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    31 January 2014, Volume 34 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
     Discovery and Significance of Hipposideros Armiger Fossils at Chuandong Site, Chongqing
    WU Xianzhu,WANG Yunfu,WANG Chao
    2014, 34 (1):  1-8. 
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1259KB) ( )   Save

    The researchers from the Laboratory of Scientific Archaeology of Chonqing Normal University discovered a fossil sample of Hipposideros armiger at Chuandong Site, Fengjie County, Chongqing in 2008, which skull, left scapula and some limb bones, vertebras and ribs were well preserved. The sample was collected in a layer of red clay 58 centimeters below the cave ground, accompanied with some remains related with ancient Human activities such as mammal fossils and stone tools. The majority of the accompanying mammals were living species, and the minority of which were distinct species in Pleistocene. The living species included Crocidura ilensis, Chodsigoa smithii, Rattus norvegicus, Trogopterus xanthipes, Rhizomys sinensis, Atherurus macrourusArctonyx collaris, Panthera tigris, Sus scrofa, Hydropotes inermis, Cervus unicolor. The extinct species included Crocuta crocuta ultima, Megatapirus augustus. According to the primary taphonomy and fauna analysis at this site, a conclusion could be made that Chuandong Site was one in the Late Period of Pleistocene. Hipposideros armiger, a species of Chiroptera, whose living population habituate in tropic and subtropical zones of east hemisphere like Southern China, India, Nepal and some areas of Southeastern Asia. No fossil record of Hipposideros armiger was discovered outside China until now. Four sites where Hipposideros armiger fossil materials were gathered were reported before the discovery of Chuandong Site, which should be the fifth one, where the most complete Hipposideros armiger fossil material was collected in China. It is demonstrated with Chuandong fossil material study that Hipposideros armiger could be identified efficiently from other species of Chiroptera with the characters such as body size, skull shape and dental formula. The material at Chuandong Site contributes to not only Chiroptera identifications but also evolutionary study. The ulna and radius of Chuandong Hipposideros armiger fossil were completely preserved, which have vital significance of Chiroptera origin and evolution. In other mammal skeleton constitution, the ulna and radius are formed separately and the length of ulna is longer than that of radius. However, both bones of Chiroptera are specialized, which joined together at the distal ends. By contrast, the length of radius is much longer than that of ulna. According to observation of Chuandong material, the radius was developed much bigger than the ulna, which was very weak and small. Further survey of these two bones suggested very close anatomical characters between fossil species and living species. Such close anatomical characters may indicate nearly the same flying ability between fossil and living species. Hipposideros armiger fossil material is also significant to the study of Quaternary paleo-environment and Human evolution in the Three Gorges of the Yangtze River. Some researchers suggested possible existence of glacier in this area in the late Period of Pleistocene, which however conflicted with the fact of abundant Human remains discovered in this area. Hipposideros armiger fossil at Chuandong Site indicated that the Three Gorges was important Hipposideros armiger habitual zone, where balmy and moisture climate, lush forest should develop, as well as enormous Karst caves, which provided ideal habitual place for these mammals. Perhaps, glacier climate in the late Period of Pleistocene did not intrude into this area without impact on the plant and fauna environments. Stable and prospect ecosystem survived successfully in this area, providing excellent environmental conditions for the evolution and surviving of ancient Human beings in the Three Gorges.

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      A New Method to Protect the Red Sandstone Heritage in Guangzhou
    JIANG Xiaodong,CAO Jianjin
    2014, 34 (1):  9-13. 
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    With the increase of environmental pollution, a lot of treasure stone relics suffer from severe weathering due to lack of protection. In order to prevent the stone relics from weathering, a new protection method is given based on the combination of Nano-materials and traditional conservation of historic stone agent: That is: reconcile silver Nano-titanium dioxide and NS-series cultural relics water-based protective agent with a ratio of 6 g/5 mL, then smear the muddy mixture on the surface of the red Sandstone cultural relics; two hours later, spray the NS-series relics water-based protective agent onto the surface, and then set it under the sun for 3 days. For testing the effectiveness of the new method, a red sandstone cultural relics sample (sampling in Guangzhou) was handled with the new method, while another sample for comparison was handled with the traditional method using only the NS-series relics water-based protective agent. Organic acid type and content were measured by high-performance liquid chromatograph. It was found that the organic acid content of the former was significantly lower than that of the latter. Other experiments showed that samples treated with the new method could withstand water erosion and acid corrosion. So it can be concluded from those experiments that the new method can enhance the capacity of the stone surface to resist the corrosion of water, acid and alkali, and so can protect the red sandstone heritage from the destruction of external factors, and the method can also protect red sandstone heritage from the destruction of internal factors by degrading organic acid. Moreover, this method can also provide reference for conservation of other types of stone.

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      Area Based on Canonical Correspondence Analysis: A Case Study of Sidi Village, Yangshuo
    LI Qiang,JIN Zhenjiang,YANG Rongmei
    2014, 34 (1):  14-19. 
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    Canonical Correlation Analysis(CCA) is a useful method to simplify large sets of environmental or abundance data and to identify and quantify their internal relationship of environmental factors. Normally, a larger data set always contains some unusual samples and redundant environmental variables which can be diagnosed with the primary CCA analysis. In this paper, based on Canonical Correspondence Analysis, 31 samples are collected to analyze the relationship between soil enzyme activity and soil properties in the heavy metal contaminated area due to the collapse of Pb-Zn tailing sand dam in Sidi Village, Yangshuo, Guangxi. The results show that the total Pb and total Zn in the topsoil are 21.25 and 5.31 times, respectively, greater than the environmental quality evaluation standards for farmland of edible agricultural products of China (HJ/T332-2006), that indicates this area should not be as farmland anymore. Moreover, the calcium-rich and alkaline karst soil can neutralize the acidic and oxidised tailing sand.The topsoil pH ranges from 5.14 to 6.57 while the mean pH is 5.75. It proves that the soil pH, total Pb and total Zn are the key factors that can control other soil properties and soil enzyme activities. Due to the serious pollution from Pb-Zn tailing sand, the content of soil organic matter, cation exchange capacity, available phosphorus and available nitrogen are still at a relatively low level though this area was cultivated for more than 40 years by the local farmers, and the changing sequence of their correlation coefficient is similar to that of their size of vectors angels. According to the correlation analysis, the total lead and zinc have no correlation with the soil invertase and urease activities. The reason is that the soil invertase and urease activities are restrained to the low expressing condition by the Pb-Zn pollution. However, the complex inwardness about soil invertase and urease activities and Pb-Zn can be reflected on the CCA biplot. So, the soil invertase and urease activities and Pb-Zn are on the opposite quadrant in the CCA ordination diagram, which remedies the defect of the correlation analysis. As to soil alkaline phosphatase, it is not so sensitive to the Pb-Zn pollution from the tailing sand. The soil alkaline phosphatase has positive correlation coefficient with total Zn (r=0.451, p<0.05). In the CCA ordination diagram, the angel between vectors of the soil alkaline phosphatase and total Zn is small. Therefore, the decreased soil enzyme and the internal relationship of soil organic matter involved in nutrient cycle can be clearly and intuitively depicted on the CCA bioplot. In a word, this study indicates that a CCA bioplot between sample and soil characteristics plus the statistical analysis is an effective and convenient methodology for further exploring the health and environmental risks caused by the tailing dam incidents.

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    Climatic Characteristics and Variation of Winter Temperature Anomalies in Guangdong in the Last 52 Years
    2014, 34 (1):  20-26. 
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    Based on the monthly temperature data of 86 observational stations in Guangdong and NCEP/NCAR reanalysis temperature data in the last 52 years (from 1961 to 2012), the climatic characteristics and variation of winter temperature anomalies in Guangdong are analysed by linear trend analysis, EOF analysis, Mann-Kendall test, correlation, composite analysis and so on. The results show that the contribution rate to the variance of the first principal component by EOF analysis of the winter temperature in Guangdong reached 91.2%, the most important characteristic of the winter temperature in Guangdong was consistent, it had significant interannual and interdecadal variation in the last 52 years, the highest temperature was in 1998 (15.9℃), while the lowest in 1967 (11.5℃). The winter mean temperature in Guangdong from 1951 to 2012 was 14.0℃, the temperature increased obviously at a rate of 0.26 ℃/10a in Guangdong in the last 52 years, its increase rate was significantly lower than the mean in China as a whole. It showed an abrupt change of temperature rising in 1989. The winter mean temperature in Guangdong was lower in the 1960-80s, and was higher since 1990s. The most remarkable warming trend occurred in the Pearl River Delta and southeastern Guangdong, the maxmam rate was 0.47 ℃/10a in Shenzhen and Chaozhou. The winter temperature trend in Guangdong was consistent with that in China, especially in Southeast China. The temperature was mainly lower before and after the cold winter, but it was mainly normal in summer and autumn before the warm winter, and it was mainly normal and higher after the warm winter. The correlation between the winter mean temperature and the prior period (November) temperature was significant.

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    Spatial Pattern and Evolution of Road Network Accessibility in the Pearl River Delta

    MEI Zhixiong,XU Songjun,OUYANG Jun
    2014, 34 (1):  27-33. 
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    Based on the road network data of 1990, 2000 and 2009, choosing minimum spatial distance , minimum time distance, economic potential and a comprehensive evaluation index based on those three indices, supported by the GIS software, this paper elaborates the spatial structure and evolution of the road network accessibility in the Pearl River Delta. The research reveals that there are certain limitations in the evaluation of road accessibility based on single evaluation index, which cannot fully reflect the comprehensive accessibility characteristics of road network. Some conclusions from the comprehensive evaluation are obtained as follows: 1) During the study periods, the road network accessibility shows an obvious circle-layer structure and core-periphery structure, and the core area which enjoys the highest accessibility has expanded. The accessibility of Guangzhou-Foshan core metropolitan region is the highest, which then decreasing gradually from this region to the surroundings, and the accessibility decrease in the east-west direction is faster than that in the south-north direction. 2) The gradient difference of counties road accessibility has decreased, and the whole accessibility of counties has improved significantly during 1990-2009, but the accessibility upgrade in the first stage (1990-2000) was greater than that in the second stage 2000-2009). (3) With the gradual improvement of the road network, the accessibility upgrade in the eastern and southern zones is obvious, that in the middle zone is lower, and that in the western zone is the lowest. The accessibility in the middle zone is the highest, the eastern zone ranks the second, and the disparity between the eastern zone and the middle zone has decreased. Whereas, the accessibility in the western zone is the lowest, and the disparity between the western zone and the middle and eastern zones has an expanding trend.

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    Characteristics of the City Network in the Three Major Economic Zones of China: A Study Based on Baidu Information Flow
    XIONG Lifang,ZHEN Feng,XI Guangliang,ZHU Xiaoqing,WANG Bo
    2014, 34 (1):  34-43. 
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    Taking the Yangtze River Delta, the Pearl River Delta and the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei economic zones as the research object, the paper made a study based on the Baidu Index “through the area contrast” to obtain city’s “Degree of Consumer Attention”, and simulated the Baidu information flow, then constructed the city network of each economic zone, and made comparative analysis of their spatio-temporal evolution characteristics for the period from 2009 to 2012. The main conclusions were as follows: 1)The city network based on Baidu information flow had obvious hierarchy, and reflected the different spatial characteristics; 2)The information contact between cities was increasingly close in the spatio-temporal evolution of city network, while the equalization and polarization coexisted; 3)As the Baidu information flow had strong property of striding across, it would provide more opportunities for the developing cities, and the impact of this positive effect was gradually becoming apparent. It is considered that this paper would provide a new perspective for the study on city network under the influence of globalization and informatization.

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    Economic Valuation of the Coral Reefs in South China Sea
    WANG Lirong,YU Kefu,ZHAO Huanting,ZHANG Qiaomin
    2014, 34 (1):  44-49. 
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    Based on the basic data, foreign literature and field data, the economic values (including fishery, coastal protection, tourism and biodiversity) and economic losses (from overfishing, destructive fishing and sedimentation) of the coral reefs in South China Sea are calculated in this paper with the effect of production method and numerical transferring method. The results show that the potential sustainable annual economic value of the coral reefs in South China Sea is RMB 156.5×108 Yuan. Among them, the fishery value attributes 90 percent, which is RMB 140.4×108 Yuan. The coastal protection value is 8.7×108 Yuan, accounting for 5.5 percent of the total. And tourism and biodiversity values are lower, respectively, 5.3×108 Yuan and 2.1×108 Yuan. If we assume that the coral reefs could keep the condition in next 20 years in future with a discount rate of 10 percent per year, the total economic value of the region would be 1 370×108Yuan. As the most prevalent threat to coral reefs in South China Sea is unreasonable use by human beings, the total economic loss in the next 20 years would be 258.8×108 Yuan. Destructive fishing is the activities bringing the most financially detrimental to coral reefs in South China Sea and resulting in massive economic and societal losses, which are estimated to be 249.6×108 Yuan, about 96.4 percent of the whole value loss. Economic damage from overfishing and sedimentation in reefs would be 3.3×108 Yuan and 5.9×108 Yuan, respectively. The overexploitation and overuse of reefs in South China Sea make economic losses sharply, which would reach about 18.98 percent of the total sustainable economic value in the future 20 years.

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     Power, Geo-Setting and Evaluation Method of Geo-Potential: A Case Study of the Dispute over China and Japan on the Diaoyu Islands
    HU Zhiding,LIU Yuli,LI Cansong,GE Yuejing
    2014, 34 (1):  50-57. 
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    Power is an eternal topic of international politics, is the root causes of conflict and cooperation. The Science of International Relations discusses the sources of state power embodied in realism and neo-liberal institutionalism. However, the study on power lacks spatial dimension. Considering the restriction of spatial distance and Geo-Setting (which is composed of geographical environment, Geo-Relationship and Geo-Structure) on the space of power, this paper regards Geo-Potential as the disequilibrium distribution of power in space. Combining the geographical attenuation theory, the paper constructs a Geo-Potential evaluation method from the four sources of power, which are military strength, economic strength, soft power and inequality interdependence. Taking the dispute about the Diaoyu Islands over China and Japan as an example, with the method, the paper quantitatively evaluates the Geo-Potential of the two nations. The results show that: with the rise of China and the transition of the overall economic strength, military strength, and unequal interdependence relationship between China and Japan, till 2010 China’s Geo-Potential on the Diaoyu Islands had surpassed Japan’s. The Geo-Potential change between China and Japan on the Diaoyu Islands has three interrelated reasons: the first is China’s rapid economic development, the second is the obvious improvement of the military strength of China, and the third is the shift of the unequal interdependence between China and Japan. The results of this evaluation can respond to different voices in China on the Diaoyu Islands issue, and it also can explain the active and tough approach of China to deal with this issue since 2012.

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     Influence of Bar on Placeness-Construction in Ancient Travel Town:A Case Study of Fenghuang
    CHEN Xiao
    2014, 34 (1):  58-65. 
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    With the acceleration of global mobility, the mobility theory has become a valuable perspective to explain the conflict between globalization and localization. Becoming increasingly popular, the consumption space of bar is regarded as a significant representative of mobility in the third world. However, although there are researches discussing the transition of tourist destination and the cultural enclave in the third world resulting from the western tourists, the research results are still hard to explain the emerging phenomenon in China’ ancient town, that bar has become a vital leisure space in ancient town as well as a pivotal component of ancient-town culture. Taking the Ancient Town Fenghuang as an example, this study aims to explore that how bar merges with the localization of the ancient town. And qualitative research methods, including observation and interview, have been used in this study. The main findings of the research are: first, bar is originally created by tourists and this kind of consumption space is totally a cultural enclave in ancient town built up by tourists. Second, tourists’ cultural behaviors (such as painting, music and reading) bring in the elements of modernity into the ancient town, which not only enriches the localization of the ancient town, but also contributes to the development of bar, a product of modern culture, as the amount of mass tourists grows, the travel attractions of ancient town have changed. Third, Tourists are apathy about traditional culture and customs in Ancient Town Fenghuang. Instead, they go after the enjoyment of vision and hearing, in particular, the sense of indulgence after they get drunk. Last but not least, in the bar, people can stop to admire the scenery and indulge themselves at the same time, which contributes tourists to engage themselves in the ancient town and become more relaxing. Because of that, bar become part of the placeness of ancient town. To sum up, it is a complex process to connect people with place, which are with the attributes of both culture and body. Because of the existence of body attribute, the demands of tourist are no longer confined to chasing aesthetics. More importantly, bar, which meets the requirement of dual attributes, has become a crucial intermediary to associate people with place.

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     The Rural Settlement Landscape and Its Evolution in Hani Rice Terrace Culture Landscape Areas: A Case Study of the Quanfuzhuang Middle VillageYuanyang CountyYunnan
    ZONG Lupin,JIAO Yuanmei,LI Shihua,ZHANG Hongkang,ZHANG Hongzhen,HE Yunyan,NIU Lede
    2014, 34 (1):  66-75. 
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    This paper takes the rural settlement landscape of Hani rice terrace culture landscape areas as the research object, and makes a case study on Quanfuzhuang Middle village, Yuanyang County, which was inscribed on the World Cultural Landscape in June of 2013. Through field surveys, interviews, and GIS mapping analysis method, the paper analyzes the elements, the internal structure, landscape spatial structure and evolution of Hani village landscape. The results are as follows: 1) the boundary of Hani village landscape is the actual existing tree band and tree door, which is used to separate the human spiritual world and ghost in the geographical space; because of the group structure affected by the terrain and kinship, the settlements’ traditional houses are represented by mushroom house; 2) the settlements have some unique cultural landscape elements: the sacred groves used for sacrifice and pray, Moqiuchang used for entertainment and drying grain, and water wells used for domestic water and sacrifice, which all reflect the system of religious culture, that is nature worship; 3) Hani village landscape takes on a spatial pattern: the forest in the above, the village in the middle, the terrace in the below, and the rivers run through them, so the locations of settlements are based on the landscape pattern, suitable for living and accessible to the terrace; 4) the spatial evolution of Hani village landscape is characterized by separated stockade and hyphenated place names, land use of the settlements has expanded by nearly 10 times in the last 50 years, and the perimeter and internal structure of mushroom house turn on a trend of multi-directional evolution, in which the proportion of modern mixed brick room shows a sharp increase trend; 5) as one of the elements of Hani rice terrace cultural landscape, Hani village landscape plays an important role in maintaining the stability of heritage. Therefore, top priority should be given to inheritance and protection of the Hani village landscape, and the future research should focus on settlement hollow phenomenon.

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     Temporal-Spatial Dynamic Differences and Future Trends of the Vegetation Cover in the Beibu Gulf Coastal Zone
    TIAN Yichao,CHEN Zhikun,LIANG Mingzhong
    2014, 34 (1):  76-86. 
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    Based on the 10-day SPOT-VEGETATION NDVI data during the period of 2000—2011, by using the mathematical-statistics methods of MVC (maximum synthesis), standard deviation, SLOPE (linear trend analysis) and Hurst index, this paper analyzes the characteristics of temporal-spatial change of vegetation cover and its future trend in the coastal zone around the Beibu Gulf. The results indicate that: 1) The vegetation cover in the study area has been changing better, showing a “volatility-significant improvement” trend on year scale. At the same time, the vegetation trends of the east and west coast grow faster than that of the hilly areas; On seasonal scale the growth rate of NDVI is autumn>summer>spring>winter; On monthly scale the NDVI grows faster from June to November, whereas slowly from January to April; 2)The spatial distribution of mean NDVI in northeast-southwest centerline shows the trend of “high at two ends and low in central” and the law of mean NDVI variation from west to east is -0.026 per 1Nº, which also shows a meridional zonality; 3)The NDVI value of Hurst index ranges from 0.306 5 to 0.995 3, with a mean of 0.777 4, anti-sustained sequence (15.78%)

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    Temporal-Spatial Features and Influence Mechanism of Disparity of Urban Construction Land Economic Density in Guangdong Province
    WANG Feng,TANG Huijun,DU Jifeng
    2014, 34 (1):  87-94. 
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    This paper analyzed the temporal-spatial features and influence mechanism of urban construction land economic density of Guangdong Province during 1996-2008 with methods including ArcGIS spatial analysis, Theil index, gravity center model and panel data model, based on panel data of urban construction land economic density of the 21 prefecture-level cities in Guangdong. The conclusions were as follows: First, the overall disparities of urban construction land economic density among those cities were increasing with volatility and gravity center of urban construction land economic density moving to northwest from 1996 to 2008. Second, the difference of urban construction land economic density among the cities was obvious and spatial pattern showed a certain agglomeration and peak effect in 2008. Third, the relative development speed was also very different, and among the 4 type regions categorized by the basic level and increasing speed of economic density, those whose economic density was less and speed of economic density increase was faster and whose economic density was higher and speed of economic density increase was faster had the highest proportion. Finally, with the influence factors of industrial structure optimization, increased input of labor or capital, traffic location change and improved science and technology level, the economic benefit of urban construction land in Guangdong would be significantly improved.

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    Relationship Between Energy Consumption and Economic Growth of Guangzhou
    LIANG Yuan,QIAN Huaisui,LI Mingxia,GUO Ruimin
    2014, 34 (1):  95-103. 
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    With the rapid development of economy, energy demand is growing rapidly. Guangzhou is conditioned by natural factors but lack of energy resources. This study investigates the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth for Guangzhou during the period 1988–2010 through the application of cointegration test, error correction model, Granger causality test and Kuznets curve. The results indicate that there is unidirectional Granger causality running from GDP to total energy consumption and secondary industry GDP to the secondary industry energy consumption. They are in the first half of Kuznets curve inverted-U hypothesis. The authors find that there is unidirectional Granger causality running fromtertiary industry energy consumption to the tertiary industry GDP and Kuznets curve presents a positive linear correlationship. Furthermore, there is no long-run equilibrium relationship between the primary industry GDP and industrial energy consumption and the two indicators are not suitable for Kuznets curve analysis. With structural transformation and upgrade of the economy, the massive development and use of advanced technology in efficiency improvement of energy consumption and energy saving and so on, causal relationship of energy consumption and economic growth will change. So the government must formulate the suitable energy policy by considering the different industrial structure and technical progress and development in different development period.

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    Suitability Evaluation of Camellia Cultivation Based on GIS in Xingning City
    ZENG Yuhuai,ZHONG Kaiwen,WANG Xiaohui,LUO Weizhong,LIN Qiudong,CHEN Hongyi
    2014, 34 (1):  104-107. 
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    A comprehensive regionalization of Camellia cultivation can provide a scientific basis for the optimal distribution of Camellia in Xingning. In this paper four climate factors (the mean temperature from October to December, the mean temperature of January, the mean temperature of July and the average rainfall from October to September), three terrain factors (altitude, aspect and slope) and three soil factors (soil organic matter, total nitrogen and pH value) were selected in the comprehensive regionalization model. Methods of the exponential weighted algorithm and analytic hierarchy process (AHP) were adopted to establish the evaluation model of Camellia in Xingning. The distribution of suitability of camellia was evaluated by GIS. The results indicated that the suitable, sub-suitable and unsuitable regions for Camellia cultivation accounted for 37%, 44.2% and 18.8% of the total area of the city, respectively. The suitable region was mainly distributed at the altitude of 100-500 m in the north and east of Xingning. The sub-suitable region was mainly distributed below the altitude of 800 m in the low mountains. The unsuitable region was mainly distributed below the altitude of 100 m in the plains and the high mountains which was higher than the altitude of 800 m. The evaluation of the planting suitability by GIS would provide a technical support for the rational planning of Camellia in Xingning.

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    Review on the Studies of Socio-Spatial Differentiation of the Middle Class in China
    BIAN Yan,ZHOU ChunShan
    2014, 34 (1):  108-115. 
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    In urban China,increasing socio-spatial differentiation echoes socio-spatial polarization. It presents the general dynamics of urban transition under globalization. The middle class is made up of professional and managerial workers with higher income and education levels, who affects political environment, labor market, housing choice, especially urban socio-spatial restructuring. Gentrification is described as the process by which residents from the higher social strata displace the original, yet poorer, inhabitants of the city. Gentrification has defined a world socio-spatial phenomenon. The correlativity study among the middle class, gentrification and the socio-spatial structure is one of the core research fields in western urban social geography. In the disciplines of geography, urban planning and sociology, a statistical analysis of the relevant studies since 1980s indicates the research progress has gone through three periods: In the first period, from 1980 to 1989, the research focused on the introduction of western theories of social class and debated on the definition of the middle class in China; In the second period, from 1990 to 2004, the research focused on the introduction of western theories of socio-spatial structure and the socio-spatial structure in China; In the third period, since the early 2000s, the research has emphasized empirical studies of socio-spatial structure and socio-spatial differentiation in transitional China. The domestic researchers pay more attention to residential differentiation, consuming behavior, social stratification theory, gated communities, and gentrification. Finally the paper examines the problems in the research and considers that in future research great importance should be attached to the social characteristics of the middle class, the dynamic mechanism between the middle class and gentrification, the middle class’s lifestyles in globalization such as the spatial-temporal structure of the middle class’s daily activities, trends of residential location, consumer behaviors and the middle class enclaves.

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    Review on the Application and Research of Ecological Riverbanks for Water Systems
    LIANG Kaiming,ZHANG Jia'en,ZHAO Benliang,YE Yanqiong,KONG Xuhui
    2014, 34 (1):  116-122. 
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    Ecological riverbank is a form of the riverbanks that combines the technology of ecological engineering and civil engineering. It plays an important role in the slope protection and the sustainable development of river ecosystems. Based on a review of the developing backgrounds and current situation of ecological embankment at home and abroad, this paper introduces the conception and connotation of the ecological riverbank. According to the application conditions and function characteristics, the representative types of ecological riverbanks are classified and their related techniques, characteristics and application scope are described as well. The research methods for ecological riverbank are systematically summarized based on the domestic and overseas literatures. Combined with the present situation, the problems existing in the application of ecological riverbank engineering are discussed. It is proposed that the design of ecological riverbank should be reasonably applied corresponding to specific environmental features and engineering demand so that it can optimize both eco-environmental effectiveness and slope protection, and that several essential directions such as the ecosystem service function, standardized evaluation system and sustainable utilization and management of ecological riverbank should be deserving of further research and exploration.

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    Review of the Spatial Distribution of Sports Facilities Research in China and Foreign Countries
    CAI Xiaodi,ZENG Jianming
    2014, 34 (1):  123-129. 
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    This paper summarizes the differences existing in the study of the distribution of sports facilities at home and aboard by studying and analyzing the main trend and views in this field in China and other countries. It is concluded that the differences can be reflected in the following three aspects: 1) As for the breadth of the study, foreign scholars make a further study on the evaluation of sports facilities distribution, the trends, factors of changes, strategy, and whether they promote economic development, while Chinese scholars only focus the study on their current state, principles, relation with regional development, and related factors. 2) In terms of studying methods, foreign scholars pay attention to empirical research and analysis on distribution tends and characteristics of the facilities dynamically, while Chinese scholars generally analyze the overall situations of the distribution statically, so they often fail to make further study on comprehensive explanation of the development trends of the facilities distribution and influencing factors. 3) For study of the distribution strategy of the sports facilities, foreign scholars pay more attention to the macro control actions of the government on the use of the public finance, urban development plan and intervening of site selection, and the employment union’s franchise of the sports facilities, those are of important significance for enrichment of the study of site selection. Chinese scholars only study the goals, model, and principles for optimization of the site selection. From the results above, this paper considers that the study of distribution of sports facilities should focus on the following four aspects: figure out the relation between sports facilities distribution and regional city development, study the distribution of the sports facilities dynamically and statically, pay attention to the optimization strategy of the space layout, and improve the evaluation methods.

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    Core Contents of the Introduction and Discussion in an Academic Paper and Their Corresponding Relationship
    LI Xiaoling
    2014, 34 (1):  130-132. 
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    The introduction of an academic paper is the key to give readers a primary impression, and the discussion is a scale to measure the level and depth of the paper. Therefore, the importance of the introduction and the discussion in a paper is self-evident. As an editor of the journal, I summarize in this paper the existing literatures and my experience in editing, as well as my contact and exchange with the young contributors, and then analyze that in the introduction of the paper how to present and spread the scientific questions to be discussed, and in the discussion how to answer the scientific questions step by step. The scientific questions that are put forward in the introduction and the answers to those questions in the discussion should be the core contents of the introduction and discussion, and they are the natural link to connect the introduction and discussion. There is a corresponding relationship between the call in the introduction and the echo in the discussion of the paper.

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