Table of Content

    31 May 2014, Volume 34 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Development Process, Spatial Pattern and Effects of High-Speed Rail Network in China
    WANG Jiao’e,JIAO Jingjuan
    2014, 34 (3):  275-282. 
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    High speed rail (HSR) is an important part of modern transport infrastructure. The construction of HSR network induces the spatio-temporal convergence and further influences the movement of production elements, the expansion of urban areas as well as the reorganization of regional spatial structure. The paper first analyzes the development process and mode of China’s HSR network, and then explores the characteristics of spatial distribution pattern as well as the coupling relationship with population and economy. Finally, the paper researches the spatial effects of HSR network with GIS method, in terms of the service areas of HSR, time-space convergence effects, and core cities’ commuting regions. Results indicate that: 1)The spatial expansion of HSR in China shows a “core-core” pattern in the early years and then a “core-network” pattern, which is closely related with the distribution of cluster cities; 2) The spatial pattern of HSR is inclined to serve the urban population and industry output, with 50.07% urban population, 73.47% GDP and 98.17% industry output value in 1 hour catchment area; 3) The HSR network leads to an uneven time-space convergence, and cities along the main HSR lines have relatively lower average travel time, showing a corridor effect; Meanwhile, the accessibility of hub cities are improved greatly, which leads to the expansion of hinterlands and convenient movement of production elements as well as the integration of cities in megalopolis.

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    Effects of Urban Underlying Surface Change on Ambient Atmospheric Environment
    TAO Wei,LIU Junfeng,TAO Shu
    2014, 34 (3):  283-292. 
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    The process of urbanization, especially the modification of land surface’s properties, exerts a strong impact on the meteorological conditions thus the evolution of airborne contaminants. In this paper, three aspects of relevant studies are reviewed: 1) the general features and intrinsic mechanisms of urban climate; 2) the characteristics of urban “pollution meteorology” at different scales; 3) the development of numerical models which quantitatively describe urban land-atmosphere interactions. Then the studies of simulation of the effects of underlying surface change during urbenization on atmospheric environment (including meteorological conditions and air quality) are also reviewed. Finally, a WRF/Chem numerical simulation aimed at exploring how urban land surface’s expansion over Eastern China would influence the spatial distribution of CO and ozone is introduced. The result shows that when anthropogenic emissions hold constant, the expansion of urban land surface could increase concentration of ozone in atmosphere near the surface as well as 1-3 km above the ground, and also increase that of CO in atmosphere 1-2 km above the ground; but would decrease CO concentration near the surface.

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    Assessment of Impacts of Climate Change and Human Activities on Runoff with HSPF for the Xinjiang River Basin
    DENG Xiaoyu,ZHANG Qiang,SUN Peng,FANG Chaoyang3
    2014, 34 (3):  293-301. 
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    It is widely understood that hydrological cycles are complex processes influenced by both climate change and human activities. With global warming, the impacts of climate change and human activities on hydrological processes are of widespread concern and a challenge to researchers and policy markers. The Xinjiang River is located in the Poyang Lake Basin, which is one of the five major rivers in Jiangxi Province. Studies show that in 1990s there was an obvious rising trend in precipitation and a downtrend in evaporation in the Poyang Lake Basin. Meanwhile human activities grew intensely. Thus, the response of hydrological processes to climate change and human activities were investigated in this paper by using the Hydrological Simulation Program Fortran (HSPF), which was calibrated and verified for the baseline period 1960-1990, and then used to reconstruct the natural runoff for the affected period during 1991-2005. The results indicated that: 1) The annual runoff increased by 217.9 and 246.3 mm during 1991-1995 and 1996-2000, respectively, but decreased by 64.1 mm during 2001-2005, as compared with those in the baseline period of 1960-1990. The impact of climate change made about 65.6%-88.0% of the contribution to the changes in the annual runoff, while that of human activities made about 12.0%-34.4% of the contribution to the changes in the annual runoff; 2) Extreme series were affected by human activities. During affected period, the modeled 7-day annual maximum flows and 15-day annual maximum flows were smaller than their observed counterparts; 3) The responses of hydrological processes to climate change and human activities were different. In climate change factors, the increase of precipitation played a significant role in the increase of runoff in 1990s, while the decrease of evaporation played minor role. Human activities such as tree planting, urbanization and reservoir construction were the secondary factors that can influence annual runoff. In this study, we found that reforesting can increase runoff while urbanization and the reservoir construction will cause runoff decrease. It can be predicted that with the development of the Xinjiang River Basin, human activities will exert more influence on river discharge of the basin.

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    Distribution Pattern of African Surface Water Based on Landsat-TM and MODIS Imagery
    SONG Kaishan,LIU Lei,LYU Dongmei,ZANG Shuying,SHAO Tiantian,DU Jia,SU Yuquan,GUAN Ying
    2014, 34 (3):  302-307. 
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    An object-oriented classification approach was applied in this study to extract surface water area across the African continent based on Landsat TM/ETM+ imagery acquired in 2010, combined with MODIS images to examine the water surface areal fluctuation caused by seasonality. Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and band ratio (band 4/band 2) were used as the major input for eCognition software package to extract surface water area. Further, surface water area was extracted over four typical regions determined from various climatic zones to investigate the surface water areal fluctuation due to precipitation and runoff variability. Our results showed that the surface waters area totaled 311 479.2 km2 across the African continent. The lake area was 209 018.5 km2, accounting for 67.1% of the total inland waters area, while river and channels area 64 550.1 km2, accounting for 20.7%, and reservoirs and ponds area 37 910.7 km2, accounting for 12.2% of the total inland waters across the African continent. Altogether, there were 211 reservoirs distributed all over the continent, and the area amounted to 13 438.7 km2. Inland surface waters for Africa were mainly distributed across regions sitting down to the south of Sahara. Our investigation also showed that inland waters decreased about 100 km2 in the target area from tropical desert climatic zone. A large areal fluctuation was observed for the target region from tropical steppe climatic zone, and the surface waters area changed in a range of 1 000 km2. Comparatively, surface waters showed small variation due to seasonality, and the areas only changed in a range of tens of square kilometers. As indicated by the coefficient of variation (less than 4.85%) in these four target regions, the surface water areal fluctuation across the African continent might be less than 10%.

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    Profile and Determinants of African Immigrants’ Sense of Place in Religious Space: A Case Study of Guangzhou Sacred Heart Cathedral
    HUANG Jialing,HE Shenjing
    2014, 34 (3):  308-318. 
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    Under globalization, the geography of religion has recently attracted much scholarly attention, and become a significant component of cultural geography. Yet, theoretical exploration and systematic empirical work on the role of sacred spaces in facilitating internal and international migrants’ assimilation and adaptation to local society are still lacking, especially in the Chinese context. With the rising global mobility, international immigrants are ubiquitous in a few large Chinese cities. In Guangzhou, an enlarging community of African immigrants is emerging. Their residential areas and daily activities, including religious activities, have shown a clear pattern of spatial concentration. Combined with semi-structured questionnaires and interviews, this study attempts to focus on this under-researched topic by exploring the underlying mechanism and the determinants of African immigrants’ sense of place in religious space in Guangzhou, using the Sacred Heart Cathedral as a study area. Emperical evidence shows that African immigrants’ place attachment and place identity tended to develop before place dependence was formed. Although strong place attachment in religion space coexists with strong space substitutability, Sacred Heart Cathedral is irreplaceable to some extent because of its unique location. And since the religious doctrine advocates psychological dependence rather than substance dependence, place dependence tends to be concealed unconsciously, which reveals the different nature of sense of place towards sacred space and secular space. Multivariate linear regression model reveals that social activities and the length of human-place interaction, instead of the length of residence in Guangzhou, are significant determinants for the development of African’s sense of place, because human-place interaction can foster senses of distinctiveness, continuity, self-esteem and self-efficacy. Social conditions also contribute in a significant way because social environment is an efficient element to social integration in immigrant societies. This finding helps us to better understand that human-place bonding matters more than the length of residence in forming the sense of place. Although existant literature has demonstrated some positive effects of sacred spaces to immigrants’ social integration, the Guangzhou case shows that the confliction between Cantonese culture and African culture, as well as exogenous factors such as macro-political environment and isolation have imposed a negative impact on the improvement of sense of place in religious space. Furthermore, similar religious facilities with those in their home countries are of great help to improve immigrants’ sense of place to sacred place. In view of the problems discovered from the case of the Sacred Heart Cathedral, this finding is of certain significance for immigrant management and creating the sense of belonging in the hosting city for international migrants matter.

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    Review of the Study on Cultural Dynamics of World Cities
    HUANG Hemian,ZHU Hong,XUE Desheng
    2014, 34 (3):  319-326. 
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    The “world city” has become an important research issue in urban studies since 1980s. Although the classical theories provide a new paradigm for current researches, their neglect on cultural, social and political factors is criticized by some scholars as economic reductionist. This article provides a review on cultural dynamics of world cities. It attempts to argue that, this kind of research, which is emerging in this new century, challenges the classical theories founded by Friedmann and Sassen, and opens up a new theoretical perspective for current researches. According to the differences of theoretical criticisms, we categorize them into two kinds: 1) The research on the cultural roles of world cities. It attempts to emphasize that, not just the control and command functions of global economy, which are claimed by classical theories, world cities also serve as basing points for cultural globalization, and act as global cultural centers. Urban governments, cultural corporations, international immigrants/tourists and citizens are the four main actors in promoting world cities’ capacities in agglomerating and producing global culture. 2) The research on urban images of world cities. It challenges that, the formation of world cities is not (only) the natural results of market effect, the cultural factors could also help to lure foreign capital and contribute to their prestige. Through producing global landscapes and hosting mega-events, world cities could improve the urban images and enhance their international competitiveness. Urban governments, real estate companies, architects and media are the four main actors in urban image shaping. Based on the reviews, this article states some inspirations for the construction of our own Chinese world cities: 1) Strengthening the capacities of culture producing and making the cities serve as world cultural centers; 2) Creating an more inclusive cultural environment to embrace the foreign migrants; 3) Renewing the architecture heritages to bridge the urban histories and contemporary developments, it will help to reshape the urban images.

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    Spatial Distribution and Influencing Factors of Magnetic Properties of Agricultural Soil in Shaoguan, Guangdong
    BIAN Yong,OUYANG Tingping,WAN Hongfu,KUANG Yaoqiu,HUANG Ningsheng
    2014, 34 (3):  327-336. 
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    Environmental magnetism method has advantages of rapidness, cost-effectiveness and non-destructiveness. It has great research value and application potential in the field of agricultural soil. Studies on magnetism of agricultural soil would help to extend the knowledge about its properties and develop the methodology of theoretical and applied researches on agricultural soil. However, relevant researches are limited. Shaoguan in Guangdong Province was chosen as a typical region for the research on magnetic properties in subtropical area. A set of 97 surface soil samples (32 were collected on farmland and 65 on forestland in the region) were used for magnetic measurements, including low- and high-frequency magnetic susceptibilities (χlf and χhf), anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM, converted to mass-specific susceptibility form χARM) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM). Frequency-dependent susceptibility χfd and the ratio χARM/SIRM were also calculated from the measured magnetic parameters. Analyses of spatial distribution characteristics of magnetic parameters in agricultural soil and their influencing factors, as well as correlation between magnetic parameters, were carried out. Results showed that there existed great spatial variations of magnetic parameters in agricultural soil throughout Shaoguan. Magnetic mineral abundance related parameters, i.e. χlf, χARM, and SIRM, showed high values in Qujiang, Xinfeng and northern Lechang, while magnetic grain size related parameters, i.e. χfd and χARM/SIRM, showed high values in Ruyuan, Wujiang, southern Shixing, and northern Wengyuan, which meant finer magnetic grain size. In the studied region, land use type was the major influencing factor on magnetic properties of agricultural soil. Magnetic particles in farmland were coarser grained than in forestland, while magnetic mineral abundance in farmland was roughly lower than that in forestland. The magnetic property difference between these two land use types was attributed to the loss of magnetic minerals due to cultivation activity, and this effect was more essential on finer magnetic grains. This effect was also implied by the different bivariate correlation coefficients between farmland and forestland. Effect of parent material on magnetic properties of agricultural soil was less important than land use type, which was probably due to the more significant impacts from anthropogenic factors, such as agricultural activity. Result of multiple correspondence analysis indicated that anthropogenic emission sources, including industrial and transportation activities, may be responsible for the significant magnetic enhancement of agricultural soil in top layer, which was supported by the calculated industrial density derived from statistical data. Anthropogenic emission sources may also contribute to the magnetic grain size distribution to some extent.

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    Impact of Different Land Use Types on Soil Calcium in Northern Guangdong
    CHEN Tongqing,WEI Xinghu,GUAN Gongcou,LI Zhongyun
    2014, 34 (3):  337-343. 
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    In the Karst peak forest-plain area of Jiulong Town in Yingde, Guangdong, six land use types, namely slope shrubs, water depressions,sugar-orange forests, bamboo groves, vegetable patches and rice fields, were selected to be studied, their soil at different depth were sampled, and then the total calcium content, the exchangeable calcium content, and the water soluble calcium content were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that: 1) The thickness of the soils in vegetable patches, rice fields, sugar-orange forests and bamboo groves were significantly greater than that of natural slope shrubs and water depressions; 2) The total calcium content of soil in Karst water environment (water depressions, rice fields) was over 59 g/kg on average, which was the highest among the six land use types, the second was that of the soil on slope, which was 20.83 g/kg. In the cultivated environment of sugar-orange forests and vegetable patches, the total calcium content reduced to 3.51 and 2.76 g/kg, respectively. By contrast, in the adjacent non-karst regions, total calcium content of soil was only 1.43 g/kg. 3) Because cultivating and fertilizing would increase the exchangeable calcium content and the water soluble calcium of soil, the proportion of exchangeable calcium and water soluble calcium in the total calcium content were, respectively, 38.04%, 23.08% for vegetable patches, 1.41%, 0.88% for sugar-orange forests, 7.86%, 6.87% for water depressions, and 0.25%, 0.46% for slope shrubs. Since the total calcium was reducing in vegetable patches and sugar-orange forests, the increase of exchangeable calcium and water soluble calcium would aggravate the calcium loss. 4) The variations of total calcium, exchangeable calcium and soluble calcium contents with soil depth showed a decreasing trend under different land use types, however, the variations in water depression and rice fields were much greater than those in vegetable patches, sugar-orange forests and bamboo groves. 5) The thickness of soil, bare ratio of rock and slope were significantly negatively correlated with each other, while a marked positive correlation existed among total calcium, exchangeable calcium and water soluble calcium in soil, and also a significant negative correlation existed between bare ratio of rock and exchangeable calcium. In conclusion, water, soil thickness, bare ratio of rock and slope jointly determined the distribution and migration of soil calcium.

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    Morphological Characteristics and Evolution Process of Soil Bridge in Yuanmou Dry-Hot Valley
    SHU Chengqiang,HE Zhengwei,ZHANG Bin,JIANG Liangqun,LUO Mingliang,LIN Yebin
    2014, 34 (3):  344-350. 
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    Soil bridge is one of the common erosional landforms in Yuanmou Dry-hot Valley. It is also an important reason causing local water and soil loss, studying the morphological characteristics and evolution process of soil bridge would have important practical significance for better understanding of the evolution of regional landforms and management of local eco-geological environment. From 2009 to 2013 the authors made field investigations on the morphological characteristics, microtopography of the soil bridge, the soil bridge position, and the shape of the longitudinal profile of the gully. And the properties of soil layers were analyzed. The results showed: 1) Soil bridge mainly developed at the bottom in upper and middle reaches of the gully, less at the bottom of cliff at the edge of gully. Some soil bridges occurred continuously and some lonely. 2) There was difference among soil layers of the bridge, the resistance of the soil layer of bridge hole against disintegration and erosion was weaker than that of the top layer of the bridge. 3) There was some influence of structure joints and gully slope on the formation of soil bridge. 4) The shape and structure of soil bridge were similar to those of the natural bridge or the artificial bridge. The scale of soil bridge was generally little. The shape of the bridge hole was mainly similar to triangle and sometimes to arc. The top of the hole mainly developed along the vertical joint and collapse was more frequently observed. The influencing factors of the soil bridge development were mainly the climate environment, the tectonic setting, the formation joint and the slope of gully, etc. 5) The evolution process of soil bridge followed the general law of thing development, which could be divided into four stages: germination stage, young stage, mature stage and withered stage. 6) There was certain coupling relationship between soil bridge and sink hole and gully in Yuanmou.

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    Optimization of Bio-Optical Algorithm Parameters in Coastal CASE-II Waters
    HAN Liusheng, CHEN Shuisen,LI Dan,CHEN Xiuzhi,LI Yong,CHEN Yanqiao,FANG Ligang
    2014, 34 (3):  351-358. 
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    The optimization of bio-optical algorithm parameters in remote sensing of CASE-II water is a necessary step before they can be applied, because these parameters vary with the changes of study area. Biochemical parameters (Chlorophyll a, Total suspended solids, CDOM absorption coefficient) and above-water surface reflectance collected in the Pearl River Estuary, Hanjiang Estuary and Xuwen Coral Reef Zone were used to iterate the back scattering coefficient model of total suspended solids (bbx) and the bidirectional reflectance (f/Q) by simulated annealing algorithm (N=43). The calibration results indicated that the f/Q was 0.104 9, and the bbx at the wave length of 531 nm was 0.268×[TSS]0.295. Then, the forward model was developed to test the optimized results, i.e. the remote sensing reflectance was simulated by inputting water quality parameters (N=22). The validation results showed that reflectance obtained from the optimized algorithm agreed well with field observations(RMSE=0.000 8, N=22). The remote sensing reflectance at the wavelength of 667 nm extrapolated from the Bio-optical Algorithm had poor accuracy (RMSE=0.0036, N=22) compared with the field data , while all the other band (412, 443, 490, 551 nm)had good precision (RMSE<0.002 3, N=22). It showed that bbx and f/Q varied with different study areas, and they should be optimized according to the measured data. The bbx and f/Q values obtained from the optimized algorithm can be applied to bio-optical algorithm.

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    Climatic Ecological Adaption for Geographical Distribution of Taxus Wallichiana var. Mairei
    XIE Chunping
    2014, 34 (3):  359-365. 
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    For protecting the medical resource of paclitaxel, with the related climate indices, this paper employed the international popular methods about interaction between vegetation and climate to analyse the relationship between geographical distribution of T. wallichiana var. mairei and climate. The authors sampled 306 points within the geographical range of T. wallichiana var. mairei, which mainly come from the references, Chinese Virtual Herbarium (http://www.cvh.org.cn) and National Specimen Information Infrastructure (http://mnh. scu.edu.cn). Climate data mainly come from the software of DIVA-GIS with the World Clim-Goble Climate Data (http://www.worldclim.org/), which can read the information of 19 environment-climate factors such as annual average precipitation, annual average temperature, extreme high and low air temperatures, etc. The relationship between geographical distribution of T. wallichiana var. mairei and climate was analyzed by Kira’s warmth index, coldness index (CI), and Holdridge classification system. The conclusions are as follows: 1) the coefficient of variation (CV)values of the climatic indices range from 10.55% to 321.08%. T. wallichiana var. mairei is widely distributed from subtropical zone to the south temperate zone in China, in the areas of 23°-36° N, 98°-121° E. 2) the annual average temperature in the areas is 16.31℃, but the difference between the extremes is about 20℃; precipitation is another important factor for the distribution, and the annual average precipitation is 1 303.28 mm, precipitation differs in different distribution areas, the highest is 2 645.00 mm and the lowest 535.00 mm, the distribution areas are of subtropical climate, which are characterized by humid and sub-humid features with an average temperature above 15℃ and no obvious dry season. 4) the average aridity index (AI) is 9.44, with the highest 20.48 and the lowest 4.29, meanwhile, the average biological temperature is 16.51℃, higher than the value of subtropical boundary of Chinese vegetation(14℃)but lower than that in Holdridge classification system (>17℃); annual average evaporation rate (PER)is 0.78, close to that of Cyclobalanopsis glauca which is distributed widely in subtropics. T. wallichiana var. mairei has similar characteristics with other typical species in subtropical zone. 5) Principal component analysis indicates that annual average temperature is the most important factor to affect the distribution, the best temperature is about 16℃. Finally, some effective measures to protect the population are put forward in this paper.

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    Ecological Risk Assessment and Management of Floods and Droughts in the Li River Basin
    WANG Jiangwei,MENG Jijun
    2014, 34 (3):  366-373. 
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    Regional ecological risk assessment is the foundation of ecological risk management. The ecological risk assessment of river basins should consider the integrity and relative independence of the geographical unit. Based on historical literatures, natural geographic data, and socio-economic data, this study chooses droughts and floods that are the major natural disasters in the Li River Basin as risk sources, and 161 sub-basins as assessment units. According to the relative risk assessment model, comprehensive ecological risks in this river basin are evaluated based on risk source, vulnerability, and ability to resist risk. Results show a large spatial variation of the ecological risk in the Li River Basin. Lingui County, north of Linchuan County, and Xin’an County are the high-risk regions with weak infrastructures, unstable landscapes, and vulnerable ecology, accounting for 2.3% of the total area of the basin. Risks are relatively low in the Mao’er Mountain and the Haiyang Mountain Nature Reserves due to weak anthropogenic activities, well preserved vegetation, and stable landscapes, the areas of the reserves account for about 59.0% of the total basin area. Benefited from the improved infrastructure, Guilin City in the midstream has a low risk as well. However, non-negligible potential risks exist in Yangshuo County in the downstream of the Li River, which belongs to the mid-risk region. Based on the risk assessment, measures to prevent ecological risk have been proposed. For the high-risk regions, attention should be paid to the protection of the vegetation. With the help of remote sensing, the monitoring and management of the environment can reduce the frequency of the risk. On the other hand, hydrological model can simulate the spatial and temporal distribution of the water, valid adjustment measures should be adopted to reduce the damage of drought and flood disaster. For the regions suffering from higher frequency disasters, ecological migration should be considered. For the regions of mid-risk in Lingchuan County and Xin’an County, unreasonable farming must be forbidden, which breaks the stability of landscape. The industrial structure in the regions should be adjusted to decrease their dependence on water. Most of the relative-low-risk regions belong to Karst landform, where there is difficulty in the modulation of water, attention should be paid to protection of the environment to reduce the damage of the risk. The low-risk regions are located in Guilin City where there are consummate infrastructures, and in the Mao’er Mountain and Haiyang Mountain Reserves where the landscapes are stable. To maintain the management of the Reserves, preventing the interference from tourism seems to be an effective way. This study aims at improving our understanding of the ecological risk management in the Li River Basin.

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    Comparative Analysis of Major Typhoons of the Yangtze River Delta in the Qing Dynasty
    YAN Tingxia,BI Shuoben,WEI Jun,LI Xiliang
    2014, 34 (3):  374-382. 
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    This paper extracts and sorts out the typhoon disaster information from local chronicles of the Yantze Delta and files of the Qing Dynasty. According to the number of typhoons and their judgment basis, it is recognized that there were seven super typhoon disasters in the Yangtze River Delta region in the early Qing Dynasty. Reconstruction and comparative analysis are conducted on the processes, disaster distribution, and tracks of the seven typhoons. The results show that:the seven super typhoons of the Yangtze River Delta region occurred in lunar June and July in the early Qing Dynasty during the flood period, the damages were serious; The typhoon processes had short duration, usually in 2-3 days. The seven super typhoons were distributed near the Hangzhou Bay of Zhejiang and crossed the lower reaches of the Yangtze River basin, they mainly landed at Chongming and Fengxian of Shanghai, Yuyao and Jiashan of Zhejiang, and other coastal areas, then moved along the coast toward the northwest. This type of path is close to that of modern northwest Pacific typhoon. Under different spatio-temporal background, the impact of typhoon on regional society had certain differentiation.

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    Operational Modes of Logistics Parks in Urban Area:A Case Study of Shenzhen City
    ZONG Huiming,ZHOU Suhong,YAN Xiaopei
    2014, 34 (3):  383-389. 
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    As the places where logistics activities cluster in urban area, the logistics parks play an important role in development of logistics industry. However, much of previous research has focused on planning and designing of logistics parks while less on the relationship between the types and operational modes of logistics parks. With the rapid development of modern logistics industry in modern China, more and more logistics parks have been planed and developed. This research would be helpful for the policy makers to make plan for the management of the logistics parks. Aiming at finding out their relationship, this paper took the nine biggest logistics parks in urban Shenzhen as cases. All the first-hand data were collected by long term field work and interviews with the management staff of all logistic parks and some government officers. We classified logistics parks into three types: freight transportation hub, urban freight distribution center, and comprehensive function center. Also we recognized three types of operational modes for logistics parks according to the managers of the logistics parks, which are: government-dominated mode, private firm-dominated mode and semi-government dominated mode. Through analysis, we argued that there was close relationship between the operational modes and types of logistics parks. The mechanisms of their relationship were revealed from the affiliated transportation facilities, land use size and investment size of logistics parks. The comprehensive function center and freight transportation hub, with which affiliated more important transportation facilities, took more land and had larger investment, and they generally were of government-dominated mode. The urban freight distribution center and some freight transportation hub were of private-dominated mode.

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    Spatial Patterns and Development Strategy of Competition-Integration between Cities in Urban Agglomeration in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River
    WANG Tao,ZENG Juxin
    2014, 34 (3):  390-398. 
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    The maximization of overall functionality of urban agglomeration largely depends on harmonious competition-integration relations between cities. In the view of evolution law of urban agglomerations, the Urban Agglomeration in the Middle Reaches of the Yangtze River (UAMRYR) is at an early stage of development, there is little academic research about competition and integration between cities in it. Based on perspective of city competitiveness and spatial interaction, this paper introduces the principal component analysis and spatial interpolation technique, and then builds a fundamental framework of competition-integration patterns between cities in UAMRYR to reveal the present urban competition-integration situation and mechanism of action. The conclusions are as follows: 1)The competition pattern of UAMRYR shows radial characteristics with core-periphery schema on the whole, and the competitiveness centrality of Wuhan, Changsha, Nanchang are obvious. The differentiation of competition pattern in three sub-urban agglomerations are significant. In Wuhan Metropolitan Area, there exists a wide gap of competitiveness between Wuhan and other cities. The competition pattern in Hunan's “3+5” Urban Agglomeration shows a feature of concentrating on core city and extending along the axis. The distribution of cities competitiveness in Urban Agglomeration Surrounding Poyang Lake is characterized by aggregating along the Yangtze River and Poyang Lake. 2) The integration pattern between cities mainly shows that linkage within urban agglomeration is at a level higher than that among urban agglomerations, the directivities of center city and geographical adjacency are notable, a “suction straw effect” is generated along the major roads, and these traffic axes evolve into the main directions of integration pattern finally. The competition-integration patterns between cities present a feature of “overall correspondence and part deviation”. 3) Actually the competition pattern is activated by multiple factors. Among them, the coupling of components, the effect of polarization, administrative and natural division and transportation are the critical factors. The distance attenuation rule and radiation effect of growth pole dominate the integration pattern between cities. These factors promote the competition-integration patterns between cities to move towards differentiation, and the patterns are various spatial structure forms derived from these kinds of mechanism. 4) With the comprehensive analysis of inter-city competition-integration pattern, this paper puts forward policy suggestions about competition- integration in many aspects, such as cooperation on planning, transportation integration, and industrial division and so on.

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    Temporal-Spatial Characteristics and Internal Mechanism of Evolution of Rural Labors Transfer in Sichuan Province
    AI Dabin,YUAN Tianfeng
    2014, 34 (3):  399-407. 
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    It is a result of rapid development of industrialization and urbanization that rural surplus labors transfer to non-agriculture sectors and towns, and it is also the only way for a country or a region to realize modernization construction. Further, rural labors transfer is a difficult and key task for the western regions of China because of the numerous rural populations, backward economic and social development. In this article, Sichuan Province was taken as a case, on the basis of field investigation adopting a questionnaire, the main trends of evolution of rural labors transfer in the province was analyzed from time and space dimensions since 1990s. The results showed that the scale of transferring rural labors increased year by year, and the attribute features including their sex, age and educational level obviously changed. The proportion of employment in tertiary industry gradually rose, and the number of the transferring rural labors who carried their household, or those who returned to hometown to do pioneering business, continuously increased. On the other hand, it appeared a trend that the transferring rural labors returned to Sichuan and other western regions in space, and the difference of characteristics of rural labors transfer and its evolution among different economic level regions were obvious. Furthermore, the internal evolving mechanism of rural labors transfer in this area was also discussed in this paper. The results showed that the evolution of rural labors transfer in Sichuan and other western regions was influenced by changes of various factors. In particular, the changes of transfer income and cost expectation were internal motive of evolution of rural labors transfer, the changes of macro-economy situation at home and abroad were external conditions of evolution, the changes of development pattern of regional economy became macro-background of evolution, the changes of policies and systems related to rural labors transfer formed institutional environment of evolution, and the changes of their own characteristics of the transferring rural labors were important promotion factors of evolution of rural labors transfer.

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    Historical Process of Migration and Spatial Characteristics of Tangka in Lingnan
    WU Shuitian,CHEN Pingping
    2014, 34 (3):  408-413. 
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    Population migration is the main carrier of Tangka culture transmission. Since the Ming Dynasty, Tangka population has been distributed on waters in Lingnan area. This paper studied population migration of Tangka through the historical literature analysis, field surveys and other methods of research. Some laws about Tangka migration were found. Under the influence of economic opportunities, living conditions, political change and other factors, Tangka moved from the Pearl River Delta to other places, showing radiant and leaping migration features. Their main destinations were Southeast Asia and other places along coastal Lingnan, forming different scale of Tangka population segments. Meanwhile, Tangka migration presented a historical process of clustering in cities and towns, and the migration direction was from the upper reaches to lower reaches along rivers, from coastal areas to mainland, and from rural areas to urban areas. As a result, the distribution of Tangka population presented different characteristics in shape: plate-shaped in urban areas, strip-shaped along rivers and shore areas, and arc-shaped in coastal and island areas. Large-scale Tangka people have left their dwelling boats and started to live ashore since 1949. With the rapid development and urbanization in China, living pattern of Tangka people has progressively changed from gathering together on waters to mixing with land residents. Cultural identity of Tangka has been gradually merging with the local, and their cultural personality has gradually disappeared at the same time. Those have posed severe challenge to cultural heritage and development of Tangka.

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    Mining Relics and Its Evaluation in Dabaoshan Mine Area in Guangdong Province
    ZHANG Ming
    2014, 34 (3):  414-421. 
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    The mining area of Dabaoshan has a long history and the mining relics are numerous and various. The basic characteristics of Dabaoshan mining geological heritage, mining production sites, the relics of mining activity, mining products, mining development historical records are investigated in this paper on the basis of the qualitative evaluation and using the Analytic Hierarchy Process method of quantitative evaluation system for mining relics. The results show that the mining relic landscape resources in Dabaoshan Mine can be classified into two levels, namely rare level and important level. Of the mining relic landscapes in Dabaoshan, 5 are of the rare level and 7 are the important level. They are characterized by their high quality, strong complementarity, good matching performance, and exclusive features, and they have very high scientific value, tourism value and historical and cultural value, as well as potential advantages in the development of the mine industrial tourism.

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    Spatial Distribution and Influential Factor of Agricultural Tourism Destinations in Wuhan Metropolitan Area
    LI Xigui,WU Qing,LIU Dajun
    2014, 34 (3):  422-428. 
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    As one of the important paths of promoting the integration of urban and rural areas, the development and construction of agricultural tourism destination are receiving more and more attention from the academia. By using spatial analysis methods of standard deviation ellipse method, the adjacent index method, and kernel density estimation method, we analyzed the spatial distribution characteristics and influencing factors of the agricultural tourism destinations in Wuhan Metropolitan Area. This not only can provide references for the development of agricultural tourism destinations in Wuhan Metropolitan Area, but also offer good example and demonstration to those in other places. The results show that: 1) The spatial distribution of agricultural tourism destinations in Wuhan Metropolitan Area is centripetal and appears circular distribution pattern apparently. 2) As a whole, agricultural tourism destinations are concentratedly distributed, but the distribution types differ significantly in different regions. 3) The spatial distribution of the destinations presents a pattern of coexistence of patches and sheet shapes, but the distribution patterns differ in different areas. 4) The spatial distribution of agricultural tourism destinations in Wuhan Metropolitan Area is obviously affected by urban hierarchy, traffic, rivers, and regional economic and tourism development level, etc. Among those, the impacts of different scale cities on the spatial distribution of agricultural tourism destination are different, especially freeway plays an important role in the spatial distribution of agricultural tourism destinations. On the basis of the above analysis, we make the following suggestions for the development of Wuhan Metropolitan Area:Firstly, rely on the main cities such as Wuhan, Ezhou and Xianning to strengthen the construction of agricultural tourism destinations, expand the tourism consumption market, optimize regional development, and promote the rationalization of agricultural tourism layout under the guidance of policies and regulations. Secondly, take market-oriented policies, enrich the types of the agricultural tourism product, and stress the experience leisure function and local characteristics of the product. Thirdly, perfect the construction of regional transportation axis to strengthen the contact with other tourism resources, establish regional tourism product systems, make full use of the complementary resources, enlarge the influence of regional tourism product system, and then promote the balanced and sustainable development of the agricultural tourism destinations and market of Wuhan Metropolitan Area.

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