Table of Content

    30 November 2018, Volume 38 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    A Visual Analysis on the Urban Open Spaces: With an Eye-tracking Experiment on the Case Study of the Flower City Square, Guangzhou
    WANG Min, WANG Yingxu, HUANG Haiyan, TIAN Yinsheng
    2018, 38 (6):  741-750.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003081
    Abstract ( )   PDF (16696KB) ( )   Save

    Based on the case of the Flower City Square in Guangzhou, this research is dedicated to analyze the spatial perception of the Square through the visual methodologies of cognitive map, photo shooting and eye-tracking experiment. The research results are as follows: 1) Through the analysis of the cognitive map and the data of eye-tracking experiment, the consistency of elements appeared in the cognitive map with high frequency and the elements that attract the participants in the eye-tracking experiment can be found. In this case, it can also be found that the buildings, boundaries, places and areas of the Flower City Square were the most interesting factors for participants, which had a shorter first fixation time in eye-tracking experiments and appeared more frequently in cognitive maps; 2) By analyzing the hotspot graph of fixation point and time, some suggestions on urban planning and design can be proposed: the reasonable combination of buildings, structures, installations and sites should be emphasized during the process of city open space planning, and more attention should be paid to spatial hierarchy, space order and place construction. In addition, the use of neuroscience research methods such as photography and eye-tracking experiments can provide new prospective for public participation in urban open space planning and design.

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    Spatial Rough Association Rules Method from the Perspective of Urban Computing
    LIAO Weihua, NIE Xin
    2018, 38 (6):  751-758.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003087
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    With the rapid development of E-commerce and smart city in china, it produces the explosive growth of the urban data. These data is an important data source for urban calculation. This study introduced rough sets to compute urban service entities with spatial reference coordinates. This study has done following studies in this paper. 1) It got distance near table in a given distance value for every spatial urban service entities, then related spatial entities table with distance near table. Then it got every spatial near entities of urban service and spatial urban service transaction database. 2) It got information decision table from spatial transaction database using SQL technology. It used every urban service name as attribute name in decision table. It used any service as decision attribute, others as conditional attribute, then it can get spatial association rules for this decision service and others’ service. 3) It got attribute core and attribute reduction of spatial decision attribute using rough sets concept and method, then got spatial urban service association rules based on its reduction. The main contributions of this study are as follows: 1) By introducing rough sets, the complex geospatial association problem is transformed into information decision problem, and the spatial association and other topological relations between urban entities are calculated in the information decision table. The calculation process and results can mine the spatial aggregation and association problems between urban industries. 2) Attribute kernel can reduce the dimension of high-dimensional spatial data and find the important factors affecting spatial association. 3) Broaden the theoretical methods of urban computing and the application of rough set method. Through Nanning City service industry data from Python crawling to verify the method, the results of the calculation to the mature Apriori algorithm results, as well as the actual situation of Nanning City service industry spatial association is basically consistent, proving the feasibility and correctness of the rough spatial association method.

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    Features and Influencing Factors of Energy-related Carbon Emissions in Mega City: A Case Study of Guangzhou
    WANG Changjian, ZHANG Hong’ou, WANG Fei, YE Yuyao, WU Kangmin, XU Qian, DU Zhiwei
    2018, 38 (6):  759-770.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003078
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    Cities are the main sources of carbon emissions throughout the world, which are also the major components in the implementation of carbon mitigation measures. Examining and understanding the features and drivers of carbon emissions in cities is considered a fundamental step for implementing “low carbon city” strategies and actions. Based on the apparent energy consumption data, a systematic and comprehensive city-level total carbon accounting approach was established and applied in Guangzhou City. A newly extended LMDI method based on the Kaya identity was adopted to examine the main drivers for carbon emissions increments both at the industrial sectors and the residential sectors. Economic, population and energy data were collected from the Guangdong Province Statistical Yearbook (2004-2014) and Guangzhou City Statistical Yearbook (2004-2014). The main contribution of our paper is providing an in depth analysis of energy-related carbon emissions at city level considering multiple factors in regional China. This paper also provides temporal variations in the influence factors of carbon emission over a period between 2003 and 2013. Research results show that coal consumption was still the main contributor to energy-related carbon emissions during the whole research period, while oil consumption played relatively important and positive effect on energy consumption structure optimization and carbon emissions mitigation. In addition, imported electricity played an important role in the energy consumption system in Guangzhou. Manufacturing industries and service industries were the main carbon emitting sectors in Guangzhou during the period from 2003 to 2014. Contributions of manufacturing industries for carbon emissions decreased gradually, while contributions of service industries for carbon emissions performed an increasing trend in recent years. The influences and impacts of various driving factors on industrial and residential carbon emissions are different in the three different development periods, namely, the 10th five-year plan period (2003-2005), the 11th five-year plan period (2005-2010), and the 12th five-year plan period (2010-2013). Affluence effect was the dominant positive effect in driving emissions increase, while energy intensity effect of production, economic structure effect and carbon intensity effect of production were the main contributing factors suppressing emissions growth at the industrial sector. Affluence effect of urban areas was the most dominant positive driving factor on emissions increment, while energy intensity effect of urban areas played the most important role in curbing emissions growth at the residential sector. Solving these issues effectively will be of great help for Guangzhou’s sustainable development.
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    Spatial Differentiation of Urban Tourism Satisfaction in China Based on Tourism Big Data
    CAO Xiaoshu, LIU Dan
    2018, 38 (6):  771-778.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003086
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    The unique nature of tourism activities determines that tourism cannot leave traffic alone, especially urban tourism, and the choice of more ways of transportation makes it possible for urban self-help tourism. Tourism traffic is also important for the sustainable development of urban tourism. Satisfaction of tourism traffic is an important factor to determine the overall satisfaction of the destination, and can significantly affect the willingness of tourists to revisit. Investigation and research to that can guide the construction and improvement of urban tourism traffic, and promote the development of urban tourism. Compared with the traditional questionnaire data, the use of large tourist data to study tourist traffic satisfaction can solve the problems of small research area and inaccurate sampling of data. This method can reflect the satisfaction of tourism traffic in a large area, and the difference in the small area, which is of great significance for the planning and development of tourism traffic. This paper, through the screening of the captured network tourism reviews, uses text analysis techniques such as word matching and emotion discrimination to judge the emotional tendency of each comment, and constructs the emotional index of each city to represent its non-negative rating through the model, which is the tourist satisfaction. Finally, we use geodetector and correlation analysis to explore the spatial differentiation of urban tourism traffic satisfaction and the mechanism that influences its differentiation. The research shows that: 1) The tourist satisfaction degree of urban tourism traffic in mainland China has little difference in the region, and the difference is significant between provinces and cities. 2) The spatial difference of urban tourism traffic evaluation is mainly affected by the level of transport development. 3) There is a negative correlation between urban tourism traffic satisfaction and urban congestion index, and there is a positive correlation with urban road density, and there is no significant correlation with the factors such as the subway and the civil aviation airport. Therefore, due to the impact of urban traffic congestion, the traffic satisfaction of big cities and megacities is not high. 4) According to the satisfaction of urban tourism traffic and the level of traffic development, the national cities are divided into 4 categories: the A category is double index medium level Balanced Development Zone, the B category is double index low level Balanced Development Zone, the C category is the priority development zone of tourist traffic satisfaction, and the D category is the lagging development zone of tourist traffic satisfaction.
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    An Empirical Study on the Factors Influencing the Location of Theme Parks in China
    ZUO Bing, LU Jiamin
    2018, 38 (6):  781-790.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003092
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    Theme park has gradually evolved into a major type of tourist attraction. Location as a decisive factor for the success of theme parks has been strongly emphasized in the literature, yet the factors that influence the location of the theme parks are not well-explained because of the limitation of case study. For this purpose, a new, simple method analogy to Mata analysis is used to identify the key factors for a theme park to be successful. Then, a principal component analysis and stepwise regression are applied to empirically evaluate the validity and significance of the key factors. The study finds that: 1) The level of economic development and doing business environments are the important factors that decide the location of Chinese theme parks. The combination of the two interprets 57.6% of the location of theme parks. The regional economic level (GDP) is one of the decisive factors. The government governance capacity and institutional performance are another, which have the same degree of impact on the location of theme parks. It highlights the importance of the doing business environments in promoting the investment in a government-led development economy; 2) The location of Chinese theme parks is market-oriented with a high degree of spatial agglomeration. They like to cluster together for the sake of agglomeration effects, hence are spatially clustering in the three relatively developed areas of the Bohai Rim Region, the Yangtze River delta and the Pearl River delta in China; 3) The Chinese theme parks are increasingly influenced by the operational costs, such as land prices and wages. Some small-size theme parks search either for spillover effects of the large-size theme parks or for the niche market in order to evade competition; 4) The influence of the tourists perceived image of a destination on the location of theme parks begins to decrease. In the future, the impact of economic development and doing business environments will become more prominent to the location of theme parks. In conclusion, the study finds three major factors that determine the location of the Chinese theme parks, i.e. the economic development level, the doing business environments, and the operational cost of the theme parks.. Hence, for governments who want to attract more private venture capital for the development of tourism, it is imperative to improve working efficiency and provide good public services for investors and residents. With the continuous reformation and development of China, the doing business environments in China will become more and more optimized. Factors affecting the location of the theme park will also change accordingly. The success of theme parks will depend more on its core competitiveness, brand influence, cultural connotation and service quality.

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    Spatio-temporal Patterns and Driving Factors of Urban Population Density Change of Prefecture-level Cities in China during 2006-2016
    DU Chunmeng, JIAO Limin, XU Gang
    2018, 38 (6):  791-798.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003080
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    When the rate of land expansion was faster than that of population growth, the overall population density would decrease in urban built-up areas. Studying the law of urban population density change in built-up areas is of great significance for the decision-making of national land safety and urbanization health development. Based on the data of the urban resident population and built-up areas in 285 cities in China during 2006-2016, this paper analyzes the temporal trends and spatial distribution of urban population density in Chinese cities, and explains the drivers of urban population density changes. The results show that: 1) The average population density within the built-up area in China decreased from 10 845 person/km2 in 2006 to 8 279 person/km2 in 2016, with an average annual decreasing rate of 2.66%. 2) The urban population density decreased in more than 5/6 cities, while there was a significant difference of the changing rate of population density among cities. Cities with rapidly decreased, moderately decreased, slowly decreased, and increased population density accounted for 13.3%, 30.5%, 41.1% and 15.1%, respectively. 3) Cities, experiencing rapidly decreased population density were mainly distributed in Eastern China. Cities with moderately decreased and slowly decreased population density were mainly distributed in the Central China. Cities with fast inflow of population experienced an increase of urban population density, such as Beijing, Shanghai, and Shenzhen. We also found that urban population density increased in some small cities with slow development of economy. 4) Economic development level, city scale, location factor and urban development policy are the main driving factors of population density change.
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    Types, Characteristics and Tendency of County-level Administrative Division Adjustment in China since 2000
    WU Jianmin,DING Jianghui
    2018, 38 (6):  799-809.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003079
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    The adjustment of administrative divisions at county-level is an important manifestation of national spatial governance. This thesis mainly reviews 631 cases of county-level administrative divisions adjustment in China from 2000 to 2016, and summarizes the main types of county administrative division adjustment, including turning counties (cities) into districts, turning counties into cities, the combination of the administrative districts, the establishment of the administrative districts, boundary adjustment, affiliated change and institutional upgrading. This part of research shows that the type of changes implies a profound socioeconomic context and specific needs. The charts and diagrams analyze the temporal-spatial distribution characteristics of the county-level administrative division adjustment of various types and quantities, which is characterized by the combination of time concentration and spatial aggregation. It is found that the content and direction of the administrative divisions’ adjustment at county-level will change along with the different strategic orientations of different countries or regions. Through the adjustment of county-level administrative divisions, the number of county-level cities has been increased, the scale and space of urban areas in large cities have been expanded, the spatial resources of urban internal areas have been reorganized, and the spatial structure of administrative districts has been upgraded. Based on the spatial management, this paper argues that the adjustment of county-level administrative divisions is of great significance in the national spatial governance and optimization of economic and social development. It is essentially to establish a more complete system and spatial foundation for the modernization of state governance. On the tendency of development, it is believed that the study of the relationship between the adjustment of county-level administrative divisions and national strategy and regional development, and the research of implicit logic from the exploration process of the county-level administrative division reconstruction will become a hot spot. The adjustment and optimization of county-level administrative divisions are basically carried out in accordance with the requirements of urbanization, regional development, border governance and ethnic regional development. According to the research, this paper aims to provide a reference for the reform of county-level administrative divisions in China, and to provide ideas for improving the type structure of county-level administrative divisions and optimizing spatial distribution. Through the research, it can also provide basic support for promoting the study of the modernization of state governance and optimizing the set of county-level administrative divisions.

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    Variations in Grey Scale of a Stalagmite from Lianhua Cave, Hunan and Its Paleoclimatic Implications during the Mid-late Holocene
    ZHANG Huiling, YIN Jianjun1, LIN Yushi
    2018, 38 (6):  810-818.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003090
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    Based on 42 230Th ages, the results of X-ray diffraction analysis and the grey values of the polishing profile of an aragonite stalagmite, named LH2, which was collected from Lianhua Cave, this paper established the grey scale time series of aragonite stalagmites during the mid-late Holocene in western Hunan. During the mid-late Holocene, the average grey scale value of stalagmite LH2 was 185.7, the maximum was 218 and the minimum was 116. The average grey scale resolution of stalagmite LH2 was 4a and the resolution of grey scale could reach 2a in some time intervals. In general, the change pattern of grey scale of stalagmite LH2 imitated the change of solar radiation at 30°N in summer during the mid-late Holocene. Since 8.6 ka B.P., the amount of summer solar radiation in north Hemisphere has decreased gradually and the grey scale values of stalagmite LH2 decreased synchronously. During the mid-late Holocene, the grey scale of stalagmite LH2 significantly inversely correlated with its 18O values, but positively correlated with its growth rate. Although the grey scale of stalagmite LH2 followed that of summer insolation, it was punctuated by eight low grey scale events lasting about 1~5 centuries occurred at 8.1, 7.2, 5.7, 5.0, 3.7, 2.8, 2.1 and 1.4 ka B.P.. Some research suggest that the cause of the grey scale change of stalagmites was different in different cave. As for Lianghua Cave, Gray values of stalagmite LH2’s polishing profile might relate to crystalline forms of aragonite which were controlled by rainfall and temperature in western Hunan province. During the mid-late Holocene (8.6-0.03 ka B.P.), the history of climate in western Hunan could be divided into three stages. From 8.6 ka B.P. to 5.7 ka B.P., the overall level of gray value was higher, the oxygen isotope value was more negative and the growth rate of stalagmite was higher. The climate was characterized by high temperature and heavy rain, the summer monsoon was strong. From 5.7 ka B.P. to 2.8 ka B.P., the gray values decreased gradually, the oxygen stable isotope values became heavier and the growth rate of stalagmite reduced progressively, which indicated the summer monsoon weakened continuously and the climate turned from warm-wet to cold-dry gradually. From 2.8 ka B.P. to 0.03 ka B.P., the overall level of gray value was lower and fluctuated violently. Meanwhile, the oxygen stable isotope value was heavier and the growth rate of stalagmite was lower and fluctuated strongly. It indicated the climate was cold and dry and existed warm-wet fluctuations. On orbital timescale, variations of gray values of stalagmite LH2 were controlled by the summer insolation in Northern Hemisphere and the location of ITCZ. On centennial timescale, abrupt change of gray values of stalagmite LH2 might relate to ice raft events occurred in the North Atlantic Ocean. When North Atlantic ice raft events occurred, the East Asian summer monsoon weakened, the climate was cold and dry in the western Hunan, and the grey scale of stalagmite LH2 decreased. On inter-decadal scale, solar activity and PDO might regulate gray values of stalagmite LH2. On inter-annual timescale, fluctuations of gray values might be driven by ENSO.
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    The Response and Adaptation of Chinese Human Activities to the Last Glacial Maximum
    HOU Guangliang, XU Changjun, LAN Cuozhuoma, ZHU Yan
    2018, 38 (6):  819-827.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003089
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    LGM is a typical form of extreme dry and cold in environmental evolution. China is one of the most concentrated and continuous areas of human activity in the world. It is of great scientific significance to study the response and adaptation of Chinese human beings to LGM. Climate deterioration During the LGM period, all areas of China were drastically cooled and the cooling rate increased from south to north. The average temperature in the central and northern regions is 8~10°C below the current temperature. Precipitation is generally reduced, the average annual precipitation in the north only 30%~40%. Precipitation in the south of the Yangtze River is only 60%~80% of the modern precipitation. Due to the deterioration of the climate, resulting in decreased vegetation NPP and resource density also decreased. Human activities in northern China are rapidly weakening, and the number of sites is significantly reduced compared with MIS3 and PG periods. At the same time, hunting has developed a more frequent, more mobile behavior model. During the LGM period, China's natural belt moved south as a whole. At that time the sites were mainly distributed in the temperate grasslands of the north of China and south of the Loess Plateau, and the northeastern temperate forest-grassland. At the same time, natural bands, mammoth fauna and Siberian populations migrate southward, accompanied by the microlithic technology suitable for the grassland environment. The rapid spread of microlithic technology in northern China is an important manifestation of the adjustment and adaptation of LGM’s deteriorating environment in northern China. To adapt to the LGM period of China’s Yangtze River in the middle and lower reaches of the cold and humid environment and invented the pottery. This is the southern region in the LGM period to deepen the resources and expand the specific embodiment of resources. However, the spread of pottery in East Asia is closely related to the environmental events such as the extrapolation of the LGM coastline.
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    Response of Crop Yield to Climate Changes in India during 1950-2014
    2018, 38 (6):  828-835.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003091
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    Using the ground measurements of crop yield and instrumental climate data during 1950-2014, we studied the responses of crop yield to inter-annual climate variability and to climate change trend within decade. The results demonstrate that inter-annual crop yield variability was positively correlated with precipitation (P) and rainfall days (Rd). There were correlation coefficients of 0.35 (P<0.10) and 0.24 (P<0.10) between wheat yield (Wy) and P and Rd, respectively. The correlation coefficients were all 0.32 (P<0.05) between rice yield (Ry) and P and Rd. However, the inter-annual crop yield variability was negatively correlated with temperature (T) and Potential Evapotranspiration (PE). Between Wy and T, PE, there were correlation coefficients of -0.32 (P<0.05) and -0.41 (P<0.001), respectively; and, for the Ry, the correlation coefficients were -0.26 (P<0.05) and -0.33 (P<0.01), respectively. In the sights of climate change trend within decade, the national mean crop yield exhibited a decreasing trend during 1996-2005, during which the climate changes were characterized by drying and warming trend. Moreover, the spatial variability of crop yield changes was correlated with that of climate changes. The spatial variability of Ry changes was positively correlated with that of P and Rd changes (R=0.24, P<0.001; R=0.11, P<0.05), respectively and were negatively positively correlated with that of T and PE changes (R=-0.13, P<0.01; R=-0.33, P<0.001). The spatial variability of Wy changes was as well as positively correlated with that of P changes (R=0.18, P<0.001) and was negatively correlated with that of PE changes (R=-0.12, P<0.05). Abovementioned findings suggest that moisture is the dominant meteorology factor that determines the variations of crop yield in India. Even though India has developed agriculture irrigation infrastructure, crop yield would be below normal as a response to the climate conditions of less moisture and higher temperature.
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    Comparison of Heavy-metal Pollutions, Accumulation and Transfer Capacity between Artificial and Natural Mangroves in the Hainan Island
    QIU Penghua, WANG Dezhi, XIE Genzong, XU Songjun, CAO Rui1 WANG Junguang
    2018, 38 (6):  836-847.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003083
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    The Muller indices, potential ecological hazard coefficients, biological accumulating coefficients (BAC) and the biological transfer coefficients (BTC) of 6 heavy metals (Cd, As, Cu, Cr, Pb and Zn) are compared between artificial and natural mangroves in mangrove nature reserves of Dongzhaigang, Qinglangang, and Sanya River, in Hainan Island. The results show that: 1) In the mangrove sediments of the study area, Cd has the higher intensity - extreme intensity pollution, As is moderate-intensity pollution, Cr is basically moderate pollution, Zn is mild pollution, Cu and Pb show no or slight pollution. In spatial distribution, the pollution of Cd is shown as: Dongzhaigang (intensity-extreme intensity) > Qinglangang (intensity) > Sanya River (pollution-free), the pollution of As is as follows: Qinglangang (moderate - intensity) > Dongzhaigang (moderate - intensity) > Sanya River (moderate); and the pollution of Cr is Dongzhaigang (moderate) > Qinglangang (mild) > Sanya River (no pollution). 2) The values (the potential ecological hazard coefficients of a single heavy metal) of Cd in artificial Sonneratiaapetala, natural Avicennia marina, artificial and natural Aegicerascorniculatum, artificial and natural Bruguierasexangula of Dongzhaigang are strong potential ecological risk, while the values of Cd in natural Rhizophoraapiculata Blume of Dongzhaigang and Qinglangang,artificial Sonneratiaapetala and natural Sonneratia alba of Qinglangang belong to medium potential ecological risk. The values of residual mangrove plants and RI values (the total potential ecological risk index of heavy metals) of all mangrove plants are all of slight grade. Generally speaking, it seems that Cd, As, Pb and Cr are more likely to cause health risks of Bruguierasexangula, Sonneratiaapetala and Aegicerascorniculatum. 3) The BAC of 6 heavy metals in artificial and natural mangrove plants show: root > branch > leaf, and the general trend of BAC is the artificial mangrove of Sanya River > the natural mangrove of Sanya River > the natural mangrove of Qinglangang > the natural mangrove of Dongzhaigang > the artificial mangrove of Qinglangang > the artificial mangrove of Dongzhaigang. 4) The BTC of heavy metals in artificial and natural mangrove are leaf-branch > branch-root > leaf-root, and the general trend of BTC is the artificial mangrove of Sanya River > the natural mangrove of Sanya River > the natural mangrove of Dongzhaigang > the artificial mangrove of Dongzhaigang > the natural mangrove of Qinglangang > the artificial mangrove of Qinglangang. 5) There is a significant positive correlation in heavy metal contents between mangrove plants and the sediments under the plants. This indicates that controlling the heavy metal content and exogenous pollution of the sediments is an important and effective way to maintain the health of the mangrove wetland ecosystem. 6) The ability of mangrove plants to accumulate heavy metals in the same area is slightly stronger than that in natural forests. That may be related to the afforestation environment and human disturbance of artificial mangrove forestation.
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    Distribution of Synthetic Musks in the Sewage Streams and Wastewater Treatment Plants of Zhongshan City
    LIU Zufa, FU Xuelian, CHENG Yuran, CHEN Jichen, ZHUO Wenshan1b, LIANG Liaofeng
    2018, 38 (6):  848-856.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003085
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    Water samples were collected from 48 main sewage streams and each process of 2 wastewater treatment plants in 5 regions of Zhongshan City. This study used Solid Phase MicroExtraction (SPME) for pretreatment and combined with Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) technique to detect the contents of three synthetic musks in the water samples. The three synthetic musks are Galaxolide (HHCB), Tonalide (AHTN) and Musk Ketone (MK). And the distribution characteristics of them were analyzed, as well as the change law of their concentrations along the water treatment processes of wastewater treatment plants, which had certain reference value for understanding the distribution of synthetic musks in sewage streams. The results showed: 1) Synthetic musks had been widely found in the sewage streams of Zhongshan City. Among them, the total contents of synthetic musks in 4 sewage streams, such as Yanqi Stream and Kuikui Stream, all exceeded 500 ng/L. The total contents of synthetic musks in 8 sewage streams, such as Huangpu Stream and Hengli Stream, were in the range of 200 – 500 ng/L. The total contents of synthetic musks in the remaining 36 sewage streams, such as Sulie Stream and Shijun Stream, were less than 200 ng/L. The total contents of synthetic musks from sewage streams in the Western and Southern regions of Zhongshan City were relatively the lowest as compared with other regions, due to their proximity to the outer river channels which could dilute and migrate pollutants, including synthetic musks. The Central Region also had low concentrations of synthetic musks in the sewage streams, which could be explained by that there were many wastewater treatment plants and the sewage collection rate was higher than that in other regions. 2) The major synthetic musk of different sewage streams was different. The main synthetic musk was HHCB, which accounted for more than 50% of total synthetic musks content in 28 sewage streams, such as Yanqi Stream and Kuikui Stream. The main synthetic musk was MK, which also accounted for more than 50% of total synthetic musks content in 13 sewage streams, such as Yilie Stream and Wusha Stream. And the main synthetic musks were HHCB and MK, which accounted for more than 35% of total synthetic musks content respectively in the other 7 sewage streams, such as Sulie Stream and Shijun Stream. 3) The Oxidation Ditch Process and Anaerobic/Anoxic/Oxic (A2/O) Process both could produce a certain removal effect on synthetic musks, due to activated sludge adsorption and microbial metabolic decomposition. In Wastewater Treatment Plant A, the ultimate removal rates of HHCB, AHTN and MK were 86.94%, 72.15% and 89.36%, respectively. In Wastewater Treatment Plant B, the ultimate removal rates of HHCB, AHTN and MK were 82.09%, 85.73% and 87.90%, respectively. 4) The secondary sedimentation tank of these two wastewater treatment plants and ultraviolet disinfection of Wastewater Treatment Plant A could produce further removal effects on synthetic musks. Both Wastewater Treatment Plant A and B could produce a higher removal rate on MK than HHCB and AHTN, which could be due to that MK contained nitrogen element and had a better removal effect.
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    Hydrogen and Oxygen Stable Isotope Study on the Difference of Evaporation between Salt and Pure Water
    LI Tong, QIU Guoyu
    2018, 38 (6):  857-865.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003084
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    Water evaporation is an essential part in the water cycle. However, a large amount of research focuses on freshwater or low salinity-saltwater bodies. It is inaccurate to apply the evaporation characteristics or estimation methods of freshwater to all the water bodies. Studying the difference of evaporation between salt water and pure water is crucial to the study of the mechanism of evaporation process and the promotion of innovation in evaporation models. In this study, evaporation pan was used to observe the process of salt and pure water evaporation, and steady-state hydrogen isotopes and oxygen isotopes were used to compare the kinetic fractionation in salt and pure water evaporation. The results show: evaporation of salt water reduced compared with pure water, but the daily variation pattern was consistent with the temperature daily change and reached the maximum evaporate rate around noon. Heavy isotopes were enriched in the liquid phase as water evaporated and salinity significantly suppressed H/D fractionation. The evaporation line of pure water and salt water both had a good linear relationship. The salt caused stronger non-equilibrium fractionation. The thermal infrared imaging observed that the temperature of the brine surface was always higher than that of pure water by 0.1 ~ 2.2°C with an average temperature difference of 1°C, this was because evaporation of salt water was smaller than that of pure water and less heat was released by latent heat. The isotopes of evaporative water vapor calculated through Craig & Gordon model indicated that the heavy isotopes of evaporation water vapor were continuously enriched, but not that strong compared to the remaining water. There is no significant difference between the equations for the hydrogen and oxygen isotopes of water vapor in pure and salt water, that is contrary to the above conclusions, indicating that the application of this equation at small scale deserves further study.
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    Remote Sensing Classification System of Land Use and Land Cover for Global Coastal Zone Considering Fine Classification of Wetlands
    HOU Wan, HOU Xiyong
    2018, 38 (6):  866-873.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003088
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    Land use and land cover (LULC) classification is the important foundation for research on global changes, while establishing a scientific LULC classification system is the fundamental question for research on LULC changes, which is in need of being solved at first. It can influence the expressive methods of classification results, determine the research purposes and application areas of classification product. The existing LULC classification systems on regional or global scales place emphasis on monitoring and research in land areas, while several coastal LULC classification systems on national scale show specific pertinence and teleonomy. It is lack of universality of LULC categories in the global coastal zone, especially in the classification of coastal wetlands. In view of the significant diversity of LULC categories and a lack of LULC classification systems in the global coastal zone, the main research works are as follows: a detailed overview of global coastal zone was presented; the Ramsar Convention was of particular concern, as were several wetland classification systems on regional or global scales; the classification rules and classification principles were defined and followed strictly. As a result of this study, we established one kind of LULC classification system for global coastal zone considering fine classification of wetlands. More specifically, this classification system, which covers most types of land resources comprehensively, includes six primary categories and 20 secondary categories as well as 43 tertiary categories. It is worth mentioning that primary categories mainly include cropland, vegetation, wetland, built-up area, bare area and permanent ice and snow; furthermore, tertiary categories emphasize the division of coastal wetland resources adequately and accurately, including coastal saltwater and inland freshwater, which hold a total of 16 basic categories. This classification system has clear hierarchy and strict classification, as compared with the traditional classification systems. The advantages of this system are as follows: 1) it meets the need of remote sensing monitoring research on LULC classifications and changes in coastal zones on regional or global scales; 2) it attaches importance to the rich and diverse wetland resources in the global coastal areas; 3) it emphasizes the attribution and classification of tundra in the high latitudes of the world; 4) it takes into account the advantages of low, medium and high spatial resolution satellite data. Overall, such a classification system can provide support for establishing the multi-temporal datasets of LULC changes in the global or regional coastal zones, which is not restricted by the source data types; it can also provide service for scientific research on coastal zones on different scales by adding and deleting categories, which is applicable to different researchers.

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    Construction of Ecological Security Pattern of Tong’an District, Xiamen City
    HUANG Cangping, YIN Xiaoling, HUANG Guangqing, YUAN Shaoxiong, WANG Jun, LAI Yong
    2018, 38 (6):  874-883.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003093
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    Taking Tong’an District of Xiamen City as an example, the study assessed the ecological environment quality by remote sensing ecological index (RSEI) based on RS technology. Based on GIS, we constructed the ecological security pattern in Tong’an District of Xiamen City. The ecological source was identified according to stability of the ecological environment quality by analyzing the multi-period ecological environment quality evaluation results. The ecological resistance base surface was constructed by integrating land cover, vegetation coverage, topography, and river system, also DMSP/OLS nighttime light data were used to correct the impact of human activities on the ecological resistance value. Based on the minimum cumulative resistance model, the ecological resistance surface was constructed and the ecological buffer zone, corridors and nodes were identified. The results showed that: 1) the RSEI of Tong’an District was 0.577 3, 0.664 8 and 0.632 9 in 2006, 2010 and 2015 respectively. The ecological quality was in good condition in these three years, wheresa RSEI increased from 2006 to 2010, then decreased from 2010 to 2015. 2) We constructed the urban ecological security pattern, including corridors between ecological sources, ecological nodes, river corridors and road protection corridors. 44 corridors between ecological sources and 20 ecological nodes were identified by analyzing the ecological resistance surface based on the GIS hydrological analysis module. The ecological source region, with excellent and stable ecological environment quality identified by the evaluations of 2006, 2010 and 2015, was about 293.19 km2, accounting for 44.12% of the whole area. The areas of high, moderate and low levels ecological security, divided according to the frequency statistics of the resistance value of the ecological resistance surface, were about 478.81, 99.53 and 83.36 km2 and accounting for 72.36%, 15.04% and 12.60% respectively. DMSP/OLS nighttime light data were used to revise the interference of human activities on ecological process. 3) Putting forward a framework for ecological protection, which based on the ecological security pattern, was composed of ecological safety barrier, corridor and matrix, provided reference for urban construction plan and rational development of urban development. The ecological source region with high ecosystem service value and high ecological sensitivity, was identified by RSEI. The ecological source region and the important ecological functional region had same distribution. The ecological source region identified based on RSEI, provided a reference for ecological source identification.
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    Ancient Village Tourism Landscape Production under the Background of Commercialization: A Case Study of the Hongcun Village in Anhui
    WEI Lijiao, WANG Chaohui, CUI Chunyu
    2018, 38 (6):  884-893.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003082
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    Under the background of tourism commercialization, the tourism landscape production of ancient villages has been different. This paper aims to explore how the tourism landscapes produced in ancient village are today and to find a proper way of producing tourism landscapes. Taking Hongcun, an ancient village in Anhui, as an example, this paper researches the mode of production and mechanism of tourism landscape by participant observation and semi structured interview. The result shows that with the development of commercialization, Hongcun tourism landscape production mode changed from the original simple protection for cultural relics and ancient building to more complex. The corresponding production methods for three different types of tourism landscape are as follows: for the static tourism landscapes which are always gazed by tourists, people of Hongcun enhance the integrity of landscape by adding details while protecting the authenticity of heritage normally; for dynamic and participant tourism landscapes, they create diversified events and activities to enrich landscape types and strengthen external marketing in the form of uniting government and enterprise; for those tourism landscapes which are used to create atmosphere, they inherit the local ancient customs and retain the lifestyle of residents to provide fertile soil for the authenticity and vitality of the local culture. There is a production mechanism that many kinds of forces involved in behind Hongcun tourism landscape production: the government and the developer form a union in which politics and capital play their roles respectively and cooperatively, they are the leading forces of tourism landscape production; the local residents are the core soul of tourism landscape production with living in Hongcun as before and continuing the ancient way of life and traditional culture; Scenic spot merchants enjoy producing small-scale and personalized “shop landscape” to attract tourists, and they are the active member of tourism landscape production; The suggestions for improvement from external tourists are important references for the production of Hongcun tourism landscape. The above four power groups interact with each other, influencing the final outcome of Hongcun tourism landscape production in the process of pursuing their own interest. Finally, the paper points out that the tourism landscape production of the ancient villages needs to restore the living scene of the original inhabitants. It may be a positive solution to the tourism landscape production of ancient villages by establishing a balanced, sustainable landscape production mechanism and a reasonable benefit distribution system in the trend of the commercialization of tourism. This paper contributes to a more profound understanding of the meaning and mechanism of tourism landscape production and richer literature on landscape production by exploring Hongcun which is a typical ancient village tourism destination. Moreover, this research may be an available advice for managers of scenic spot and policy makers of ancient villages to answer the question that how to create new landscape or improve the quality of original landscape.

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