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Table of Content

    05 July 2018, Volume 38 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Soft Planning for the Urban Future of China in the 21st Century: Building an Ecological Civilization
    Terry McGee
    2018, 38 (4):  451-457.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003056
    Abstract ( )   PDF (624KB) ( )   Save
    This paper is intended as an “idea” piece to stimulate discussion on the main challenges faced in China’s ongoing task of developing increased participation in global trade and investment. It discusses the present state of knowledge concerning urbanization, the role of the tension between urbanization and sustainable development in China’s national development strategies and the challenges facing China in the 21st century. This paper suggests that China should pay attention to the construction of theories based on local development experience and formulate its own urbanization path in light of the region-based knowledge. Specifically, China should draw attention to the balance of economic growth and sustainable development. China should mobilize and make full use of ecological capital to promote the development of an ecological civilization. Soft planning, which puts an emphasis on the deployment of soft capital such as ecological capital, should be developed to play a more important role in future planning system. For this, work should be done to promote institutional reform and administrative restructuring and to enhance the cooperation between public sectors, private sectors and civil society. Lastly, it is argued that the Extended Urban Region (EUR) as the main territory of urbanization can play more important roles in the development of an ecological civilization. China needs to develop a sustainable, livable and economically vital institutional framework to facilitate the international trade and outward investment proposed in the “One Belt One Road” international cooperative initiative.
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    Connotation and Characteristics of Landscape Scale, Process and Pattern (LSPP) Research
    WANG Ranghui
    2018, 38 (4):  458-464.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.00306
    Abstract ( )   PDF (579KB) ( )   Save
    Landscape scale, process and pattern (LSPP) and their interaction are the core of landscape ecology research. Based on the analysis of landscape scale, landscape ecological process and landscape pattern, the main characteristics of the integration concept of LSPP are clarified and the coupling relationship between elements in LSPP is explored. Research shows that the integration of LSPP has certain theoretical value, and the spatial and temporal scale of landscape is the important basis of LSPP, which reflects the landscape process and its ecological effects. Landscape ecological studies in the structure, function and dynamic as well as LSPP theory and application problems, in the new era of complicated ecological environment, supported by the scene simulation technology, data mining technology, and ecological IOT technology, would promote the mechanism research and application of landscape ecology paradigm of expanding and deepening, and would have important guiding significance for the current regional development and ECC.
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    Human Disturbance of Biodiversity Conservation Areas in the Nujiang River Basin in Yunnan Province
    ZHOU Jianguo,LI Xinwang,HU Jinming,YANG Feiling,LIU Feng and QIU Cheng
    2018, 38 (4):  465-474.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003062
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    This study selected six socio-economic indicators to calculate the Human Disturbance Index (HDI) in 2005, 2010 and 2015 for towns, and then existed Nature Reserve and Priority Conservation Area (PCA) in the Nujiang River Basin in Yunnan (NRBY). We classified HDI in five levels: slight, light, moderate, severe, and extreme. Results showed since 2005, NRBY towns’ HDI overall increased; the numbers of slight and light HDI towns decreased, but moderate, severe and extreme HDI towns increased. The HDI of National, Provincial and County NRs overall increased since 2005 and separately reached light, light and moderate levels in 2015. Around or even within some NRs (Yongde Snow Mountain, Longling Xiaoheishan, Lincang Lancang River, Nanpeng River), there were some moderate or even extreme HDI towns, where human disturbances should be controlled to avoid further increase of these NRs’ HDI. The HDI of three types of PCAs in NRBY showed slow increasing and remained slight or light HDI level in 2015. According to the spatial patterns of existed NRs, PCAs, township HDI status in NRBY, we proposed three kinds of modes to optimize existed NRBY NRs’ system: establishing new NR in Biluo Snow Mountain in upstream part of NRBY, expanding existed NRs or establishing ecological corridors among the different patches of existed NRs in the downstream part of NRBY, carrying on ex-situ conservation or establish small nature reserves within the moderate or extreme HDI towns in the midstream part of NRBY.
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    Spatial Heterogeneity Change of Guangzhou Ecosystem Services Value
    HU Yinglong,CHEN Yingbiao,ZHENG Zihao,WU Zhifeng,LI Juanjuan and YANG Zhiwei
    2018, 38 (4):  475-486.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003059
    Abstract ( )   PDF (6633KB) ( )   Save
    The ecosystem maintains the material cycle, biodiversity and ecological balance on earth by providing a variety of services and benefits, which constitutes the environmental basis for human survival and development. The phenomenon that the elements and their ecological processes in the ecosystem distributes unevenly and complexly in spatial series is called "Spatial Heterogeneity", which is one of the most significant special feature for ecosystem. Ecosystem Services Value (ESV) is an important index for quantitative ecosystem services evaluation. Maintenance and conservation of ecosystem services functions is the natural environment foundation for achieving sustainable city development, but also the only way for the new urbanization. Guangzhou(GZ) will continue to be in the stage of rapid urbanization, the pressure on the coordination between the social economy and the natural ecological environment will continue to increase, the potential ecological risk and the imbalance of the ecological service function caused by the urbanization process deserve to be paid attention. Using the 2004-2016 land use classification results that acquire in supervised classification from Landsat TM/OLI images, this paper simulated the 2020 land use map by CA-Markov and built up ESV density grid of study area between 2004 and 2020 with ESV equivalent factor. A study of ESV evolvement rule of Spatial Heterogeneity in GZ with a series of spatial analysis like Getis-Ord Hot-Area Analysis and Ring Structure Analysis was conducted. The result shows that: during the study period in 2004-2020, 1) construction land in GZ has increase from 1320km2 in 2004 to about 2000km2 in2016, and estimate that it will be increase to 2 263.63 km2 in 2020, with the rapid urbanization process in over more than a recent decade, the expansion of construction land has occupied plenty of ecological land, urban built-up area of GZ has gradually developed to an urban patch with enormous area, ecological land patches has become more and more fragment; 2) the sum value of ESV have been net reduced by 9.241 billion RMB between 2004 and 2016, annually net reduced 840 million RMB, the next few years will continue to be reduced but the reduction will slow down; 3) high ESV grids have net decreased 229,about 18%,low ESV grids have net increased 218, about 46%, although ESV increase in some part of area because of ecological environment construction, it is difficult to neutralize the ESV loss caused by the rapid urbanization process; 4) the ESV decreased grids concentrated in the areas of urban expansion such as Huadu and Panyu-Nansha territory, most of the ESV rose grids located in Conghua and Zengcheng, and we predicted that a large number of ESV decreased grids will appear in Nansha; 5) the ESV evolution presents the spatial agglomeration characteristics of high and low values, the high cold grids distributed in the Huadu and Panyu-Nansha, and the high heat grids gradually become sporadic distribution from the concentration distribution in Northeast region; 6) ESV structural feature of pattern circle evolve from "low-low-medium-high" to "low-low-low-high", suburbs area and marginal area that located in urban fringe and gradually shaped the urban-rural ecotone with most prominent Spatial Heterogeneity.
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    Change and Comparison of Agricultural Landscape Patterns and Ecological Service Values in Karst and Non-Karst Areas: A Case Study of Quanzhou County
    SHI Shana,LI Xiaoqing,XIE Binggeng,HU Baoqing,TANG Chuanyong and YAN Yan
    2018, 38 (4):  487-497.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003060
    Abstract ( )   PDF (4734KB) ( )   Save
    The research area is Quanzhou county in the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region is a typical Karst Hilly Basin. Based on the theory of landscape patterns and ecosystem service values, use the results of the interpretation of TM remote sensing images and socio-economic data in 2005, 2010 and 2015, and combined with GIS and Fragstats software to analyze and compare the changes of Agricultural landscape pattern and corresponding changes of ecological service value during 2005-2015.The analysis and comparison were carried out and the results showed that: 1) From 2005 to 2015, the spatial distribution of agricultural landscape in karst and non-karst areas of Quanzhou county changed to a certain extent, with obvious changes in the central and southern regions of karst areas and relatively scattered changes in non-karst areas. In agricultural landscape, the increase of water area in non-karst area is more than twice that of karst area, but the dominant landscape types of karst and non-karst areas have not changed. In both regions, the agricultural landscape has undergone significant changes, but the rate of change in karst area is greater, indicating that the change in karst area is stronger and more significant than that in non-karst areas. 2) In the past 10 years, the area of agricultural landscape in Karst was reduced by 472.23 hm2, and the non Karst area decreased by 476.28 hm2, but the reduction rate of Karst area was higher than that of non Karst region. Compared with the non Karst area, the landscape in Karst area is more fragmented, the patch shape is more dispersed and complex, and the landscape heterogeneity is even higher. On the one hand, the change of landscape pattern in karst and non-karst areas is due to the requirements of urban construction, industry and traffic layout. On the other hand is affected by the policy, making agricultural landscape internal change. 3) In the past 10 years, the total value of ecosystem services in prefectures and counties increased continuously, but the increase was small. In addition, the value of ecosystem services was reduced by RMB 1 million in karst areas. On the contrary, District ecosystem service value it increased by RMB 4 million in the non-karst areas. It can be seen that human activities have affected both karst and non-karst areas, but the influence of karst area is larger, leads to a decrease in karst area ecosystem service value. Among them, the largest contribution rate to the decrease of service value of the two regional ecosystems is the decrease of forested land, which reaches 78% in karst area and 83% in non-karst area. During the study period, although the value of ecosystem services provided by woodland decreased, the value of ecosystem services provided by water landscape increased. The increased value of ecosystem services in the two regions is due to the increase in water landscape. Since the forestry has a decisive role in the value of the ecosystem services of the two regions, it would be helpful to improve the ecosystem services of the study area, and improve the overall value of ecosystem services in the study area.
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    Some Scientific Principle Discussions of Climate Change:Based on Climate Ethics
    LIU Xiao and WANG Zheng
    2018, 38 (4):  498-503.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003039
    Abstract ( )   PDF (615KB) ( )   Save
    Climate change has gradually been the important global issue since last twenty years. Continuous concern and active responding to the Climate Change is a common goal and mission of all human beings. But how to cope with climate change has become to be the long-lasting dispute for different ethical value and economic benefits. The way leading to win-win and consensus based on fairness and equity is not only relating to the technical developing but also the challenge of human cognition. So the global climate governance especially based on the acknowledgement of chronicity and uncertainty is our choice. The climate ethics put forward some basic discussions in religious level such as what is our bottommost value, what is the right living mode, even what is the right position or role for each nation in the climate governance, etc., but the most important of them is the consensus that each nation has corresponding responsibility, duty and justice. This paper discusses the climate ethics through four aspects: First, although economics method is the best popular one for global action and climate decision, the controversies still rise and fall: economic target is not the only one during our decision, except economic efficiency principle, we still have much more meaningful principles like fairness, happiness, etc.. Second, as for the decision making, adaptation or mitigation, even emission reduction through technical progress, any different discounting rate needs justice and equity to realize win-win, which inevitably refer to quota allocation fair and intergenerational equity discussion then to the ethics principle discussion. Third, climate simulation based on empirical study must follow strictly theoretical deduction for the further policy research because of the chronicity, complexity and hysteresis quality of the climate change. Moreover, climate simulation is so intricacy that any parameter or indicator setting is influenced by value judgment more or less. Besides these, different country or region based on different situation or condition making different carbon-taxation system,adopting different taxation or subvention, will lead to fairness discussion more than economics issues if we decide to unify the carbon-taxation criterion. So we conclude that the best solution to achieve climate governance is climate simulation based on the more and more all-sided scientific knowledge.
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    Spatial Pattern Evolution of China’s Urban TV Market Structure in the Context of Marketization: A Case Study of 30 Provincial Cities and Municipalities
    PENG Ying,WENG Shixiu and LI Lixun
    2018, 38 (4):  504-515.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003032
    Abstract ( )   PDF (39393KB) ( )   Save
    Geographical research of television is an important content of Media Geography, under the background of market reform, regional monopoly pattern in China’s urban TV market structure is facing reconstruction. Through literature review, it was found that few existing studies combine television and geographical research, less papers explore temporal and spatial characteristics of China's TV market structure in the process of marketization. Based on the review of marketization reform in TV media, this paper analyzed the spatial role of market reform and discussed the influence of geographical factors with the use of geographic information system (GIS) and SPSS Clementine. In so doing, we took 4 municipalities and 26 provincial cities as sample, summarized different types of TV market structures, used Spatial-temporal analysis as well as Standard Distance method to study its spatial distribution from 2005 to 2015, explored influencing factors by means of decision tree analysis and data mining. The results show that the spatial pattern evolution of China’s urban TV market structure is characterized by the stages of starting, promoting and deepening from 2005 to 2015. This process sees a remarkable change of spatial pattern. There are 4 major types of TV market structure in China, with the distribution of TV market structures shifting, spatial pattern transfers from North-South difference to East-West difference, and the East-West pattern is further refined in deepening period. When marketization starts, CCTV channel has strong control in north cities while local channel plays a key role in the south. As marketization promoting, cities in eastern and central are taken control by local channel while only cities in north-west under CCTV channel’s great influence. While in deepening period, TV markets in most eastern as well as central cities are of great competitive, only 9 of whose local channel keep dominant, and TV markets in western cities are controlled by external channels. Evidence also implies that the main reason affecting the spatial change of TV market structure varies and the influence of market forces takes shape. In starting period, when market force is too weak, cultural difference between north and south has major contribution to the pattern of TV market structure. Then in promoting period economic gap of eastern and western cities draws an unbalance development of TV media: the investment of cultural construction, the economic strength of television media and the level of social consumption lead to the spatial change. Finally, under the guidance of three network integration policy, Matthew effect of TV market gets aggravated in deepening period and further shapes the spatial pattern. What’s more, influenced by the development of new media and Internet, the scope of TV program dissemination is expanding, and the limit of transmission area is reducing. With the progress of science and internet technology, the number of competitive TV market structure city will continue to increase. In conclusion, the characteristic of spatial pattern of China’s urban TV market structure transforms from administrative monopoly to market-oriented, and the dominant factor of its spatial pattern translates from cultural factors to economic factors.
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    Regional Layout of Urban Stadium and Its Planning Strategies: A Case Study of Shanghai, Guangzhou, Wuhan and Urumqi
    ZENG Jianming
    2018, 38 (4):  516-524.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003038
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    This paper adopts methods of literature analysis, field investigation, and expert interview to study regional layout problem of large-scale urban stadium. Recently, in order to meet the need of urban sports events, clustered stadium buildings on large-scale are established, whose region embodies very obvious spatial hierarchy and function layout producing better economic benefit and social effect. However, due to improper layout of stadiums and gymnasiums during pre-construction planning, they would bring negative effects on urban areas and their own regional development such as narrow urban space, inefficient operation of stadiums and transportation networks congestion, etc. At present, researches on layout planning of stadiums mainly focus on design concept of stadium area, design of single stadium and design requirements of local stadium area, etc, regardless of the relationship among regional elements and the relationship between the external and the internal. They ignore combination of construction with field survey. So it is hard to reveal and summarize main problems existing in regional layout of stadiums or gymnasiums and its planning strategies. Therefore, this research selected 15 stadiums in Shanghai, Guangzhou, Wuhan, and Urumqi to be studied. Based on interviews with relevant experts, this paper analyzes and summarizes the generation, spatial features and functional layout of large stadiums and gymnasiums, including the layout design of stadiums that is not proper for regional conditions, lacking in spatial linkages between construction facilities, the cramped regional overall space, and the functional layout of construction facilities. Drawing lessons from the experience of the regional layout design of foreign stadiums, this paper proposed that the functional layout of the venue area should be rationally planned from the aspects of diversity and integrity and from the perspective of openness and integration, coordinate the development relationship between the center and the surrounding region; From the humane and hierarchical methods, the design should consider to optimize the regional traffic flow. Through the study of this article, we can further perfect the related research on the theory of city stadium area layout, and provide reference to the relevant government departments for the purpose of reasonable venues planning effectively. Furthermore, there are further values and contents to be excavated in the study on the problem in this field. The evaluation strategy of regional layout planning of stadiums and gymnasiums, the research and practice of the field abroad, and the use of advanced scientific methods to improve planning level, all need to be discussed in depth.
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    Characteristics and Factors of Shrinking Cities in Guangdong Province: A Case Study of Guancheng in Dongguan City
    FU Jiaming,LIU Yihua
    2018, 38 (4):  525-535.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003058
    Abstract ( )   PDF (6498KB) ( )   Save
    Since the 21st century, both the economy and urbanization have been flourishing but at the same time facing a problem of partial shrinkage on population in Guangdong Province, which makes the Spatio-temporal Pattern of development complicated. Therefore, a series of qualitative and quantitative methods, such as field research, qualitative interview, mathematical statistics and GIS spatial analysis, have been made to analyze the characteristic, types and factors of population shrinkage in some cities of Guangdong Province. The study in Guangdong Province shows that: from 2000 to 2010, the population in Guangdong Province was partially shrinking to a small extent and it has differentiation on space and type. What cause this phenomenon are the following factors: unbalanced regional development, transformation and updating of the industrial structure, suburbanization as well as adjustment of administrative divisions. Based on those factors, the population shrinkage in Guangdong Province can be classified into four types: partial shrinkage in peripheral area, partial shrinkage in manufactural area, partial shrinkage in central area and statistical shrinkage by adjustment of administrative divisions. Based on the mentioned results above, the following two conclusions can be drawn. On the one hand, although the mainstream is urban development and population expansion, the phenomenon of urban shrinkage, as the main characteristic of population shrinkage, is also taking placing in Guangdong Province, while its urbanization is rapid developing. On the other hand, this phenomenon of shrinkage in Guangdong has both general character (reflecting features and marketing influence) and specific character (reflecting shrinkage intensity and political system), as compared with western research. Shrinkage in central area is a typical characteristic in western shrinking cities, however, such type of studies in China has been lacking.Guancheng, as the central urban area of Dongguan in last century, has fallen into shrinkage, suffering from a gradual loss of vitality of economic development as well as loss of population. Therefore, it can be taken as a typical example to be analyzed. Studies show that its shrinkage was characterized by continuous loss of external population, sustained slowdown of economic growth as well as change in function and status of city. Under the power of subjective and objective push-pull force, population shrinkage in Guancheng resulted from the decline of the expectation of external population and labor demand. The case study of Guancheng would fill the blank of domestic research of shrinkage of central urban area. Its factors especially transformation and updating of the industrial structure would representatively reflect the changes in industrial structure of the Pearl River Delta in recent years. Yet at the same time, the characteristics of urban function transformation and urban status decline distinguish Guancheng from other shrinking cities. That is why this case study would have meaning both in theory and reality.
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    Spatial-Temporal Changes of Impervious Surface in the Guangdong-Hong Kong- Macao Greater Bay Area during 2006-2016
    FENG Shanshan,FAN Fenglei
    2018, 38 (4):  536-545.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003042
    Abstract ( )   PDF (4726KB) ( )   Save
    Impervious surface has emerged not only as an important indicator of the degree of urbanization, but also a major indicator of environmental quality, which has been considered as a significant topic in the application of urban geography and ecology. With the rapid development of urbanization and increase of impervious surface, a growing number of urban governors and environmental managers have paid attention to the distribution of impervious surfaces. This paper examines the spatial-temporal changes and its dynamics of impervious surface areas (ISA) in Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area using time series Landsat imagery from the perspective of urban geography with the supports of Remote Sensing (RS) and Geographic Information System (GIS). Linear spectral mixture analysis (LSMA) has been applied to estimate ISA, and the results of ISA were calculated by a thresholding method with impervious surface fraction >0.5. The results show that the ISA increases from 12 127.69 km2 to 20 188.87 km2 between 2006 and 2016, with an average annual growth rate of 6.65%. Meanwhile, the spatial distribution of ISA is becoming more and more concentrative. Additionally, this study reveals that the increase speed and direction of ISA and urban expansion and urban traffic have strong relationship, especially the national highway having the most prominent relationship among all of the styles of traffics. Economic development (gross domestic product, GDP) and permanent population have positive effects on increase of ISA, with correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.840 7 and 0.834 1, respectively. Furthermore, the development of stages and patterns in Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area are different. The impervious surfaces of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area have experienced significant changes in the past decades. The objective of this study is to quantify the dynamics of ISA in Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area for its sustainable urban planning and management strategy. In the future urban development, we should coordinate the expansion scope and speed of ISA in Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, avoiding the environmental problem caused by blind urban expansion.
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    Construction of Multivariate Composite Calculation Model of Soil Organic Carbon Content in Plough Horizon Based on Geodetector
    REN Xiangning,DONG Yuxiang
    2018, 38 (4):  546-556.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003063
    Abstract ( )   PDF (5368KB) ( )   Save
    The accurate calculation of organic carbon content in regional soil plough is very important for the study of global carbon cycle, but its influence factors are many, the spatial variability is stronger, and the accuracy of the existing interpolation calculation method is low. The Geodetector provides a new method of spatial differentiation and factor detection, which can effectively measure the contribution of the spatial differentiation of soil organic carbon content in plough layer. Combining the traditional Cooperative-Kriging interpolation method with the Geodetector, according to the detection results of the contribution of the geographical detector to the influencing factors, this paper constructs a multivariate composite model based on hierarchical Cooperative-Kriging to calculating regional soil organic carbon content in plough layer. The core area of the Pearl River Delta is used as the study area. Through the setting of soil plough organic carbon content interpolation set and verification set, Ordinary Kriging, Geographically weighted regression-Kriging, BP neural network model-Kriging and Multielement composite model are used to cross validation. The results showed that: 1) the spatial variation of soil organic carbon content in the core area of the Pearl River Delta is related to topography, hydrology, soil and farmland utilization, and the contribution of different factors is different, the contribution of various factors (q Statistics) is from 0.076 to 0.201, among which the contribution of soil physical and chemical properties and farmland utilization methods is greater than that of topography, hydrology. The objective difference of contribution of different factors has an important impact on the accurate estimation of soil organic carbon content. 2) On the basis of the detection of the geographic detector, the factor contribution sequence is introduced into the Multielement composite model, which inhibits the interpolation noise generated by the interference among the factors, and effectively avoids the low value overestimation or the high value underestimation. Through cross validation, the mean error (ME), mean absolute error (MAE) and root mean square error (RMSE) between the results of soil organic carbon content calculated by Multielement composite model and the validation set are less, the correlation (Pearson R) and consistency (Kappa) are higher, and the accuracy of Ordinary Kriging, Geographically weighted regression-Kriging, BP neural network model-Kriging is 16.62%, 23.86% and 37.33%, respectively, lower than that of Multielement composite model. 3) Multielement composite model fully considers the effects of structural and random factors such as topography, soil physical and chemical properties and farmland utilization on the spatial differentiation of soil organic carbon content in plough layer. It breaks through the limitation of the number of auxiliary factors in the existing algorithms, and can cooperate more auxiliary variables in the calculation of soil organic carbon content in plough layer. At the same time, by setting weights in the model, the contribution of different factors to spatial variation is reflected, the order and coordination in the process of regional soil organic carbon content are taken into account, the uncertainty is reduced, the spatial difference is depicted more meticulously and effectively reveals the spatial variability of soil organic carbon content in plough layer. The construction of Multielement composite model has made a positive exploration for further improving the prediction accuracy of soil organic carbon content in plough layer, which provides a new research idea for the study of soil organic carbon in plough layer with strong variation characteristics under complex geographical environment.
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    Large Aquatic Plants Survey and Evaluation of Carbon Sequestration of the Banzhai Underground River
    XIONG Zhibin,WANG Wanhai,YU Ping,YU Shi
    2018, 38 (4):  557-564.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003041
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    In order to further study the species and carbon sequestration potential of aquatic plants in the subterranean stream basin of the Banzhai, species identification and dominant aquatic species identification were carried out in the basin during the period of high plant growth and end of growth from 2014 to 2016. The results showed that: 1) There were 28 families, 35 genera and 41 species of aquatic macrophyte in this underground river. According to the economic value, 33 species were edible, 6 species could be used as medicine, and 20 species were ornamental, which had great economic development potential. 2) Hydrilla verticillata, bamboo leaf pondweed (Potamogeton malaianus), Potamogetonpusillus (Potamogeton pusillus), Chara vulgaris(Chara vulgaris L.) and Ceratophyllum demersum were the dominant species, the biomass of them were 136.70, 225.00, 16.00, 172.00 and 17.00 g/m2, respectively. 3) Regarding the contribution to karst carbon sink, Potamogeton malaianus made the biggest part, which was 111.83 g C/(a·m2), while that of Potamogeton pusillus the minimum, 7.95 g C/(a·m2). 4) The average utilization rate of activated carbon in the underground river aquatic plants in the Banzhai was 23.21%, about 23.21% of was fixed by aquatic plants in the annual loss of inorganic carbon from the outlet to the downstream of the Banzhai Underground River. The fixed carbon content was 14.39 gC/(a·m2), indicating that the combination of photosynthesis and karstification of aquatic plants showed great potential for carbon sequestration.
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    Calculation and Drawing of Probability Accumulation Curves Using Origin
    FENG Jing,WANG Wei
    2018, 38 (4):  565-574.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003043
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    The dynamical conditions of transport and deposition of sedimentary materials are usually inferred from their grain size, which is a fundamental property of the materials and may tell us much about the origins and history of the materials. Moment technique and graphical technique are the two principal methods to calculate grain size parameters for sedimentary analysis. In using the moment technique, calculation of the grain size parameters can be handled automatically with the help of computers, while in using the graphical technique the probabilistic cumulative frequency curve of a sedimentary sample has to be artificially drawn in?advance to obtain percentiles of the sample’s grain size distribution that are used to calculate the grain size parameters. Thus artificial drawing is a hard and time consuming work and is not beneficial to data in large batch processing. However, the difference in the grain size characteristics of the sediment samples from different sedimentary environments could be clearly shown in the probabilistic cumulative frequency curves with sub-population linear segments and the curves are widely used in sedimentary analysis. Therefore, drawing of the probabilistic cumulative frequency curves is an essential technique in sedimentary analysis even it is a troublesome job. The general calculating software, Origin, has very powerful functions for calculation and graphic drawing. It not only can calculate the particle size parameters by opening the embedded Excel Data Sheets that contain the grain size data and operate the data in batches, but also can directly draw grain size frequency distribution curves and probabilistic cumulative grain size curves with the linear sub-population segments simultaneously. The operation process for calculating the grain size parameters and drawing the cumulative curves in Origin is very easy and the whole process is simply to execute the menu command by mouse clicks without any programming. It is very suitable for analyzers, especially for those who have no coding skills, to analyze the data of particle size in sedimentary studies and thus has great application value. In this paper, we present an example in which a step by step guide to calculating the grain size parameters and drawing probabilistic cumulative grain size curves with the linear sub-population segments using Origin was carried out. Ten loose sediment samples, which were taken from different depositional environments in China, were selected for the calculation and drawing. The samples included beach sand, coastal wind sand, inland wind sand, river sand, lagoon sediment, old red sand and loess. The values of the percentiles and the grain size parameters obtained by this way were compared with the values that were calculated by artificial drawing. The comparison showed that the results calculated using Origin were very close to those calculated by the artificial method. The difference in values (absolute value average) between the two methods calculated from a single sample or all of the samples ranged from 0.003 7 to 0.013 3 with variances from 0.004 2 to 0.018 6. The comparison indicates that we can completely replace the artificial graphic technique with the calculation using Origin in grain size analysis.
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    Climate and Human Disturbance Changes since the Late Tang Dynasty in the Karst Area of Liuzhou,Guangxi
    ZHAO Zengyou,SHI Shengqiang,YIN Jianjun,ZHANG Chunsheng,DAI Wen,QIN Qu
    2018, 38 (4):  575-585.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003064
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    Medieval Warm Period and Little Ice Age are important climatic events in the last two millenniums. To clarify the characteristics of dry and wet changes in low latitudes and its influence on the development of ancient agriculture and population growth is of great significance. A 60cm continuous cave-sedimental core from Liuzhou, Guangxi province, Southwest China, based on palynological investigation, has revealed that since the 875a A.D., climate and human activities of the research area has undergone six stages:875a A.D.- 940a A.D., the pollen and C/P index both indicated drought event,meanwhile the rice cultivation gradually dropped. The population of the research region was poorly recorded after Late Tang Dynasty. 940a A.D.-1050a A.D., with the climate gradually transferring to humid,the rice cultivation generally developed, and so did the population. 1050a A.D.-1140a A.D., the C/P index pollen record and the stalagmite δ18O all referred this stage as a relatively dry climate, while the rice cultivation and population was similar with prior stage. 1140a A.D.-1370a A.D., Medieval Warm Period, the C/P and Cyperaceae pollen percentage was high, and the high rice pollen and low arboreal pollen also revealed strengthened human disturbance. The historical record indicated that the population of the research area grew quickly in this period. 1370a A.D.-1900a A.D.,Little Ice Age, the climate was drying and cooling, indicated by pollen analysis, which affected the rice cultivation, and the population reduced continuously. 1900a A.D.-2009a A.D. the climate recovered and the rice cultivation area expanded. The result also shows that the climate extremes have a strong corresponds with rice-cultivating and population:during Medieval Warm Period, climate was warm and humid which contributed to the growth of rice-cultivating and population, while in LIA, cold and dry climate decreased the population and the area of rice cultivation. When the Cyperaceae pollen is not local deposit, Cyperaceae pollen percentage and C/P, which are sensitive to moisture, can be used to indicate dry and wet climate changes.
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    Tourism Gentrification in Historic District Renovation: A Case Study of LingnanTiandi,Foshan
    CHANG Jiang,XIE Dixiang,CHEN Hongsheng,CHEN Huiqi
    2018, 38 (4):  586-597.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003040
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    Urban regeneration, based on the development of culture tourism and culture heritage reuse, has become fashionable in China over the recent years. Local governments hope to improve their city’s image through showing their unique local features and hope to satisfy the demands of the emerging middle-class boosting the vitality of the inner city through cultural heritage renovation. The phenomenon, however, has led to a series of gentrification phenomena across big cities, such as Nanluoguxiang in Beijing, Xindianti in Shanghai, and Kuanzhai Xiangzi in Chengdu. In Foshan, under the guidance of government and investment of capital, the regeneration of Zumiao & Donghuali historical district (later known as LingnanTiandi) made this community one of the most important tourism attractions and recreation business districts (RBD) within four years. While the updated physical landscape has significantly attracted tourists and promoted the local economies, the social impacts of these projects have not been well-studied. We first reviewed the tourism gentrification literature, arguing that while there are numerous studies focusing on the mechanisms of tourism gentrification in China, few has emphasized the social impacts of gentrification. In fact, the original residents, especially the underprivileged, have little power to resist gentrification and have experienced complicated emotional changes. Their emotional reactions towards displacement, loss of social ties, and loss of sense of place require much more attention. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, this study investigated the gentrification of Lingnan Tiandi, Foshan, examining the social and physical dimensions of the regeneration project. We conducted 19 in-depth interviews with different actors during gentrification in Lingnan Tiandi, including original residents, new-coming residents, residents nearby, tourists, shop managers, real estate agencies, and developers. In an investigation of the socio-economic status of Lingnan Tiandi consumers, we collected questionnaires from 222 tourists to identify their socio-economic characteristics. In addition, both participant and non-participant observation are used during our three fieldworks. The sentiments of the original residents are analyzed, with special attention focus on the underprivileged who were directly affected by the regeneration project. The changes of social class, physical environment, and consumption patterns indicated that gentrification was happening in LingnanTiandi with the reinvestment of capital, social upgrading of locale, landscape change, and direct displacement of low-income groups. We found that the physical environment has accelerated the social displacement, as Lingnan Tiandi is being increasingly rebranded for tourists, middle-class consumers, and real estate investors. Although tourism gentrification may help protect the historical heritage and promote the cultural and economic development, it has led to a serious social and spatial exclusion. The residents who lived in Lingnan Tiandi for generations have been forced to move out as the “living spaces” have been transformed into “capital spaces” and “consumption spaces”. From ambivalent to lonely, from regret to pride, residents’ sentiment underwent complex changes in the process of gentrification. We argue that unlike the common urban renewal in Chinese cities, the historic district renovation is crucial to urban culture, history, and resident’s wellbeing. Therefore, resident’s emotions and historical memories should be respected in a localized way during history district renovation.
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