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    21 September 2017, Volume 37 Issue 5 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Economic Geography: Intellectual Journeys and Future Horizons
    Henry Wai-chung Yeung
    2017, 37 (5):  627-628.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002991
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    Global Production Networks and Regional Development in East and Southeast Asia
    Henry Wai-chung Yeung
    2017, 37 (5):  628-628.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002992
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    Rethinking East Asia in the New Global Economy
    Henry Wai-chung Yeung
    2017, 37 (5):  629-629.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002993
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    Financialization: New Issues in Economic Geography?
    George C.S. Lin
    2017, 37 (5):  629-631.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002994
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    Agglomeration Economies: from Geographical Proximity to Cognitive Proximity
    HE Canfei,ZHU Shengjun
    2017, 37 (5):  631-632.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002995
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    Religion and Modernity: Geographical Explorations
    QIAN Junxi
    2017, 37 (5):  632-632.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002996
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    Firm’s Geographical Agglomeration and Location Choice
    YE Yuyao
    2017, 37 (5):  633-633.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002997
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    Firm’s Geographical Agglomeration and Location Choice

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    Safeguarding and Return of Sovereignty of the South China Sea Islands to China: The 70th Anniversary of Recovery of the South China Sea Islands(1)
    ZHAO Huanting,WANG Lirong,YUAN Jiayi
    2017, 37 (5):  634-648.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002981
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    The South China Sea Islands was first discovered, named, managed and exploited by Chinese people. During the Republic of China, the South China Sea Islands was sorted and named as Dongsha Islands, Xisha Islands, Zhongsha Islands and Nansha Islands. It was collectively called the South China Sea Islands in 1934. The South China Sea Islands was seized by Japan and French later on before the Second World War and was occupied by Japan during the Second World War. The Chinese government and people struggled against that. After the world’ anti-fascist war, the Chinese government sent civil and army officials under international law to retake the sovereignty of Xisha Islands and Nansha Islands in December, 1946 and Dongsha Islands in March, 1947. It has been over 70 years since the transfer of sovereignty of the whole South China Sea Islands. Since the 1970s, several neighboring countries, including South Vietnam, Vietnam, the Philippines and Malaysia, have illegally occupied parts of the South China Sea Islands, built airports and ports, separating Chinese coastal areas and territorial seas. They plundered fishing and hydrocarbon resources, created factions and even ignited local war. The situation has been more complicated and serious since the United States and Japan intervened into the South China Sea in this century. But China protects the sovereignty of the South China Sea Islands firmly and recovers parts of islands and reefs. In Jan., 1974, Chinese Navy won the battle of Yongle Atoll in Xisha Islands and recovered it. Then in Mar., 1988, Chinese Navy won the battle of Chigua Reef in Nansha Islands and have been garrisoned Chigua Reef, Huayang Reef, Yongshu Reef, Nanxun Reef, Dongmen Reef, Zhubi Reef and Meiji Reef. Sansha City was established in 2012, and the governance, development, and construction of the South China Sea Islands (excluding the Dongsha Islands under the jurisdiction of Taiwan) have begun. Three naval air bases on the artificial islands in Yongshu Reef, Zhubi Reef and Meiji Reef have been built recently, which stand like a tripod acting in cooperation with Yongxing Island and Hainan Island. Diplomatic activities are strengthened and the absurd verdict which was proposed by the Philippines and ruled by illegal arbitral court was smashed. The sovereignty of the South China Sea Islands is defended. The international environment of the South China Sea is improved, which changes the disadvantage in safeguarding of the South China Sea Islands.
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    Scientific Investigations and Research on the South China Sea Islands: The 70th Anniversary of Recovery of the South China Sea Islands(2)
    ZHAO Huanting,WANG Lirong,YUAN Jiayi
    2017, 37 (5):  649-658.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002982
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    Scientific investigations in the South China Sea Islands had been carried out according to the China’s situation and national power in the past century, which were divided into 4 periods: modern scientific investigation in 1920s~1930s; the investigation after the recovery of the South China Sea Islands in 1946; the investigation that restarted in Xisha Islands, Zhongsha Islands and Dongsha Islands in 1970s; extensive investigation in Nansha Islands since 1980s. The scale of the scientific investigations gets larger and larger, and the associated subjects successively increase. More and more institutes and researchers participate in the investigations and abundant field-data and achievement have been obtained, which improve the marine science research in our country and contribute to the safeguarding and construction of the South China Sea Islands.
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    Natural Environment, Resources and Development of the South China Sea Islands: The 70th Anniversary of Recovery of the South China Sea Islands(3)
    ZHAO Huanting,WANG Lirong,YUAN Jiayi
    2017, 37 (5):  659-680.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002983
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    Combined with the work of several generations of scientists from China who carried out scientific investigation in the South China Sea Islands in the past century, natural environment of the South China Sea Islands is comprehensively analyzed on the basis of regional geologic landforms, climate, marine hydrology, marine organism, terrestrial biota, soil, natural complex and natural regionalization. Natural resources of the South China Sea Islands are explained in detail, such as territorial resources, fishery resources, tourism resources, oil and gas resources, natural gases hydrates resources, terrestrial organism and water resources in lime-sand islets, port and navigational channel resources, and ocean-atmospheric energy resources. According to the natural endowment and importance of strategic position, suggestions about the scientific development of the South China Sea Islands are proposed. It is considered that the development of the South China Sea Islands should include tourism, fishery and aquaculture in lagoon of atoll, while more attention should be paid to the exploitation of ocean oil,gas and natural gases hydrates resources.
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    Construction of Artificial Islands on Coral Reef in the South China Sea Islands
    ZHAO Huanting,WANG Liong
    2017, 37 (5):  681-693.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002974
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    Artificial islands construction has long history in China and other coastal countries, but artificial islands construction on coral reefs are very different because of the special geological landforms and sediments. The concept, development and trends of the construction of artificial islands are reviewed and the general situation of coral reefs in the South China Sea is introduced. The South China Sea Islands lies to the east and south of Hainan Island and is rich for abundant tropical marine resources, such as territorial resources, marine petroleum and gas resources, tourism resources, harbor and channel resources. Its geopolitics is complex and the strategic positions special. The South China Sea Islands has 62 drying reefs and 49 lime-sand islands which is theoretically suitable for the construction of artificial islands. In the past 40 years, several neighboring countries have forcibly occupied some islands and reefs of the Nansha Islands, illegally reclaimed lands and built military structures, and extensively explored in adjacent waters to plunder marine petroleum and gas resources. And now the South China Sea Islands faces the same and more serious political situation and it needs rapid and effective respond. The geological and topographical conditions suitable for the exploitation and construction on coral reefs in the South China Sea Islands are analyzed, such as shoals, islets, and drying reefs. The ecological environment conditions affecting the land reclaimed are also evaluated from the view of coral reef facies, which include the impacts of the exploitation and construction on the coral reef ecosystem and those of the resultant hydrodynamic changes in the coral reef landforms. The built and under-building artificial islands are given as examples. An emphasis on planning and site selection for the land reclamation on the coral reefs in the South China Sea Islands is proposed and the technical idea of “natural simulation” for engineering construction and for future sustainable development is produced.
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    Review on the Study of Coral Cay Dynamics and Its Stability
    ZHAO Meixia,JIANG Dapeng,ZHANG Qiaomin
    2017, 37 (5):  694-700.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002988
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    A coral cay is an island formed from sediments derived from the reef on which it sits and swept by refracted waves to a focal point on the reef flat where they are deposited. A cay initially may remain intertidal and lack vegetation, but with time it is likely to build up to be above sea level, acquire a vegetation cover, and become partially lithified. Coral cays generally occur on reef flats at or very close to sea level. Low-lying reef islands are described as different types that range from small and unstable unvegetated sandy cays to complex low wooded islands. The four key criteria that form the basis of reef-island classification are as follows: sediment type, island location on the reef flat, island shape and vegetation cover. Coral cays which compose largely unconsolidated sediments, are classic natural systems in a state of dynamic equilibrium. Any change to the cay formation process -weather conditions, sediment budgets, reef morphology or ecology-will produce an immediate response in the cay. The dynamics of coral cays vary in different reef areas and at different time scale. There are seasonal and decadal shoreline changes due to the influence of seasonal and long-term climate oscillations. Even low-frequency but high-energy events could cause rapid erosion or accretion on the coral cays in short time. Many factors could influence cay stability and they varied with different island types. Location, size, shape of cays and its vegetation, sediment budgets and meteorological conditions are often listed under consideration. The status of coral reef ecosystem, sedimentary characteristics of coral cay and the impacts of typhoon and sea level change are most important influence factors for coral cay stability. With the enhancement of cyclones and sea level rise caused by global climate change, the future of coral cay is uncertain. Coral reefs are the most important and distinctive ecosystems in the South China Sea (SCS). Many coral cays are distributed in four regions (Nansha Islands, Xisha Islands, Zhongsha Islands, Dongsha Islands). Especially, there are thirty-one coral cays in the Xisha Islands which have the most number and various types of coral cays in the South China Sea. In the same time, more and more artificial islands are under construction in recent years. It is urgent need to strengthen the study of coral cay dynamic evolution and its stability, the process of biological geomorphology for the coral cay formation and the impacts of global change on the dynamics of coral cay are two main focuses.
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    Sea Surface Temperature Variations since the Industrial Revolution as Reconstructed by Porites Coral Growth Rate in Xisha Waters
    ZHANG Huiling,YU Kefu,SHI Qi,TAO Shichen,YAN Hongqiang,LIU Guohui
    2017, 37 (5):  701-707.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002987
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    The skeletal growth rate of Porites coral is an important indicator to reconstruct sea surface temperature (SST). This paper makes use of Porites lutea collected from Yongxing Island, Xisha Islands to construct a coral growth rate thermometer. Based on the thermometer, it reconstructed the SST time series of Xisha sea area since industrial revolution (1880-2007). The result shows that the mean SST was 27.27℃, ranging from 26.1 to 28.5℃ during the period from 1880 to 2007. From 1880 to 1892, SST declined with fluctuations to form a rapid cooling period and SST reached the lowest value of 26.1℃ in 1892. From 1893 to 1935, SST fluctuated all the time to form a platform of low SST. From 1936 to 1957, SST went up at first and then went down, which form a peak of wave. During the period from 1957 to 2003, SST increased rapidly in Xisha Waters. From 2003 to 2007, SST showed a decline trend in Xisha Waters. On the interdecadal time scale, quasi 60-years cycle of climate system might regulate SST change pattern in Xisha waters. At the interannual scale, the intensity of winter monsoon, volcanic activity and ENSO exerted influences on SST in Xisha waters together. In different period, the contribution of different drive factors was different, which lead to the complexity of SST change in Xisha Waters. After 1957 the global warming caused by human activities has become a major driving force of SST increase process in Xisha waters. The SST-fall period from 1880 to 1892 was driven by ENSO, volcanic activity and quasi 60-years cycle of climate system together. The lower winter monsoon velocity causing SST rise counteracted the SST decrease effect of volcanic activity and quasi 60-years cycle of climate system to form a platform of low SST from 1893 to 1935 finally. From 1936 to 1957, SST formed a peak of wave in Xisha Waters, which was driven by the natural variability of the climate system and lower winter monsoon velocity. During the period, the volcanic force resulted in the asymmetry of SST wave crest. During the period from 1957 to 2003, the human-induced greenhouse effects might become the main force to drive the SST increase rapidly in Xisha waters. The cooling process in Xisha waters from 2003 to 2007 might respond to the global warming trend slowdown, which was a result of the interactions between natural forcing and anthropogenic forcing. Anthropogenic forcing always drives SST increases in Xisha waters. Meanwhile, the natural variability of the climate system is in the turn period, the sunspot activity is relatively low, water vapor decreases in the stratosphere, the concentration of atmospheric aerosols increases in the troposphere and the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation accelerates, which drive the temperature reduction. It is obviously that the state is delicate. Once any factor of natural forcing weakens, the declined trend of SST in Xisha waters may be replaced by increase trend of SST again.

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    Distribution Characteristics of Surface Seawater Nutrients in Summer around Luhuitou Reef in Sanya
    LI Yang,YU Kefu,WANG Yinghui,GUO Jing,HUANG Xueyong,PEI Jiying,LUO Yanqiu
    2017, 37 (5):  708-717.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002990
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    The coral reef ecosystem is an ecosystem with high biodiversity and high resource productivity. The ecosystems have important ecological effects, biogeographic functions and socioeconomic benefits. However, coral reef ecosystems are extremely fragile, and global climate change and increasing human activity have led to serious damage and degradation of coral reef ecosystems worldwide. The increase in nutrient concentration caused by anthropogenic activities is also considered as an important reason for the degradation of coral reef ecosystems in some areas. Therefore, it is extremely important to research the relationship between nutrient concentration and coral reef ecosystem decline and investigate nutrient distribution in coral reef area. In order to investigate the effects of surface seawater nutrient distribution on coral reef ecosystem in the coral reef sea area of Luhuitou, Sanya, this study arranged sampling section in the coral reef area and collected surface water samples, then investigated the concentration level of nitrite (NO2-N), nitrate (NO3-N), ammonium (NH4-N), soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), silicate (SiO3), chlorophyll a (chl a), dissolved Oxygen (DO), etc. in the summers from 2014-2016. The results showed that the average concentrations of Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) of the three years were 2.941, 1.766, 23.428 μmol/L, those of SRP were 0.493, 0.419, 0.143 μmol/L, those of CHL were 2.304, 1.90, 1.251 mg/m3, and those of SiO3 were 10.275 (2015), 8.506 μmol/L (2016), respectively. The survey was made from 2014 to 2016, the overall concentration of nutrients in summer was higher. The general trend is that the summer nutrients in this area are higher than those in the past 20 years, it may be related to an increase in human activity. In all indicators, the increase trend of DIN is the most significant. N/P showed an upward trend and it means that nitrogen pollution is increasing. Possible causes are mainly from the pollutants emitted during the production process of terrestrial industry and agriculture. The higher nutrient input and the increase of N/P may cause the phosphorus limit of the nutrient, leading to the change of the community structure of the coral reef ecosystem. The change of the community structure will have a negative impact on the stability of the coral reef ecosystem. At the same time, as compared with other coral reefs in the world, the level of nutrient concentration in the reef area of Luhuitou in Sanya is similar to that in Daya Bay of Shenzhen, which is the same as that in Chinese coastal coral reefs. The level of nutrient concentration in the reef area of Luhuitou in Sanya is far higher than that in Zhubi reef area of the Nansha Islands in the South China Sea, and higher than that in other coral reef areas of the world, that means that the shore reef sea area is influenced by a serious land-based nutrients input. Higher levels of nutrients may cause local eutrophication, followed by red tides, have a greater threat to the normal development of coral reefs, and will cause serious degradation of the coral reef ecosystem. Therefore, the increase of nutrient, especially nitrogen, is probably one of the factors that would lead to the degradation of coral reef ecosystem in recent years in the reef area of Luhuitou.

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    Distribution Characteristic of Heavy Metals in Coral Reefs Located in the Zhongsha Islands and Xisha Islands of South China Sea
    WANG Lu,YU Kefu,WANG Yinghui,WANG Shaopeng,HUANG Xueyong,ZHANG Ruijie,WANG Liwei
    2017, 37 (5):  718-727.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002989
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    Heavy metal pollution provides potential risks to the growth and development of corals. In recent decades, the coral reefs of South China Sea have been degraded as a whole, but the research on heavy metal pollution in such areas is scarce. This study was based on the integrated scientific survey and sampling on the nine selected coral reef areas of South China Sea in the summer of 2015, including Huangyan Island of Zhongsha Islands, Yongxing Island, Seven Lantau Island, Dongdao Island, Langhua Reef, Beijiao Reef, Huaguang Reef, Panshi Island and Yuzhuo Reef of Xisha Islands, and then focused on the distribution of the heavy metals in the seawater of those reefs. Our results indicated that: 1) The average concentrations of heavy metals in the seawater of the nine coral reef areas were 1.309, 1.702, 2.831, 0.056, 0.204 and 0.272 μg/L, respectively, for Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Cr and As. It meant that the overall level of heavy metals was relatively low, and Zn, Pb and Cu were the main contents of the total heavy metals, whose amount could be up to 92%. Besides, in some part of the sites, the content of Pb was higher than those of the First-Classed Seawater Quality Standard of China. 2) Generally, the distribution of heavy metals at the eastern reefs was higher than that at the western reefs. Furthermore, the content of heavy metals differed in atoll lagoon and reef slope, and Cu, Pb, Zn and Cd at reef slope were higher than in atoll lagoon, while As lower. The difference might be related with the relatively closed water in atoll lagoon. 3) The environmental factors, which affected the distribution of heavy metals in seawater in the coral reef areas of Zhongsha and Xisha Islands, mainly included terrestrial input, atmospheric deposition, ocean currents and so on. Thereinto, the terrestrial input principally influenced the amount of Zn, and the effect of atmospheric deposition on Pb was obvious, and ocean currents affected the local level. 4) Water quality was evaluated by the method of weighting-factor modified Nemerow index, which turned out the seawater was clean in Zhongsha and Xisha Islands. The content of heavy metals in seawater was not up to the level of affecting the coral growth except Cu element.
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    Characteristics of Diurnal Variations of Precipitation in Spring and Summer over the South China Sea and Its Surrounding Areas Based on TRMM
    LI Fangzhou,LI Jiangnan
    2017, 37 (5):  728-737.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002985
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    The characteristics of precipitation diurnal variations in spring and summer are investigated based on the TRMM satellite data from 1998 to 2012. The South China Sea (SCS) and surrounding areas are divided into four main regions: the South China region, Indo-China peninsula region, Malaysia region, and the SCS region. The results show that: First, in low latitude regions of the two hemispheres, the precipitation has opposite variation phases in spring and summer. In spring, the precipitation mainly occurs in Malaysia region and its surrounding area. However, in summer, the precipitation is more distributed over the SCS region and its surrounding area while the precipitation over Malaysia region is small. The Philippine islands, Indo-China peninsula, and the South China region present land pattern of diurnal variation, which means the precipitation maximum occurs after noon. For Malaysia region, the precipitation maximum occurs at night. Second, the diurnal difference is related to land-sea difference. In general, the precipitation is larger at night than that in the daytime over land area while it is larger in the daytime than at night over sea area. Moreover, the diurnal difference is generally more significant over sea area than over land area. The diurnal difference is most significant over the SCS in both spring and summer. In summer, it is also significant over the South China region. From spring to summer, the diurnal difference reduces in Malaysia and the SCS regions while it ascends in the rest two regions. Third, in summer, the Indo-China peninsula and the Philippines present similar patterns of diurnal variations. Their precipitation maximums occur at around T 17:00-20:00 in both areas, which is earlier than in spring. Meanwhile, the high precipitation period of the SCS region occurs earlier in summer than in spring. In both seasons, the diurnal variation patterns of the four regions are similar. The diurnal variations over the South China region and the Indo-China peninsula region present single peak pattern. In Malaysia region, the diurnal variation is relatively gentle. Fourth, based on the data from 1998 to 2012, in spring, the interannual variations of the occurring time of precipitation minimums are not significant in the Indo-China peninsula and the SCS regions while the variation in Malaysia region is relatively large. The interannual variations of the occurring time of precipitation maximums are little in Indo-China peninsula region. For Malaysia region, the variation has become smaller since 2005 and stayed small from 2005 to 2012. From spring to summer, the interannual variations of the occurring time of precipitation maximum become more significant over the Indo-China peninsula region and less significant over the SCS region. The interannual variations of the occurring time of precipitation maximum are similar in both seasons. Last, the seasonal difference can well illustrate the precipitation variation from spring to summer. After the burst of summer monsoon over the SCS region, the precipitation variation decreases slightly around Malaysia and equator areas while increases over South China, SCS and Indo-China peninsula regions, especially over the Philippine islands. What is noteworthy is that in South China region, the Xisha Islands and their surrounding sea show a negative seasonal difference, which means its precipitation decreases after the burst of monsoon, while the major part of this region has positive seasonal difference.
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    Chinese Government’s Naming of the South China Sea Islands
    LIU Nanwei
    2017, 37 (5):  738-741.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002675
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    Chinese people first discovered and named the South China Sea Islands. According to historical records, since the Han Dynasty, each dynasty has named the South China Sea Islands. There have been four times of naming processes of the South China Sea Islands by the Chinese government: Li Zhun’s naming of Xisha Islands during his patrol of the sea; Committee on land and water map’s naming of the South China Sea Islands; Naming of the South China Sea Islands by the Ministry of the interior of the Republic of China; Naming of the South China Sea Islands by Chinese Commission on Geographical Names. The background, process, characteristics of each naming process of the South China Sea Islands, as well as the evolution of geographical names, the systematization and standardization of geographical names, the existing problems and the significance to the territorial sovereignty of each naming process of the South China Sea Islands were in detail discussed in this paper.
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    Professor Liu Nanwei’s Important Contributions to the Research on the Place Names of the South China Sea Islands
    ZHANG Zhengsheng,SHI Cheng,ZHAO Xia,LIU Xuanyu,NIU Shuya
    2017, 37 (5):  742-746.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002977
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    Professor Liu Nanwei pays much attention to the study of Genglubu and the place names of the South China Sea Islands. He has made important contributions to the excavation, textual research and cultural inheritance of the Genglubu and the place names of the South China Sea Islands. This paper briefly reviews the main experiences of Professor Liu Nanwei’s research on the South China Sea Islands in the past 50 years. Professor Liu Nanwei's important contributions to the study on the place names of the South China Sea Islands include: 1) digging out the hand written copies of 10 editions of Genglubu; 2) introducing at the earliest and studying the Survey Report of Fishery and Aquatic resources in Adjacent Waters of the Xisha, Nansha& Zhongsha Islands; 3) making textual research on the origin, quantity and nomenclature of the folk place names of the South China Sea Islands.

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    Types and Distribution of International Tropical Research Journals
    ZHAO Xin,LI Xiaoling,YAO Lufeng
    2017, 37 (5):  749-754.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002986
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    Based on the information of journals of tropical research around the world in 2016, the international journals of tropical research can be divided into eight major disciplines such as comprehensive tropical study, tropical geography, tropical ecology, tropical biology, tropical agriculture, tropical forestry, tropical meteorology and tropical oceanology. These journals are sponsored by 13 countries, including China, the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, the Netherlands, Singapore, Malaysia, India, Australia, Canada, Mexico, Jamaica and Costa Rica. The main languages of the journals are English and Chinese, followed by French, Portuguese, Spanish and so on. Most of these journals have been indexed in SCI, SSCI, EI, Scopus and other international journal databases.
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