On account of the investigation of Mollusk at the Tongbo Mountain Nature Reserve from July 2012 to August 2013, we researched the distribution pattern of mollusk and its zoogeographical structure in different kinds of habitats, besides, we explored the relationship between species composition and their habitat of mollusk. The result of the research would provide theoretical basis for the protection and management of biodiversity in this reserve, and could also enrich the research data of mollusk in China. With qualitative and quantitative methods, 42 species and subspecies were found belonging to 28 genera (16 families in 4 orders of 2 classes). There were 15 species of freshwater mollusk, which belonged to 10 genera (7 families in 3 orders of 2 class) and 27 species of terrestrial mollusks, pertaining to 18 genera (9 families in 3 orders of 1 class), among those, 3 species were new records in Jiangxi Province, viz Diplommatina paxillus, Euplecta trifilaris and Plectotropis calculus. The dominant species of freshwater mollusks were Semisulcospira libertine and Galba pervia, while the ones of the terrestrial mollusks were Kaliella depressa, Bradybaena fortune and Bradybaena ravida ravida. Those species were numerous and widespread in the reserve. The rare species were Ptychopoma expoliatum expoliatum, Diplommatina paxillus longipalatalis, Bellamya aeruginosa, Corbicula fluminea, Plectotropis calculus and Plectotropis sedentaria, they were in less number and small range, only one living sample was collected in precious little sampling sites. Overall, the species of freshwater mollusk were less than those of terrestrial mollusk in the Tongbo Mountain Nature Reserve. This is because the species of freshwater mollusk (14 000 species) are less than those of terrestrial mollusk (25 000 species) around the world. Usually the shell of terrestrial mollusk is dextral, but few species are sinistral. We collected two sinistral species, Bradybaena fortunei and Satsuma uncophila, which were in large quantity and wide distribution. The somatoscopy indicated that the valves of the two mollusks are colorful, which form colored tapes or figures. The snails in the reserve were distinguished by shell size: 12 species were medium, 24 small, 3 minute, and 1 large. Medium and small species were dominating while minute and big ones less. The minute species were Carychium tiamushanese, Diplommatina paxillus, Diplommatina paxillus longipalatalis, large specie was Euhadra cecillei. Geographic fauna which gave first place to oriental region showed 22 species accounting for 52.38% of the total diversity. However, various faunas, complex floristic element are related to the geographic position of protection zone belonging to Central China while adjoining South China. Comparing the similarity coefficient with neighboring nature reserves based on Jaccard formula, we found that the Tongbo Mountain Nature Reserve had much more diversity of terrestrial mollusks and higher species similarity with the Yangjifeng Nature Reserve, about 23.33%, while lower similarity with the Mangshan Nature Reserve, only 6.45%. Results of the analysis with Shannon-wiener index, Margalef richness index and Pielou index on mollusk community indicated that both the species diversity index and richness index of mollusk were the highest in shrub habitat，while in coniferous-broad mixed forest the Pielou index was the highest．The freshwater mollusk Semisulcospira libertine in protection zone was in wide distribution, and large number of specimens could be collected in whichever rivulet. This species feeds on algae, and inhabits in mountain streams which are limpid, fast current and of low temperature. Its numerous appearance is closely related to the exellent environment of Tongbo Mountain Nature Reserve.