital factors in the two cities and drives industrial development of surrounding areas. At the center of the cross-border region, the Jinshazhou and Fangcun-Guicheng regions (living type) undertake the resident spillover of Guangzhou and Foshan. The Wusha region (industry type) has a geographical advantage of forming a cross-border industrial park, attracting nearby residents for work. This research provides meaningful guidance and practice for the development of cross-border regions. Further, it provides new analytical dimensions and perspectives for related research. It can be seen that the development of different types of transboundary areas is conducive to suturing space rifts between the cities of Guangzhou and Foshan, thereby accelerating the integration of urban space. Based on the Lorenz curve, this study innovatively introduces a stricter endogenous threshold method to determine the threshold value of vocational and residential centers of Guangzhou and Foshan. Existing research mainly focuses on Beijing, Shanghai, Shenzhen, and other big cities. From the perspective of regional functions, this study focuses on cross-border regions and aims to provide references for regional coordinated development. However, some deficiencies still persist in this study, such as one person with multiple phone numbers, or incomplete samples of mobile phone signaling data. In the follow-up study, other trajectory data such as subway use and traffic can be added for verification. In addition, if the economic and social attributes of individual residents can be combined, the characteristics of people residing in cross-border areas during urbanization can be analyzed more precisely. This will be conducive to identifying patterns inoccupation and residence space.

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    Identifying Changes in Urban Spatial Structure Using Taxi Trajectory Data:
    A Case Study in Shenzhen
    Zhuang Haoming, Liu Xiaoping
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (2): 217-228.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003224
    Abstract281)   HTML14)    PDF (30576KB)(62)      

    The concept of urban spatial structure refers to the inherent structure formed by interactions between people and places. Studying urban spatial structure (especially its dynamic characteristics) is of considerable significance for understanding and managing cities. This study characterized the long-term dynamics of an interaction-based urban spatial structure using a large-scale taxi trajectory dataset from Shenzhen, China, for May 2009 and September 2016. Spatial networks were built to model intra-city spatial interactions at different times in order to extract the dynamic spatial structure. Due to the differences between the global spatial structure and the local spatial structure of the city, two-level hierarchical spatial networks were built by separating long- and short-distance trips. The cut-off point for hierarchical partitioning was set as 5 km in both 2009 and 2016 by comparing the coefficient of determination (R 2) for the fitted probability distribution functions of the trip distances. Furthermore, the Infomap community detection algorithm was applied to detect global and local spatial communities in the network. By comparing changes in spatial communities and combining remote sensing images with planning policies, this study characterized dynamic changes in Shenzhen’s long-term multi-scale spatial structure and revealed the impacts of infrastructure construction and planning policy on the urban spatial structure. The results showed that the spatial structure of Shenzhen underwent dramatic changes from 2009 to 2016. 1) On a global scale, urban spatial structures tend to be compact. For example, numerous small spatial communities in the suburbs of Shenzhen have merged into five large spatial communities the same as planned functional clusters, which has relevance to the Shenzhen 2020 master plan. 2) The spatial form of communities has also undergone significant changes on a global scale. For example, the shape of the community connecting the Shenzhen urban area and Shenzhen airport has changed from “|” to “U”. This is related to the opening of the Guangshen Yangjian Expressway and the expansion of the Shenzhen airport, reflecting the impact of major transportation infrastructure development on the urban spatial structure. 3) On a local scale, urban spatial structures tend to develop in a polycentric manner. For example, in Shenzhen, the two spatial communities surrounding the North High-speed Rail Station and the Nanshan Center were split into multiple spatially small communities, indicating a strong relationship with major infrastructure construction and economic development. This study verified the effectiveness of Shenzhen’s administrative division adjustment, 2020 master plan, high-speed railway station, airport expansion, and arterial expressway construction from 2009 to 2016. The results provide a valuable reference for planning implementation assessment and impact assessment of infrastructure construction, providing support for urban traffic management.

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    Critical Theoretical Engagements and Methodological Innovation for China’s Human Geography in a Decentering and (Anti) Globalizing World
    George C S Lin
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (1): 1-9.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003175
    Abstract433)   HTML24)    PDF (486KB)(168)      

    This paper situates Chinese human geography in the context of a decentering and globalizing world in which China has been firmly integrated. It is believed that the recent disturbing interventions of protectionism and Sino-American disputes have had the effect of slowing down but not reversing the long-term trend of intellectual globalization. Chinese human geographers should never be discouraged from entering the world stage and should instead take on the new challenges and opportunities for critical theoretical engagements and research innovation. A comparative assessment of Chinese human geography and its Western counterparts has identified common traditions and shared heritage in terms of subject matter, research frameworks, and routes of explanation. Whereas Chinese human geography is found to be more disciplined, organized, coherent, and supportive of state developmental agenda, human geography in the West is characterized by individual freedom, greater diversity, blue-sky enquiry, and a critical perspective free from any mandate that serves the interests of governments. Three ideological positions are identified for Chinese human geographers to use as important perspectives to engage in theoretical critique. Other possible ways of theoretical engagements include situating the problem in a different time and space, reassessment using different data and methods, challenging the basic assumptions upon which the theory is built, questioning cause-effect relationships, and (re) examining the issue on a different scale. Research innovation can be facilitated by a better understanding of three different kinds of geographic knowledge; establishing a research assessment system conducive and sufficiently stimulating; working at international research frontiers and interdisciplinary interfaces; promoting comparative studies; and utilizing research methods of different fashions. Three possible scenarios are envisioned for Chinese human geographers to venture into a future filled with new challenges and opportunities.

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    Karst Landscape Features of the Wumeng Mountains and Its Tourism Potential Analysis for Poverty Alleviation
    Wei Yuelong, Chen Weihai, Luo Shuwen, Pan Xiaodong, Li Chengzhan, Luo Qukan
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (1): 10-17.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003205
    Abstract758)   HTML10)    PDF (591KB)(156)      

    Wumeng Mountains is a short term for the continuously and particularly impoverished area in the Wumeng Mountain region. More than 200 important and typical karst landscape resources, which are widely distributed in different karst areas, have been discovered to present in the Wumeng Mountains. There is a complete range of karst landscapes in their typical forms, including mountains (peak clusters, peak forests, cuestas, hills, pictographic mountains, dome mountains, etc.), gorges (including Difeng), mountain gorges, natural bridges, stone forests, pillar-like peaks, cliffs, platforms, denudation surfaces, depressions (valleys), dolines, plains, basins, poljes, caves and various speleothems, light-through caves, tiankeng, karst windows, shafts, underground rivers, waterfalls, lakes, springs, wetlands, forests, cultural landscapes, and more. This study analyzed and examined many factors of the Wumeng Mountains, including the social economy, poverty alleviation status, natural environment, and regional geological settings, as well as the karst features, to discuss the karst landscape types and distributions systematically, assess the karst tourism potential for poverty alleviation through an analysis of the resources potential, suitability for development, regional features, development conditions, and market potential, and finally define the correlation between karst tourism potential and karst features. The study reached the following conclusions: 1) The Wumeng Mountains region includes numerous karst landscapes, with typical forms, that cover all of the types of karst landscapes and comprise 118 individual karst landscapes or karst landscape areas with different levels of advantages (including 78 provincial-level and 32 national-level and international-level karst landscape areas and many county-level individual karst landscapes or karst landscape areas). These individual karst landscapes or karst landscape areas form a stable pyramidal resource structure and are distributed in county-karst areas with different characteristics of solubility (that is, strong, easy, and weak solution conditions) that are located in three karst districts of Yunnan, Guizhou, and Sichuan Provinces and are classic concentration areas and outstanding representatives of plateau karst landscapes in the world. They present different types of landscapes and reflect obvious regional features and advantages. 2) In general, with gradual lowering of the karst landscape distribution density (from 39.13 to 19.58 and 4.91 items per ten thousand square kilometers), weakening of solubility (from strongly soluble to easily soluble and weakly soluble areas), and reduction of landscape area level (from international level to national level, provincial level, and county level), the three continuous karst areas in Guizhou, Yunnan, and Sichuan and each county-level karst region, as well as each individual karst landscape or landscape area, have progressively lower advantages, concentrations, scales, and popularities, which accordingly result in gradually diminishing tourism potential for poverty alleviation. 3) The most suitable and dominant tourism products with the greatest number of advantages and greatest development potential for the Wumeng Mountains are sightseeing and leisure, and the Wumeng Mountains could be established as a sightseeing and leisure tourist destination for caves, mountain gorges, Difeng, karst windows, natural bridges, tiankeng, waterfalls, and lakes, which has international-level advantages. 4) The regional features, development conditions, and market potential of the Wumeng Mountains are obviously inferior to those of other similar karst regions. Finally, the study proposed five karst tourism modes for poverty alleviation, i.e., sightseeing and leisure tourism, ecological tourism, scientific tourism, cultural tourism, and scientific exploration. Additionally, the study evaluated guaranteeing mechanisms of karst tourism for poverty alleviation through aspects such as government, infrastructure, regional tourism development, regional cooperation, and development concept.

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    Strategic Thinking Regarding Building an International Science and Technology Innovation Center in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area
    Ye Yuyao, Wang Jingshi, Wu Kangmin, Du Zhiwei, Wang Yang, He Shuyi, Liu Zhengqian
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (1): 27-39.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003204
    Abstract1196)   HTML40)    PDF (6961KB)(221)      

    As capital’s pursuit of knowledge has become an increasingly significant global trend, scientific and technological innovations have gradually replaced the development mode of factor-driven and resource consumption, supporting as the driving force of economic development in the new era by influencing the industry transformation and promoting new formats, along with fundamentally guiding the transformation of the leading functions of cities or regions toward scientific and technological innovation. Furthermore, the economic competition among cities or regions around the world is more prominently manifested in the competition of science and technology. As the embodiment and core support of a country’s comprehensive scientific and technological strengths, a scientific and technological innovation center could play a significant value-added role by occupying a leading, dominant position in the global value grid. This is an important measure for many countries and regions to cope with the challenges of each new round of scientific and technological innovations. Moreover, it also enhances national competitiveness. Based on the discussion of global innovation patterns and trends, as well as the interpretation of the connotation and characteristics of international technology innovation centers, this paper analyzes the advantages and challenges that the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area might face in constructing a global technology innovation center, and some strategies are suggested for the future development. At present, the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area are in a period of entering knowledge economy as a whole, wherein innovation elements are highly concentrated geographically, and innovation ecological conditions are constantly improved. The impact of innovation globalization is emerging in this region, and the demand for innovation is as strong as the manufacturing industry foundation within this area. The basic conditions for the construction of an international science and technology innovation center are sufficient. However, owing to institutional obstacles in integrating Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area and the huge intra-regional gap, some practical challenges in innovation development of this region still exist, such as the disconnection of innovation elements, the unsmooth internal flow of innovation elements, the difficulty of system-mechanism transformation, and the dilemma of relying on importation of core technologies. To take benefit from the favorable characteristics of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao, and mitigate any inherent shortcoming, the construction should be based on the establishing of a hotbed of international industrial innovation. In the meantime, this region should choose the construction of an international industrial science and technology innovation center as its core priority. This will accelerate institutional innovation and consider the construction of collaborative innovation demonstration zone as the key to breakthrough. Boost industrial innovation by enhancing the ability of original innovation, promote collaborative innovation by institutional reform, and finally realize the coordinated and integrated development of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area’s innovation.

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    Evolution and Mechanism of China’s Exports in a Dynamic Product Space Network
    Li Shan, Feng Pan, Song Yuru, Qin Xiaozhen, Li Xun
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (1): 40-50.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003203
    Abstract374)   HTML10)    PDF (8846KB)(81)      

    China’s foreign trade has developed rapidly since the reform and opening up. After joining the WTO in the early 21 st century, China’s export economy has risen to unprecedented levels. In the past few decades, processing trade and “compressed industrialization” have changed China’s comparative advantages and export structure. However, with the increase in production costs, China's traditional industrial pattern can no longer sustain its development. Exploring China’s industrial evolution and studying its internal influence mechanism have great significance in responding to the challenges. Different from traditional research that studied export evolution by describing its quantity and structure at the macro level, the popular evolutionary economic theory “Product Space” adopts a network perspective to study industrial evolution at the micro level and thus, makes a breakthrough in economic geography. Product upgrade is essentially a process wherein a region shifts to new, related products in the product space. Therefore, this article uses global customs data for 2000-2011 to construct a dynamic product space. Some scholars have proposed the idea that developed countries tend to produce core products, and products located in the core area of the product space can move to nearby regions more easily than those in the periphery. However, there is no unified quantification to measure countries’ core-periphery location in the product space yet. Many existing proxy variables are related to economic attributes and there may exist endogeneity problems in measuring productivity. First, our article proposes an exogenous indicator, “core location,” based on the topology structure of the space network. The regression model indicates that our indicator is reasonable and confirms that a country’s location in the product space does indeed affect its economy. Then, we analyze China’s evolution in terms of the overall export pattern and export location in the dynamic product space. Results show China has changed its traditional specialized pattern to an increasingly balanced pattern, and its “core location” is becoming bigger, which means it is gradually crawling toward the core area. Compared to other countries, China ranked at the top on the changing range of “co-location”. Finally, we analyze the influence mechanism of China’s location evolution in the product space. We find that human capital is the dominant impact factor of China’s location evolution. Education and R&D investment, as the main aspects of human capital, can increase knowledge spillovers and promote innovation, which in turn generates technology progress and industrial upgrading. It is interesting that foreign investment does not really have significant potential to help China move to the core area in global trade.

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    The Visualization Analysis of Hot Spots and Forward Positions in the Aspect of Urban Smart Development Research
    Wei Luyao, Lu Yuqi
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (1): 51-62.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003206
    Abstract339)   HTML7)    PDF (9020KB)(61)      

    Urban spatial layouts with leaping disorderly growth and far too compact shrinkage conflict with scientific and sustainable urban development processes to a certain extent. How to realize reasonable and moderate urban smart development has become a popular research topic in several disciplines in recent years. Using a data source retrieved from “China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database” and “Web of science,” we analyze literature published between January 2000 and May 2019 that focused on urban smart development using the visual analysis tool CiteSpace V. We also drew corresponding maps of knowledge structure in domestic and foreign countries using co-occurrence and cluster analysis of key words, identification and analysis of burst words and frontier paths, analysis of collaborative networks of authors and institutions, and network analysis of publication periodicals. Moreover, we analyze and provide detail on comments related to aspects such as theoretical connotation, quantitative measurement, and practical application of urban smart development research. The findings of this study demonstrate the following: First, a research network for a whole new field of urban smart development study has come into existence, and in contrast, knowledge structure network tightness needs to be further strengthened in domestic and foreign countries. Second, many clustering knowledge groups of research themes exist around the world, and the yearly evolution path of key word co-occurrence clustering is relatively long and occurrence times are relatively scattered, which does not indicate powerful flowing time zones and succession venation. Third, research hot spots and forward positions gradually revert to the application of microscopic aspects and urban shrinkage tendencies from a macroscopic theoretical analysis in China. Researchers worldwide cover a widespread subject background but have loose inter-citation, thus communication and discussion must be strengthened urgently. Research institutions in China have detailed and extensive discipline divisions, and in addition to this, there are significant regional scientific research ability differences when taking the eastern region and municipality of Beijing as a priority. Lastly, urban smart development research in economic management, sustainable development, geography, architectural science, and engineering in China has achieved remarkable results. We suggest that strengthening the definition of connotation and construction of judgment frameworks and taking deep consideration of multi-angle forward positions while further promoting academic communications between authors and research institutions is greatly significant to improve the degree of correlation of research networks. As a result, these changes would form a more extensive research network and knowledge structure system.

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    Profiles and Mechanisms of Return Migration in Post-Reform Urban China:A Case Study of Four Cities
    Cheng Hanbei, Liu Yuqi, Gou Feicui, Chen Hongshen, Li Zhigang
    Tropical Geography    2020, 40 (1): 63-73.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003166
    Abstract387)   HTML12)    PDF (276KB)(125)      

    With the deepening of urbanization, new-generation migrants are returning, leading to backflow population. Few studies have explored this emerging phenomenon in urban China. However, majority of the researchers have focused on return behavior based on the “pull-push forces” theory defined by national and urban macro-factors. Less attention has been paid to the individual factors that cause migrants’ return, e.g., social ties and capital, perceived discrimination and exclusion, social integration, and place attachment. To fill this gap, this study examines the determinants of the new-generation migrants’ return intentions and location choices based on the following two micro-level aspects: “objective attributes” and “subjective perceptions.” Using the data collected from the 2014 National Floating Population Dynamic Monitoring Survey and binary and multiple nominal logistic regression models, this study focused on three types of new-generation migrants (born after 1980): skilled migrants, business migrants, and labor migrants in four cities (Beijing, Shenzhen, Chengdu, and Zhongshan). The results can be given as follows. 1) New-generation migrants in urban China exhibited a strong intention to return, and their location choices differed based on their types. Further, 40% of migrants returned to their household region. Labor migrants exhibited the strongest intention (43.7%), followed by business migrants (36.0%) and skilled migrants (27.9%). Proportionately more skilled migrants planned to return to provincial capitals or prefectural cities when compared with the other two cohorts. 2) Binary logistic models identified return determinants; new-generation migrants’ returning intentions were influenced by both the “objective attributes” (demographical and economic condition) and “subjective perceptions” (economic position perception and sociopsychological perception). Males exhibited a greater probability of returning when compared with that exhibited by females. Age, education level, monthly income, and years of leaving hometowns were negatively related with the migrants’ return intentions. Long working hours per day contributed to their return. No evidence has shown that the marital status, number of children under the age of 18, or contract form were significantly related. As for the subjective factors, migrants with high family-related mental burdens and strong native cultural identification were increasingly likely to return. Strong social acculturation caused new-generation migrants to settle down in their destination cities. Importantly, there was no direct link between the migrants’ return intentions and perception of economic position. 3) Regarding determinants in local choices, education level was the most significant factor associated with migrants’ backflow to provincial capitals. Sociopsychological perceptions strongly influenced their backflow to prefectural cities. Demographic factors, such as gender, age, and years of leaving hometowns, exhibited a close relation with returning to counties or townships. Notably, migrants with high monthly incomes exhibited a greater probability of returning to urban settlements when compared with rural areas. This study confirmed that individual factors, particularly sociopsychological perceptions, have an important effect on the new-generation migrants’ return behaviors in urban China. Therefore, we initially call for the government to articulate the significance of social acculturation and integration, targeting the new-generation migrants to avoid “reverse culture shock” in backflow settlements, notably in prefectural cities. Second, the improvement of public services, such as medical care, pension, and children enrollment opportunities, as well as favorable policies and practices should be considered in urban development and planning and established to relieve the migrants’ family burden.

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    Drug Economy and Fragmented Sovereignty: A Geopolitical Analysis of Northern Myanmar
    Su Xiaobo, Cai Xiaomei, Zhou Can
    Tropical Geography    2019, 39 (6): 799-811.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003193
    Abstract398)   HTML32)    PDF (14024KB)(105)      

    Ethnic states in northern Myanmar, including the Shan and Kachin states, are adjacent to the Chinese province of Yunnan. These states constitute today’s notorious Golden Triangle. As the world’s second largest drug production area, the Golden Triangle has accommodated the production and trafficking of illicit drugs for more than 100 years. The drug economy has turned northern Myanmar into a zone of military conflicts and economic plight, raising various issues regarding how illicit drugs shape national sovereignty. Building upon archives and scholarly references, this study focuses on northern Myanmar and the origin and evolution of the drug economy in this mountainous area. Using the latest theoretical tenets in political geography, this study specifically explores how the drug economy has generated political and economic crisis since Myanmar became independent in 1948 and examines the accompanying geopolitical conflicts and external intervention. The research questions in this study are as follows: Why have illicit drugs taken root in northern Myanmar? How does the drug economy influence the Burmese state’s national sovereignty and territorial control in northern Myanmar? The study argues that illicit drugs result in and are attributed to domestic fragmented sovereignty and external intervention. Furthermore, the drug economy and drug-related crimes have already penetrated into northern Myanmar to such an extent that national sovereignty is seriously jeopardized. On the one hand, drug-related organizations fight against the Burmese Military forces to impose territorial control upon villages and towns so that they can safeguard drug plantations and trafficking. Drug money in turn consolidates these organizations’ military capacity, resulting in drug militaries in both the Shan and Kachin states. On the other hand, the Burmese military forces deployed the drug economy to entice local militias to partner in fighting against the well-organized Burmese Communist Party during the 1970s and 1980s and ethnic armed groups during the 2000s. Drugs, violent conflicts, and territorial fragmentation have combined to shape sovereignty in northern Myanmar and generate endless political crisis. In addition, the drug economy provides an opportunity for external forces to intervene in domestic affairs in Myanmar. During the last six decades, various forces from China and the United States have either relied on drugs to enfeeble the Burmese state’s efforts at territorial control in the northern highland or exercised drug control to influence social and economic development in the source areas. Because of the low degree of trust between the central state controlled by the Burman majority and military forces controlled by ethnic minority groups in the northern region, there is a lack of ethnic reconciliation and thus a benign political condition for nationwide drug control. Hence, the drug economy in northern Myanmar is intertwined with nation building, which triggers fragmented national sovereignty and external intervention. As a result, northern Myanmar has become among the poorest areas in Asia. An analysis of illicit drugs as an open-sourced architecture of power can enrich Agnew’s theory of territory and sovereignty. Practically, a historical understanding of the drug economy in northern Myanmar can contribute to China-Myanmar relations and show the challenges and opportunities of regionalization between Yunnan and Myanmar.

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    Political Public Opinion Cliques and Its Interest Game: An Analytical Perspective of Long-term Internal Conflict in Myanma
    Xiong Liran, Liu Jing, Liu Baoqiang, Jiang Meiying
    Tropical Geography    2019, 39 (6): 812-822.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003191
    Abstract201)   HTML4)    PDF (11897KB)(69)      

    As an important neighboring country of China and an important node country along the Belt and Road Initiative, the internal political change in Myanmar will endanger the border security of China. As a result, furthering practical development of the community of shared interests as well as the community of a shared future between China and the surrounding countries will be influenced. First, in this study, we an analytical framework in which domestic political actors influence the state’s political situation. Then, from perspectives of “public opinion, “politics of public opinion,” and “political public opinion” this paper classifies the historical events of competition and cooperation among the political actors in Myanmar by analyzing historical documents. We divide the domestic political forces of Myanmar into six major political public opinion cliques according to features such as the composition subject and interests demand and behavior style. Then, we analyze the space-time environment of the political public opinion cliques forming process and discuss the process and mechanism of the formation of political public opinion cliques. By analyzing the behavior of political public opinion cliques, we consider that six major political public opinion cliques have been formed that are driven by individual interests and play chess with each other in the context of constitutional crisis and ethnic construction under the concepts of “one religion, one language, and one race.” Additionally, we consider that the geographical division of ethnic minorities and the Bamar are divided in the geographical environment of the spatial distribution caused by the topography of Myanmar territory. These public opinion cliques mainly include a military-political public opinion clique, a public opinion clique pursuing western-style democracy, an ethnic clique pursuing autonomy or independence, a public opinion clique with exclusivism by outside forces, an extremely xenophobic Buddhist public opinion clique, and a religious exclusionary (mostly Muslim) opinion clique. These political public opinion cliques have become the main political actors in Myanmar by signing agreements with equal consultation, inducing compromise with tactics, and forcing acceptance with powerful strikes. The essence of the conflict of political public opinion cliques is that their interests exceed national interests, and the game of political public opinion cliques has a far-reaching impact on the political situation of Myanmar, which is the main cause of the long-term conflict in Myanmar. The research on the issue of democracy and the national religious problems from the view of “public opinion” and “politics of public opinion” presented in this dissertation are tentative and explorative. In particular, the findings from this study are expected to offer a new perspective and reference for political public opinion events in neighboring countries such as political instability in Thailand and the questions about some people's opposition to China in the Philippines.

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    Impact of the Northern Myanmar Situation on the China-Myanmar Economic Corridor Construction
    Li Chansong, Hu Pingping, Yang Wangzhou
    Tropical Geography    2019, 39 (6): 823-832.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003199
    Abstract620)   HTML3)    PDF (12652KB)(96)      

    If Myanmar is the bridge of “the Belt and Road Initiative” connecting south and southeast Asia in the geographical pattern of Asia, then northern Myanmar is the key to entering the bridge. The present situation in northern Myanmar shows the following characteristics: 1) the scale of the conflict continues to rise over time, with the conflict spreading from Kokang to the north-south direction of Myanmar and being highly concentrated in the central region; 2) the geographical environment of northern Myanmar is complex, and it is a region where interests of great powers converge; 3) the conflict between the Burmese army and the ethnic armed groups cannot be eliminated in the short term, and this persistent conflict will be the norm in northern Myanmar; and 4) the parties to the conflict lack a platform for equal dialog and consensus in peace talks, and are unable to reach a consensus in the short term. This situation in northern Myanmar has affected the construction of the China-Myanmar Economic Corridor, resulting in the inability to effectively push forward its investment projects, blocking the development of the “herringbone” corridor, and damaging the image of the Chinese government and enterprises in Myanmar. In view of the impact of the situation in northern Myanmar, China and other international organizations should seriously research on and accurately grasp the demands of both sides and the situation in Myanmar and actively assist both sides in conflict. Major political parties must set up a dialog platform, establish an equal consultation mechanism, and promote the effective advancement of peace talks. The creation of the economic corridor should focus not only on the construction of a hard environment, but also on the strengthening of investment in a soft environment, which will be the key to ensuring the effective advancement of the China-Myanmar economic corridor construction. Therefore, taking the case of Myanmar as a breakthrough is greatly significant in building a model of “the Belt and Road” construction around China and in exploring effective ways of implementing the initiative and summarizing various experiences.

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    Progress and Trends in Tourism Geopolitics
    Liu Yungang, Song Zongyuan
    Tropical Geography    2019, 39 (6): 931-941.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003200
    Abstract410)   HTML3)    PDF (13769KB)(72)      

    With the development of global tourism, tourism has become a part of people's daily geopolitical practice; however, the study of tourism geopolitics tends to be ignored. The study of tourism geopolitics embodies tourism and geopolitics as its two main subjects. On the one hand, it helps to explain the powerful logic of tourism policy and analyzes the non-economic effects of tourism. On the other hand, it can also extend the research scope of geopolitics, making it more concrete. This study summarizes the existing related studies collected from Web of Science and CNKI. Based on the research scale relationship, namely the relationship between national and individual scales, this study holds that research on tourism geopolitics can be divided into two scale parts, national-national scale and national-individual scale, and one independent topic of geopolitical factors of tourism. Studies of national-national scale in tourism geopolitics consist of tourism and territorialization, tourism and world peace, and border tourism as three subtopics. The study of tourism and territorialization explains how tourism can be used as a territorialization tool such that the countries concerned can pursue political demand by utilizing it. The study of tourism and world peace illustrates debated topic that has been discussed for many years, i.e., whether or not tourism can promote world peace. The last topic, border tourism, is connected with geopolitics through three subtopics. Those are the means by which geopolitics shape a border landscape, the effect of border control policy upon border tourism, and the effect of particular geopolitical events upon tourism. The national-individual scale includes tourism and identity and tourism and geopolitical imagination as two subtopics. The former explains how tourism can influence tourists’ and inhabitants’ identity while the latter explains the mutual construction of tourism and geopolitical imagination using popular geopolitical scope. The independent topic, geopolitical factors of tourism, without an apparent research scale, explains the factors that may influence the development of tourism. The national-national scale research studies remain the main research scale in existing research but there are increasingly more research studies focused on an individual scale. This tendency parallels the entire research scale of geopolitics. This paper concludes by presenting four topics that can be studied in the future based on the analysis of existing tourism geopolitics studies. In the context of booming big data research, the first topic suggests a quantitative approach of measuring state-to-state relationships and then combines it with tourism research. The second offers a new perspective of using a visa regime to reflect the dynamic state-to-state relationship. The third regards tourism as an active geopolitical strategy and surveys how this strategy could impact the tourism industry, the international image of a country, and an individual’s identity. The last topic is a multi-scale study of border tourism that includes national-national, national-individual, and individual-individual scales.

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    Region Building: The Policy and Strategy Response of Foshan Integrating into the Construction of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area
    Chen Pinyu, Li Luqi
    Tropical Geography    2019, 39 (5): 625-634.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003181
    Abstract413)   HTML18)    PDF (11716KB)(95)      

    The social construction of region has received little attention from Chinese scholars; there are few studies regarding the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area from the perspective of city government’s actions and strategies. Instead, most of the literature focuses on its political impacts, economic patterns, and urban spatial structures. This paper adopts the discourse analysis method to explore the policy and response strategy of Foshan integrating into the construction of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area, with the intention to fill in the gap mentioned above. This approach allows for an analysis of how local governments are embedded into the larger network during the process of regional construction to expand urban development space and achieve more economic development. Additionally, it will enrich the literature with information about the construction of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area from the perspective of urban government. This study found that Foshan has constructed its regional identity as the core city of the western part of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area, and this helps determine the strategy and direction for how Foshan might integrate into the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area through strategic unification. In particular, Foshan is neither a provincial capital city nor a Special Economic Zone, making it difficult for Foshan to have the same political status and administrative power as Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Hong Kong, and Macao. There is also a certain disparity in the allocation of resources. In this context, Foshan has established a network of relations with different cities and regions, forming different regionalization at different scales, including the urban, regional, and global scales. These strategies are reflected in three aspects. At the urban scale, Foshan connects to cities, including Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Hong Kong, and Macao, and it has built the Sanlong Bay high-end innovation cluster (Sanlongwan) as a regional platform, which aims to reconsolidate resources. This improves Foshan’s ability to coordinate regional development and fosters new local growth poles to maintain a competitive advantage. At the regional scale, Foshan aims to connect to the Guangxi and Guizhou provinces, building the Foshan West Railway Station Hub at New Town (Foshan Xizhan Shuniu Xincheng) as a regional platform, making the Guangdong-Guangxi-Guizhou High-speed Railway Economic Cooperation Zone(Yue-Gui-Qian Gaotie Jingji Hezuoqu) and even the Southwest China as its economic hinterland. At the global scale, Foshan is connected to Germany, building the Sino-German industrial service area (Zhongde Gongye Fuwuqu) as a regional platform, which has created local-global connectivity channels, embedding itself into the global market economy. The Foshan case demonstrates how the region, as a confluence of multiple factors at different scales, generates important insights into how new state spaces of development are produced and reproduced to dovetail regional assets with national and transnational economic ties. This study responds to the New Regional Geography from the perspective of social constructivism to examine regional development issues. Additionally, it responds to the latest appeals for China’s urban network research, and in practice, it clarifies how other cities can more easily integrate into the construction of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macau Greater Bay Area, and these results may even be useful for regional development.

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    From the Pearl River Delta to the Greater Pearl River Delta and to the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area: State Rescaling in Post-reform China
    Xu Zhihua, Liu Yungang, Hu Guohua
    Tropical Geography    2019, 39 (5): 635-646.   doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003185
    Abstract445)   HTML13)    PDF (13037KB)(152)      

    Rescaling is a tool to explain the participation of territorial organizations, such as nation-states and cities, in global competition. Considering the cross-border cooperation between Guangdong, Hong Kong, and Macao since the reform and opening up in South China as an example, this study draws on the research methods of the Actor-Network Theory to analyze the rescaling process of the three “new state spaces,” including the Pearl River Delta, the Greater Pearl River Delta, and the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area and reveals the political and economic logic of the state rescaling of China. It was found that the power and resources of the actor determine its position in the scale network and that the formation of China’s “New State Space” is primarily driven by the central government, with decisive importance being the development goal. Other actors, such as the Hong Kong and Macao SAR governments, the local governments of the Guangdong Province, township enterprises, and multinational corporations, have combined their development goals with that of the central government to form an “Obligatory Passage Point”. Throughout the three-stage evolution process, the importance of institutional factors has become increasingly prominent.

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