The researchers from the Laboratory of Scientific Archaeology of Chonqing Normal University discovered a fossil sample of Hipposideros armiger at Chuandong Site, Fengjie County, Chongqing in 2008, which skull, left scapula and some limb bones, vertebras and ribs were well preserved. The sample was collected in a layer of red clay 58 centimeters below the cave ground, accompanied with some remains related with ancient Human activities such as mammal fossils and stone tools. The majority of the accompanying mammals were living species, and the minority of which were distinct species in Pleistocene. The living species included Crocidura ilensis, Chodsigoa smithii, Rattus norvegicus, Trogopterus xanthipes, Rhizomys sinensis, Atherurus macrourus、Arctonyx collaris, Panthera tigris, Sus scrofa, Hydropotes inermis, Cervus unicolor. The extinct species included Crocuta crocuta ultima, Megatapirus augustus. According to the primary taphonomy and fauna analysis at this site, a conclusion could be made that Chuandong Site was one in the Late Period of Pleistocene. Hipposideros armiger, a species of Chiroptera, whose living population habituate in tropic and subtropical zones of east hemisphere like Southern China, India, Nepal and some areas of Southeastern Asia. No fossil record of Hipposideros armiger was discovered outside China until now. Four sites where Hipposideros armiger fossil materials were gathered were reported before the discovery of Chuandong Site, which should be the fifth one, where the most complete Hipposideros armiger fossil material was collected in China. It is demonstrated with Chuandong fossil material study that Hipposideros armiger could be identified efficiently from other species of Chiroptera with the characters such as body size, skull shape and dental formula. The material at Chuandong Site contributes to not only Chiroptera identifications but also evolutionary study. The ulna and radius of Chuandong Hipposideros armiger fossil were completely preserved, which have vital significance of Chiroptera origin and evolution. In other mammal skeleton constitution, the ulna and radius are formed separately and the length of ulna is longer than that of radius. However, both bones of Chiroptera are specialized, which joined together at the distal ends. By contrast, the length of radius is much longer than that of ulna. According to observation of Chuandong material, the radius was developed much bigger than the ulna, which was very weak and small. Further survey of these two bones suggested very close anatomical characters between fossil species and living species. Such close anatomical characters may indicate nearly the same flying ability between fossil and living species. Hipposideros armiger fossil material is also significant to the study of Quaternary paleo-environment and Human evolution in the Three Gorges of the Yangtze River. Some researchers suggested possible existence of glacier in this area in the late Period of Pleistocene, which however conflicted with the fact of abundant Human remains discovered in this area. Hipposideros armiger fossil at Chuandong Site indicated that the Three Gorges was important Hipposideros armiger habitual zone, where balmy and moisture climate, lush forest should develop, as well as enormous Karst caves, which provided ideal habitual place for these mammals. Perhaps, glacier climate in the late Period of Pleistocene did not intrude into this area without impact on the plant and fauna environments. Stable and prospect ecosystem survived successfully in this area, providing excellent environmental conditions for the evolution and surviving of ancient Human beings in the Three Gorges.