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    31 March 2014, Volume 34 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Application of 3D Laser Scanning to Monitoring the Landform Changes of Collapsing Hill and Gully: A Case Study of Liantanggang Collapsing Hill and Gully in the Wuhua County of Guangdong
    ZHANG Dalin,LIU Xilin
    2014, 34 (2):  133-140. 
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    The complex topography and dynamic erosion process are the key problems to be taken into consideration for collapsing hill and gully monitoring. 3D laser scanning is a very useful tool which is of high accuracy, non-contact, penetrating and rapidity. This paper has introduced the principles of 3D laser scanning technology and its application. By surveying Liantanggang collapsing hill and gully in the Wuhua County of Guangdong for 6 times during the last 3 years by 3D laser scanner (Leica ScanStation 2), the paper analyzes the data acquired on June 3rd, 2011 and May 12th, 2012 by ArcGIS. The results indicate that Liantanggang collapsing hill and gully erosion volume is 1 007 m3/a, i.e. 1 380 t/a, and the erosion modulus is 269 268 t/(km2·a). The erosion rate on the middle-lower zones of the collapsing hill and gully is higher than that of the upper, and the intenseerosion zones appear at the elevation between 111~116 m and 116~121 m with the erosion volumes of 202 and 178 m3/a, respectively, where there are collapsing soils which are easily erodible by sheet wash and gully flow. The collapsing soil erosion makes the collapsing hill present such a form that the higher the elevation is, the steeper the headwall would be. The lower zones at the elevation between 96~101 m and 101~106 m also have an intense erosion with the erosion volumes of 151 and 157 m3/a, respectively. In those areas, the main gully with serveral tributary gullies, has intense lateral and down-cutting erosions during rainy season, that can trigger gravitational erosion to make the collapsing hill and gully keep in the mature phrase with a high erosion rate and steep headwall. 3D laser scanning can break through the space limits of traditional monitoring and so can effectively obtain topographic details of collapsing hill and gully. The comparative analyses of continuous monitoring data not only can obtain the information of the collapsing hill and gully erosion rate, but also the quantitative terrain changes, as well as a possible explanation for the erosion sediment sources from the collapsing hill and gully. 3D laser scanning may be a promising technology for collapsing hill and gully monitoring.

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    Development Characteristics and Evolution Process of the Sink Holes in Yuanmou Dry-Hot Valley
    SHU Chengqiang,ZHANG Bin,JIANG Liangqun,LIU Shoujiang,LUO Mingliang
    2014, 34 (2):  141-147. 
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    Yuanmou dry-hot valley is located in Jinsha River Basin in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River. It is a typical subtropical climate area with special geographical position and geologic environment. The development of erosional landforms is one of the main reasons for water and soil loss in Yuanmou dry-hot valley. Sink hole is a type of erosional landforms. From 2009 to 2013, field survey was made on the morphological features of the sink holes, the topography and geomorphology of their surrounding areas, and the vegetation and soil around the sink holes. Also the soil of the areas was sampling and analyzed. The results show that the sink holes mainly develop in the strata of Yuanmou formation, where the soil is characterized by its easy disintegration and collapsibility. The sink holes are located at the bottom in the middle and upper reaches of gully and at the top of gully branches. The shape and scale of the sink holes in Yuanmou are generally small. In early stage they are approximately circular in shape, in middle and late stages they are elliptic, and in last stage they become gullies within gully, and even disappear. The sink holes are normally distributed individually, or like a string of beads, but rarely clump together. The evolution process of the sink hole can be divided into four stages, namely germination stage, young stage, mature stage and withered stage. There is close correlationship between the developing process of sink hole and the erosional landforms such as gully, earth bridge and washing hole, etc.

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     Malacodiversity of the Tongbo Mountain Nature Reserve in Jiangxi Province
    OUYANG Shan,JIANG Jiao,LIN Xiangyang,ZHOU Shaohua,XIE Guanglong,SONG Shichao,LIN Changyong,WANG Wenmin,DENG Pujuan,WU Xiaoping
    2014, 34 (2):  148-155. 
    Abstract ( )   PDF (4339KB) ( )   Save
    On account of the investigation of Mollusk at the Tongbo Mountain Nature Reserve from July 2012 to August 2013, we researched the distribution pattern of mollusk and its zoogeographical structure in different kinds of habitats, besides, we explored the relationship between species composition and their habitat of mollusk. The result of the research would provide theoretical basis for the protection and management of biodiversity in this reserve, and could also enrich the research data of mollusk in China. With qualitative and quantitative methods, 42 species and subspecies were found belonging to 28 genera (16 families in 4 orders of 2 classes). There were 15 species of freshwater mollusk, which belonged to 10 genera (7 families in 3 orders of 2 class) and 27 species of terrestrial mollusks, pertaining to 18 genera (9 families in 3 orders of 1 class), among those, 3 species were new records in Jiangxi Province, viz Diplommatina paxillus, Euplecta trifilaris and Plectotropis calculus. The dominant species of freshwater mollusks were Semisulcospira libertine and Galba pervia, while the ones of the terrestrial mollusks were Kaliella depressa, Bradybaena fortune and Bradybaena ravida ravida. Those species were numerous and widespread in the reserve. The rare species were Ptychopoma expoliatum expoliatum, Diplommatina paxillus longipalatalis, Bellamya aeruginosa, Corbicula fluminea, Plectotropis calculus and Plectotropis sedentaria, they were in less number and small range, only one living sample was collected in precious little sampling sites. Overall, the species of freshwater mollusk were less than those of terrestrial mollusk in the Tongbo Mountain Nature Reserve. This is because the species of freshwater mollusk (14 000 species) are less than those of terrestrial mollusk (25 000 species) around the world. Usually the shell of terrestrial mollusk is dextral, but few species are sinistral. We collected two sinistral species, Bradybaena fortunei and Satsuma uncophila, which were in large quantity and wide distribution. The somatoscopy indicated that the valves of the two mollusks are colorful, which form colored tapes or figures. The snails in the reserve were distinguished by shell size: 12 species were medium, 24 small, 3 minute, and 1 large. Medium and small species were dominating while minute and big ones less. The minute species were Carychium tiamushanese, Diplommatina paxillus, Diplommatina paxillus longipalatalis, large specie was Euhadra cecillei. Geographic fauna which gave first place to oriental region showed 22 species accounting for 52.38% of the total diversity. However, various faunas, complex floristic element are related to the geographic position of protection zone belonging to Central China while adjoining South China. Comparing the similarity coefficient with neighboring nature reserves based on Jaccard formula, we found that the Tongbo Mountain Nature Reserve had much more diversity of terrestrial mollusks and higher species similarity with the Yangjifeng Nature Reserve, about 23.33%, while lower similarity with the Mangshan Nature Reserve, only 6.45%. Results of the analysis with Shannon-wiener index, Margalef richness index and Pielou index on mollusk community indicated that both the species diversity index and richness index of mollusk were the highest in shrub habitat,while in coniferous-broad mixed forest the Pielou index was the highest.The freshwater mollusk Semisulcospira libertine in protection zone was in wide distribution, and large number of specimens could be collected in whichever rivulet. This species feeds on algae, and inhabits in mountain streams which are limpid, fast current and of low temperature. Its numerous appearance is closely related to the exellent environment of Tongbo Mountain Nature Reserve.
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     Late Holocene Human Activity Inferred from Sedimentary n-Alkanes and Their Carbon Isotope in the Huguangyan Maar Lake
    BAI Yang,OUYANG Tingping,JIA Guodong
    2014, 34 (2):  156-164. 
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    In this study, late Holocene sedimentary records of leaf wax n-alkanes and their δ13C from Huguangyan Maar Lake (H.M.L) in Zhanjiang, Guangdong Province, were used to reconstruct the vegetation variations as well as human activities in the lake catchment over the past 3500 years. Carbon isotopic compositions (δ13C) of leaf wax n-alkanes (n-C29, n-C31 and n-C33) were predominantly lighter than -32‰ before 1.7 ka BP, suggesting that a typically pure C3 ecosystem might exist before 1.7 ka BP; for example, carbon isotope average value of long-chain n-alkanes was -33.27 ‰ in 1.78 ka BP; after that δ13C values increased rapidly and significantly, carbon isotope value was -28.26‰ in 1.63 ka BP, indicating the emergence and increase of C4 plants. C4 plants usually indicate an arid climate, however, the n-alkanes indices that both increased Paq and reduced ACL indicate a humid climate after 1.7 ka BP. This contradiction can be well explained by invoking anthropogenic sugarcane plantation in the catchment at 1.7 ka BP. Furthermore, when it comes to the isotope change of samples, we find that both C27/C29 and Δδ13Ct had notable positive correlation with the increasing cultivation time, showing that the emergence of C4 plants might be caused by constant vegetation transformation from human. Thus, we believe that human activities characterized by sugarcane plantation occurred after 1.7 ka BP. This study can be referential for discriminating the impacts of natural and human factors on environment and vegetation changes during the past thousands of years.

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     Litterfall Interception of Understory Fern Dicranopteris Dichotoma in Plantations of South China
    YANG Long,WANG Jun,HUANG Yuhui,CHEN Yanqiao,WEN Meili
    2014, 34 (2):  165-170. 
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    China is considered as the largest country with artificial plantations. The plantations are considered as important carbon pool and would influence climate change at regional scale. As a major species for forest restoration, carbon fixation, and economic improvement for farmers, Pinus elliottii, Acacia crassicarpa, Eucalyptus urophylla and Castanopsis hystrix, have been widely planted in South China due to their fast growth and woody characteristics. The understory of these plantations is often occupied by densefern (Dicranopteris dichotoma). Understory vegetation as transitional layer links ecosystem processes between aboveground and underground. The ecosystem functions of understory vegetation were mostly ignored due to the lower biomass. However, not only they can accumulate biomass per se, but also facilitate carbon fixation in soils. The densefern intercepts canopy tree leaf litters before they reach the ground in these plantations of South China. Litter is the most important nutrient origin of forest soil. In order to explore the effect of litterfall interception on ecosystem processes and functions about leaf litters, we should first know the basic questions: 1) how many leaf litters are intercepted by the fern? and 2) which factors affect the litter interception? We investigated the physical traits of leaf litter and the biomass of Dicranopteris Dichotoma, and conducted an experiment to quantify the mass and proportion of intercepted litters in four kinds of plantation ecosystems in South China. The results showed that the order of litterfall interception mass in different plantations was Pinus elliottiiAcacia crassicarpaEucalyptus urophyllaCastanopsis hystrix, which is related to the total litter mass, canopy cover and ferncover, while the order of litterfall interception proportion was Eucalyptus urophylla (99.8%)>Acacia crassicarpa (73.5%)Pinus elliottii (56.3%)>Castanopsis hystrix (27%), and more leaf litters were intercepted by the bottom layer (0-50 cm) than that by top layer (50-100 cm) of understory fern Dicranopteris Dichotoma in all four plantations, that resulted from aboveground biomass of understory fern and physical characteristics of the litters. These results indicated that litter mass was not underestimated in calculating net primary production in South China, but spatial distribution of litterfall changed, which may change ecosystem processes, such as litter decomposition and soil respiration. These topics should be explored in the future.

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    Comparative Study on Rocky Desertification between Karst Gorge and Plateau Basin Area
    CHEN Qiwei,XIONG Kangning,LAN Anjun
    2014, 34 (2):  171-177. 
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    The paper takes typical karst valleys and plateau basin areas of Guizhou as the research objects. Using the remote sensing images of five periods as the data source, the paper interprets the rocky desertification maps of each research area in different periods with the support of “3S” technology and other reference maps, and through dynamic monitoring of rocky desertification in different treatment stages, explores the diversity of rocky desertification distribution and variation in different geomorphic areas. The results show that: there were significant correlation between topography and rocky desertification, the incidence of rocky desertification were 67.4% and 31.6% in Huajiang gorge area and the rocky desertification area in Qingzhen plateau basin, respectively, the occurrence rate, rocky desertification intensity in Huajiang karst gorge area were higher than those in Qingzhen plateau basin. From 2000 to 2010, in Huajiang karst gorge rocky desertification area reduced 2.79 km2, annual variance ratio of rocky desertification was -0.91%, while in Qingzhen plateau basin rocky desertification area reduced 5.04 km2, annual variance ratio was -2.78%. The change of rocky desertification was more obvious in Qingzhen plateau basin areas. In the monitoring period, annual variance ratio of rocky desertification in Huajiang gorge area gradually reduced after the first increase, while Qingzhen karst plateau basin maintained a high decreasing rate. Those to a certain extent indicated that the more serious the rocky desertification was, the smaller the treatment effect would be, and the more difficult the engineering control would have. For controlling current rocky desertification, at present the comprehensive treatment project should pay more attention to lighter intensity areas, where further aggravation of rocky desertification should be prevented, as it would make the desertification control become more difficult.

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    Direct Economic Losses Assessment of Typhoon Disaster in Zhejiang Province
    2014, 34 (2):  178-183. 
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    Destructive typhoon usually causes serious direct economic losses and restricts economic development. Through the establishment of economic losses assessment model,the relevant departments for disaster prevention and reduction could more easily make decisions. Based on the data of 40 typhoon disasters and historical data in Zhejiang Province during 1984-2007, this paper selected hazard risk, disaster environmental sensitivity, vulnerability of disaster bodies, and disaster prevention and mitigation capabilities as the four influencing factors to establish a direct economic losses assessment model with fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. Correlation analysis result showed that the model had a high fitting rate with a correlation coefficient 0.806. For verification of the model, the data of three typhoons were used to make error analysis. The results showed that the analog values of the direct economic losses were basically in accord with the actual, and the simulation error was within a reasonable range. It is considered that the model established in this paper could reasonably evaluate the direct economic losses caused by typhoon disaster and give support to the decision-making of the government.

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    Research Perspectives of Classic Geopolitical Theories and Their Enlightenment for Developing China’s New Geopolitical Theory
    HU Zhiding,LUO Huasong,GE Yuejing
    2014, 34 (2):  184-190. 
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    From a general survey on world history, it can be found that a country’s rise would affect the global stability and geopolitical pattern. So far, geopolitics has developed four classic geopolitical theories, namely, the national organism theory, the sea power theory, the land power theory and the edge zone theory. Each theory is based on the national reality, geopolitical pattern and geographical conflict of the presenter’s country. With the rise of China, her overseas trade surges, and the conflicts between China and peripheral countries also increase. In order to achieve a peaceful rise, China needs corresponding theoretical guidance from geopolitics. Based on the text interpretation of the four classic geopolitical theories, this paper integrates the perspectives of the four classic geopolitical theories into two kinds, namely, the perspective of space and that of power. The land power theory and the edge zone theory are of the perspective of space, the sea power theory is of the perspective of power, and the national organism theory combines the two perspectives. Having studied the geographical conflicts and the national strength changes of Great Britain and the United States in different time, this paper confirms that the above-mentioned two perspectives are correct. Taking UK, USA and Japan as examples, the paper analyses the defect of the classic geopolitical theories, that is the reasonability in theory and the infeasibility in practice. The defect is mainly referred to that the sea power theory might mislead countries to ignore their geographical environment, while the land power theory would mislead them to overlook the power of the sea. In addition, there exist both practical and theoretical difficulty in classical geopolitical theories. The practical difficulty is referred to that any theory is the product of a particular historical context, that can not meet the realistic needs of the contemporary development; theoretical dilemma is referred to that the classic geopolitical theory places too much emphasis on material factors, ignoring the intangible factors. Finally, the paper puts forward three suggestions for the development of China’s new geopolitical theory: 1) the new geopolitical theory should meet China’s current needs to cope with the space conflict; 2) the new theory should meet the size of China’s strength or power; 3) the new theory should help to build China’s geo-spatial relationship. Combined with the new development of western political geography, this paper briefly discusses the development direction of political geography in China.

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    Evolution of Research and Development Mode of Transnational Manufacturing Enterprises in Guangzhou
    XIA Lili,LIN Ziqi
    2014, 34 (2):  191-198. 
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    The impact of transnational capital on local technical innovation has attracted much attention during the last two decades. Few literatures, however, have envolved in the study of R&D mode evolution and its influencing factors of transnational enterprises themselves in developing regions. Based on a case study of manufacturing industry in Guangzhou, this research tries to explore the evolution law and main characteristics, influencing factors of foreign manufacturing enterprises located in developing countries with the point view of micro-behavior of enterprises. Field work is carried out to get innovation behavior data of both transnational and indigenous manufacturing enterprises by using semi-structured questionnaire through face-to-face interviews selected by convenient and snowball sampling. The results show that the evolution of R&D mode of transnational enterprises includes: 1) the rate of local researcher is gradually increasing and multi-channel technology network including local innovation subjects is being built; 2) the kinds of new products continue to increase and the launch of new products are accelerated; 3) the protection of core technology is reinforced; 4) the number of R&D expenditure, staff and institutions are increasing and the indigenous enterprises are incorporated into innovation chain; 5) the independent R&D behavior and the role as an R&D assistant of its parent company are strengthened; The fierce competition of transnational enterprises due to the indigenous market expansion, the increasing ability of R&D and technology of local enterprises as well as the weakness of low-cost production and the regulation of resource and environment of the Pearl River Delta are the main reasons for transnational enterprises to upgrade the R&D behavior.

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    Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Important Port-Related Industries and Their Difference in Location Preference for Proximity to Ports
    WU Shanhua,YANG Zhongzhen,DONG Xiadan
    2014, 34 (2):  199-208. 
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    This paper firstly studies and compares the spatial distribution characteristics of the steel industry, the petrochemical industry and the automobile manufacturing industry. Then the paper selects a large number of large and medium-sized enterprises as the samples, and formulates the discrete choice model based on the actual location result of the enterprises. Furthermore, based on the calibrated parameters of the utility function in the discrete choice model, the paper analyzes the difference in the location behavior of the three port-related industries, especially in the preference for the proximity to the ports. Finally, the reasons for the difference in the port- proximity preference among the three industries are explained from the source of raw materials, the modal split of shipping and the distribution of product demand. Main conclusions are as follows. Firstly, the characteristics of the spatial distribution for the petrochemical industry demonstrate that it prefers to locate in the coastal areas and along the Yangtze River the most, and that it has an intermediate dispersion degree. The steel industry not only prefers to locate in the coastal areas, but also prefers to locate in the inland areas near the mines, and the industry has the largest dispersion degree. The automobile manufacturing industry has not significant preference for the coastal areas and has the smallest dispersion degree. Secondly, the utility brought by the industries’ location increases with the improvement of the accessibility to the port, to the raw material suppliers and to the product markets, but declines with the rise in the land price and the labor cost. Thirdly, the calibrated parameters of the utility function demonstrate that the three industries lay different emphasis on the factors influencing the location utility, which could explain the reasons for the difference in the port-proximity preference in turn. Fourthly, the demand for the proximity to port is driven by the desire to decline the transport cost, demonstrating in the reduction of the transport cost for raw materials and products by shipping and moving nearer to the places which have great demand for the products. Although the steel industry depends more on the foreign raw materials and has higher modal split of shipping, the coastal areas have more demand for the petrochemical products. It is found that the total transport cost of the petrochemical industry is higher than that of the steel industry, so the petrochemical industry shows the strongest preference for the proximity to the port. Comparatively, the automobile manufacturing industry has the weakest preference for the port-proximity mainly for its low dependence on the foreign raw materials and the coastal demand.
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    Interpretation and National Identity Constructing in the Whampoa Military Academy Memorial: An Effectiveness Assessment Based on SEM
    ZUO Bing,ZHOU Dongying
    2014, 34 (2):  209-216. 
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    Based on the on-site questionnaire survey on tourists at the Whampoa Military Academy Memorial (WMAM),this paper uses the Structural Equation Model (SEM) to assess the effectiveness and mechanism of interpretation in achieving national identity in red attractions. It checks the viability of three mainstream interpretation effectiveness assessment approaches promoted respectively by Lavidge & Stenier (1961),Rokeach & Defleur (1976) and Wagar (1982) in red heritage sites. Data from over 302 tourists’ questionnaire were collected in March 2013. A comprehensive model based on the three approaches has been built and a Structural Equation Model is used for theory testing and development. Empirical results indicate that interpretation may contribute to the formation of national identity of visitors by greatly increasing their historical knowledge, evoking tourists’ patriotism and providing good emotional experience. But the effectiveness of interpretation varied in relation to the types of attractions and conservation goals the tourist sites want to achieve. The study shows that interpretive effectiveness in the WMAM supports Lavidge & Stenier’s effect-structure model, which claims that the influencing process of interpretation follows the sequence from knowledge gain, through emotion or attitude change, to behavior modification. The study also finds that interpretation may have an immediate direct impact on tourists’ behavior changes at the same time. In the information delivering process, knowledge restructuring plays an important role which decides to a large extent the effectiveness of interpretation. The interactive material such as manuals and multimedia systems played a vital role in the effectiveness of interpretive messages in the WMAM. Therefore, red heritage sites should pay more attention to the construction of non-personnel interpretation system and the needs of young tourists to fully exercise its educational functions.

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     Comparative Study of Population Density in Flat Area between the Pearl River Basin in China and Kanto Basin in Japan
    KUANG Yaoqiu,YAO Zhiyuan,HUANG Ningsheng,LI Guomin
    2014, 34 (2):  217-224. 
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    The Pearl River Basin is located in south-central Guangdong Province, China. Covering Pearl River downstream, Pearl River Basin is surrounded by mountains and hills to its eastern, western and northern sides. There is an alluvial plain named Pearl River Delta in its central south built by mud and sands from the East River, West River and North River. Since China was carrying out Open and Reform policy in 1979, Pearl River Basin has experienced great growth in urbanization due to rapid social and economic development. A large amount of population moves to cities in Pearl River Basin for better and easier employment, sound environment for investment and good circumstances for living. As a result, the population density in Pearl River Delta rises year by year. However, the large population puts a great burden to cities and the rising population density leads to many problems like cities besieged by garbage, traffic congestion, water shortage, air pollution and climate change etc. These problems set an alarm for people and lead us to think of the following questions: Whether Pearl River Basin could sustain the current amount of population sustainably? Does Pearl River Basin have the potential to sustain more people? In order to find answers to those questions, this paper makes a comparative study of population density in relatively flat area between Pearl River Basin of China and Kanto Basin of Japan as the two regions are similar in geography and development function. Kanto Basin is located in south-central Honshu, Japan. It is famous for advanced economy, but also famous for the high density in population. Kyoto, once was the city with the highest population density, is one prefecture in Kanto Basin. From 1965 to 2005, the growth rate of population in Kanto Basin decreased year by year and dropped to 0.5% at 1995 and fluctuated little around 0.5% till 2010. What is more, at 2012, the growth rate of population in Kanto Basin dropped to 0.03% which means the number of people who migrate to Kanto Basin is nearly zero. This represents people would no longer like to migrate to cities in Kanto Basin maybe for the unsatisfied living condition or working environment. In other words, Kanto Basin could not sustain more people. The number of population and population density in Kanto Basin are at critical points. So this paper compares the population density in flat area between Pearl River Basin and Kanto Basin. And the conclusion is the population density in flat area of Pearl River Basin exceeds that of Kanto Basin in 2010 and the amount of population in Pearl River Basin is reaching its limit of carrying capacity. Pearl River Basin has little capacity to sustain more people.

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    FloodWater Resources Utilization Mechanism Based on Spatial Configuration of Typical Karst Landform: A Case Study of Guizhou Province
    HE Zhonghua,CHEN Xiaoxiang,LIANG Hong,GU Xiaolin,MA Li
    2014, 34 (2):  225-233. 
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    Flood Water Resources Utilization (FWRU) is an effective way to solve the serious water shortage problem in Karst areas. This paper selected 40 basins in Guizhou province as the samples to extract the typical Karst landform types by using the supervised classification method of object-oriented technology, and analyzed the characteristics of those sample areas. Then the paper used the method of systematic cluster to classify the sample areas into six basin types, which are: Karst low-medium mountain type (Ⅰ), peak-cluster valley type (Ⅱ), mixed type (Ⅲ), peak forest basin(rongyuan) type (Ⅳ), peak-cluster depression type (Ⅴ), and peak forest landform type (Ⅵ). With the correlation analysis method, the paper analyzed the effects of different landform spatial configurations on the flood runoff characteristics values (i.e. the flood runoff coefficient and flood runoff modulus), explored the allocation and loading rules of landform spatial configurations on floods, and researched the realization of FWRU under different landform spatial configurations from the view point of basin structures. The results show that:1) the curves of Flood Runoff Modulus (FRM), Flood Runoff Coefficient (FRC) and Coefficient of Variation (Cv) presented “double-peak type” distribution, and at the peak-cluster valley basin (Ⅱ) and peak-cluster depression basin (Ⅴ) they reached the maximum values; 2) the descending order (unit:billion cubic meters) of the total amounts of flood resources utilization for different basin types is Ⅴ(0.622)>Ⅰ(0.288)>Ⅵ(0.149)>Ⅱ(0.134)>Ⅳ(0.125)>Ⅲ(0.055); 3)the total amounts of underground flood resources for all the basin types, except type II and type III, are greater than that of surface flood resources.

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    Medical Service Consumption Features and Social Differentiation of Urban Residents Based on Individual Behavior: A Case Study of the Central Districts of Guangzhou

    GAO Junbo,TIAN Chunyan
    2014, 34 (2):  234-240. 
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    The provision of urban public services is related to the quality of life and social equity of urban residents, and the investigation of the urban public services consumption features based on micro-individual behavior would help to examine the rationality and equality of the provision distribution. This article analyzes the consumption choice and social differentiation features based on the questionnaire data of Guangzhou City. The results show that the influence of the provision of medical services on the residents’ selection of house purchase is less than that of green parks, education and commercial facilities. The expenses, attitude, technical and equipment conditions are the decisive factors for consumption choice of medical services of urban residents, and the influence from distance is small. The travel time of medical services consumption of most urban residents is within 35 minutes on foot or by bus. The expenses of medical service consumption are mainly paid by their own, and the evaluation of medical service consumption is not high totally. As far as social differentiation concerned, high-income groups pay more attention to the service reputation and technical equipments conditions than expenses in the course of consumption choice of medical service. High-income groups always prefer to choose the better district and higher level medical service facilities, and give public medical facilities the highest evaluation, while the middle and low-income groups prefer to choose lower-level medical service facilities when they are sick, or treat the disease by themselves. The spatial distribution of public medical services is balanced relatively, and the private medical facilities are always closer to middle and low-income, that is not similar to the “inverse-care law” of public resources distribution in the cities of western countries.

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    Spatial Characteristics and Their Causes of the Urban and Rural Public Service Facilities in Guangzhou
    TAN Yong,PI Can,HE Dongjin,YOU Weibin
    2014, 34 (2):  241-247. 
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    Making a case study on educational, medical, and recreation and sports facilities, this paper explores the spatial characteristics and their causes of urban and rural public service facilities in Guangzhou with the methods of Kernel density analysis and Path analysis. The results indicate that: 1) Spatial pattern of basic public service facilities in Guangzhou follow the laws of core-edge concentric circles structure, the order of facilities density is: core urban areas>newly-developed urban areas>urban-rural fringe areas>rural areas, the emergence of deputy center and exurb makes the pattern change towards a multi-polar direction; 2) Spatial patterns of different types of facilities are basically the same, but have different features, spatial intensity of medical facilities is the highest among the three kinds of facilities, that of educational facilities the next, and that of recreation and sports facilities the lowest; 3) Inter-regional spatial distribution is uneven, showing obvious administrative division mark, spatial intensity of the facilities in Yuexiu, Haizhu and Liwan District is the highest, much differs from that of Zengcheng and Conghua, administrative boundaries become separate lines to prevent Kernel density isolines from unobstructed outward expansion. 4) Results of Path analysis show that the population factor is the most important factor for the equalization of basic public services, other factors in the order of importance are as follows: Infrastructure investment (x10)>Agriculture as a share of GDP (x2)>industrial output (x3)>revenue (x4)>GDP (x1)>level of urbanization (x9)>expenditure (x5)>Development history (x11)>Total retail sales of consumer goods (x7)>use of foreign direct investment (x8)> total fixed asset investment (x6).

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    Progress in the Studies of Carbon Emission Estimation
    LIU Mingda,MENG Jijun,LIU Bihan
    2014, 34 (2):  248-258. 
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    Much attention in the world has been paid to study of Carbon emission. The reliability of carbon emission data depends on the reasonability of estimating method. In recent years progress has been made in research of carbon emission estimating methods. This paper discussed different carbon emission inventories of IPCC and China in theory, analyzed the pros and cons of three main approaches of estimating carbon emission as well as their appropriate objects, which are emission-factor approach, mass-balance approach, and experiment approach. Then in practice, the paper set out the inventories of carbon emission and the estimating approaches based on five spatial scales of units, which are country/province, city, settlement, individual building and family. Summarizing the existing research results, the paper put up a frame and a paradigm of carbon emission research. The main conclusions can be drawn as follows: 1) such a situation has been formed that IPCC leads the examination of carbon emission with many other agencies taking part in. The research area has had now much clearer framework, better approaches and broader appropriate scope. 2) The inventory and estimating approaches given by IPCC have been used in studying different spatial scales of units. Some new branches of learning are generated when they are used in city unit. 3) The study of carbon emission estimation still has problems, such as the disequilibrium of the studies on different spatial scale units that leads to less attention to be paid to the study of meso-scale units, the defects of the estimation methods themselves, and the external limitation of data acquisition, etc. 4) China has produced the inventory which is suitable for her own situation. In addition, a lot of progress in China have been made in the examinations of historic carbon emissions, regional differences of carbon emissions, and carbon emissions from natural ecosystems. But the problems of lacking in innovation of theory, less improvement of research methods and limitation in data obtaining still exist.

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    Review of the Lost Land Farmers’ Social Security System and Urban Integration in China and Abroad
    LIANG Mengge,LI Junfeng
    2014, 34 (2):  259-265. 
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    With the speeding up of urbanization in China, the number of lost land farmers is continuously growing, that has become a major problem affecting social stability. This paper reviews the progress at home and abroad in the research of urban integration and social security system of the lost land farmers. Foreign scholars generally study the lost land farmers from the perspective of sociology, use the sociological model and qualitative research method, and they have done a lot of work on the social security system and the urban integration of lost land farmers’ problem, they consider that the government should perfect the laws and regulations and the society should create rescue organizations. Domestic scholars pay more attention to studying the effects of the personal attributes, employment training, farmers household, and living space of the lost land farmers on urban integration, they think that both the government and farmers need to change in order to promote the farmers to be comprehensively integrated with the urban society. The authors hold that in the future the research of the urban integration and security system of lost land farmers should pay attention to the use of combining quantitative and qualitative methods, and the establishment of the applicable measurement models and scientific database, so as to combine the theory and practice more closely. GIS technology, network fixed point method, and modern communication technology, etc., can be employed to obtain the information more completely, objectively and effectively.
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    System Coupling between Urbanization and Eco-Environment: Research Progress in China
    LUO Ti,LIU Yanfang,KONG Xuesong
    2014, 34 (2):  266-274. 
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    The correlation and interaction between urbanization and ecological environment changing, is geared to the important topic of the comprehensive research for the sustainable development of human and natural process. Based on the theory of system coupling, this paper regards the collection of various urban cultural elements with the characteristics of urbanization and the collection of all kinds of natural elements of the ecological environment as two systems which are independent but influence each other, and summarizes recent progress in the relationship between urbanization and eco-environment change from the perspective of theory and methodology respectively. Chinese scholars not only analyze the system coupling relationship and evolution rule between urbanization and eco-environment change, and evaluate the coupling mechanism of inter-elements and inter-system quantitatively, but also put forward approach to realize the coordination between urbanization and eco-environment. Overall speaking, the contents of domestic researches show the multi-dimensional characteristics in the contained factors and the involved subjects. The diversification methods, especially the “3S” technology and multiple quantitative analytical methods are used to obtain the statistics and analysis data effectively, to reveal the mutual influence of urbanization and ecological environment change, and to predict the evolution trend of the future. The research objects show regional features obviously. The developed areas and the areas with fragile eco-environment are always the research focuses. The peri-urban areas are being paid more and more attention. Some researches focus on the eco-environmental influence of the urbanization of many rural areas. But the theoretical and methodology basis has been weak relatively because these researches still stay at groping stage. At the same time, the lack of quantitative evaluation index system and the hysteresis passivity of relevant researches will block the research progress. In the future, the coupling theory of urbanization and ecological environment system framework and method system, the index system of observation and evaluation, the warning mechanism, and the urban ecological space expansion and optimization methods will be the main research directions. In addition, the exchanges and cooperation of different subjects should be strengthened, to provide more solid foundation for the research of urbanization and eco-environment system coupling.

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