Table of Content

    05 November 2017, Volume 37 Issue 6 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Planning for the Development of the City-Regions in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area: What Can and Cannot be Done
    George C.S. LIN
    2017, 37 (6):  755-756.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002998
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    This intervention presents a viewpoint concerning the effective implementation of China’s recent call for the planning and development of the city-regions in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area. It calls for a careful and sober consideration of what planners and policy makers can and cannot do in this sophisticated process that involves three different administrative regions under “one country two systems”. A critical and situational evaluation suggests that the role to be played by the state cannot be exaggerated, the vested interests of any single party cannot be over-emphasized at the expense of others, the long term wellbeing of the region cannot be sacrificed for short-term gains, and the interests of the natural environment cannot be jeopardized by any developmental endeavor. Planners and policy makers are urged to clearly identify goals and objectives, outline a roadmap to reach the identified destiny, create a favorable institutional environment and economic infrastructure, introduce new systems and mechanism for cross-border integration, organize inclusive consultation and public participation, and provide rules and guidance for development of resources in an efficient, fair and sustainable manner.
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    Thinking on the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area
    LI Lixun
    2017, 37 (6):  757-761.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003008
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    Several key points on the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (Hereinafter the Bay Area for short) are put forward: 1) the keywords should be “Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao”, rather than “bay area”; 2) the core objective of the planning for the Bay area would be to deepen the cooperation among the three places, to maintain the long-term prosperity and stability of Hong Kong and Macao under the “one country, two systems” policy, and to enhance the status and function of these regions in the national economic development and opening to the outside world; 3) the mission and role of the Bay Area should be recognized in the framework of the global pattern-national strategy-local capacity; 4) the Bay Area Planning should promote advantage integration, collaborative striving and co-creation.
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    The Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area:A New Era and a Big Challenge
    MA Xiangming,CHEN Yang
    2017, 37 (6):  762-774.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003017
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    Since the establishment of the Special Administrative Regions of Hong Kong and Macao, the cooperation between Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao has been the foundation of the Pearl River Delta (PRD) regional development. In 2015, the World Bank reported that the PRD had been the largest urban agglomeration in East Asia. The data analysis reveals that, behind the chaotic and uninterrupted urban landscape, the industrial sectors and urban functions have showed signs of coordination among cities in the PRD. The rise of Guangzhou and Shenzhen as the two diverse core cities of the region, has led the urban agglomeration to be more mature. However, the division of labor between the PRD and Hong Kong and Macao is from clear to vague. The economic relationship between Hong Kong and the Pearl River Delta is no longer an obvious Win-win relationship as it used to be. The crossing bay area infrastructure construction and globalization shifting are reshaping the urban agglomeration in the Pearl River Delta. In 2017, Premier Li Keqiang formally proposed the construction of the Guangdong- Hong Kong- Macao Greater Bay Area at the NPC’s annual conference, marking the cooperation of the three parts has become the national agenda and come into a totally new scope—spatial cooperation. This scale of spatial cooperation will help to reduce the drawbacks of being multi-center urban cluster in the Pearl River Delta, and to promote the sharing of opportunities between cities and it will be significant to the regional innovation network of PRD. The development of the Greater Bay Area will reduce the spatial distance between cities and increase the efficiency of inter-city cooperation in a multi-center Pearl River Delta. And the development of the Bay Area will change the way in which China's urban public service allocation is determined by the rank,providing high quality spaces for the peripheral places in the Bay Area, which are outside the city downtown. This high accessibility, high quality and relatively low cost spaces will be very conducive to the formation of regional innovation corridor. However, from the perspective of the relationship between production and consumers in the knowledge-based economy, the unsuccessful transformation of Hong Kong's industries in the new century shows the role of Lefebvre’s social space in this process. In the past, the institutional relationship between Hong Kong and the West made it into the gateway between China and the West. After the reunification, the West regarded Hong Kong as a Chinese city, and in China it is outside the system. The vagueness of the social space leads to contradictions in the space practice in Hong Kong. Therefore, the reshaping of the relational geography is a new challenge to the future development in the Guangdong- Hong Kong- Macao Greater Bay Area.
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    Reconstruction of the Relationship between Hong Kong and ASEAN Based on the Strategy of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area
    ZENG Gang,SU Can,CAO Xianzhong,WANG Fenglong
    2017, 37 (6):  775-783.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003013
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    The bay area economy is one of the most important regional development patterns which is a practice of regional collaborative development concept. Currently, the bay area economy has become an important growth pole to drive the global economic development and a leader in technological change. In recent years, China put forward the development strategy of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, where Hong Kong is one of the growth poles. The strategy brings Hong Kong great opportunities of the transformation of Hong Kong’s foreign relations, reshaping the economic vitality. This paper introduces the strategic background of the construction of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area and sums up the present situation of the relations between Hong Kong and ASEAN from economy and trade, finance, shipping, science and technology. It is found that there is strong economic complementarity between Hong Kong and Indonesia, Laos, Kampuchea and Burma. However, the economy and trade ties between Hong Kong and ASEAN are weak and in lack of technological innovation cooperation. At the same time, under the challenge of other regions, the decline of Hong Kong’s financial and shipping status has weakened her link with ASEAN. Then this paper analyzes the influence of the Bay Area strategy on the regional advantage, cooperation complementarity, and the development potential of the cooperation between Hong Kong and ASEAN. The paper argues that Hong Kong should seize the opportunity of the construction of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, strengthen the link between Hong Kong and ASEAN, give play to Hong Kong’s traditional advantages of acting as a “super liaison” between China and foreign countries, and enhance the Chinese global influence and the quality of life of residents in Hong Kong. Furthermore, this paper propounds that we should give full play to the advantages of “one country, two systems” policy, promote multi-channel economic and trade cooperation between Hong Kong and ASEAN, enhance connectivity in transportation infrastructure, strengthen the Hong Kong-ASEAN innovation cooperation, and reconstruct the Hong Kong ASEAN Relations.

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    Tourism Cooperation among Governments in the Metropolitan Region and the Integration Mechanisms: Evidence from the Yangtze River Delta, China
    CHEN Wen,WANG Jue,GAO Jinlong
    2017, 37 (6):  784-791.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003010
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    Within the context of globalization and integration, regional cooperation has long been an important approach against the fierce competition across the world, during which local governments tend to play a vital role. Taking the accessible travel circle as a case, we investigate the driving mechanisms of regional cooperation as well as behavioral logics of local governments in the Yangtze River Delta by employing the game-theoretic approach. The findings suggest that local governments prefer to compete rather than cooperate with each other in the early age of regional integration, which might be resulted from their neglect of benefit increase and from excessively focus on the cost of cooperation. While with the continuous decline of tourism industries as well as the acceleration of globalization, cooperation among cities and regions becomes an important tool to cope with global competition. Yet various institutional divisions are still major barriers of regional cooperation in China. Thus market rules should be the primary principle of regional cooperation. And we also argue that the balance between benefits and costs of all gamers or stake holders is an essential issue for a successful cooperation, which can be enhanced by the regional identity in both terms of government and the public. Finally, we conclude that these successful experiences and enlightenments in the Yangtze River Delta will not only result in a fuller understanding of the regional integration in transitional China, but also contribute a lot to the cooperation among local governments in other metropolitan regions. In terms of the integration in Guangdong- Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, we suggest that the central state government should establish a new “centralized system” by the way of cross-border government coalitions or coordination meetings on the one hand, and give full play to the comparative advantages of regions with three different contexts and make full use of the market mechanism in the allocation of resources on the other. The former is a top-down mechanism that may be effective for formal integration among governments, and the latter is a bottom-up one that can help to promote the informal communication of citizens.
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    Integration Process of the Guangdong- Hongkong- Macao Greater Bay Area under the Promotion of Trade
    LI Xun,ZHENG Shali,LIANG Yutian
    2017, 37 (6):  792-801.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003016
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    According to the observation of the data of trade between the Pearl River Delta and Hong Kong and Macao after the establishment of the PRC, we can see that the trade scale and structural changes have promoted the process of the integration of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Bay Area. So, has trade played a role in the integration of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area? If so, how can trade play a role in promoting the process of integration as an integrated link in the development of the Greater Bay Area between Guangdong and Hong Kong and Macao? On the basis of summarizing the existing trade theory and empirical researches, the article develops a long-term dynamic theory of the trade's role in the integration and explains the process of the integration of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area. In this article, the process is divided into three phases of natural stage in chronological order since the establishment of the PRC to demonstrate the point above-mentioned. The first stage is the time after the founding of the PRC and before the reform and opening up. In this period, trade of goods dominated by primary commodities was the source of regional cooperation in Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao. Since the reform and opening up, the Guangdong- Hong Kong- Macao regional cooperation has made great progress. The rise of cross-border production and trade with industrial transfer as the mainstay has greatly broken the bias of development between Hong Kong, Macao and the Pearl River Delta. The frequent exchanges between Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao have led to the rapid economic growth of the three regions and the emergence of trade in the east and west of the Pearl River Delta. The phenomenon of industrial clusters has promoted the deepening of infrastructure in the three regions. In the third stage, starting from China's accession to the WTO in 2001, China's economy has been further more open to the world. Hong Kong and Macao, which have extensive experience in international standards, have become the vanguard of the country's active integration with globalization. In 2003, the Mainland and Hong Kong and Macao signed CEPA on the basis of improving the liquidity of commodity trade. Besides, a series of supplementary agreements have also promoted the flow of production trade and service trade from Hong Kong and Macao to the Pearl River Delta cities. With the close trade and service trade, the degree of innovation and knowledge spillover has also been enhanced. The conclusion of this paper is that trade has played a catalytic role in the process of the integration of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area. By changing the target of trade from goods to production and finally to service, the main body of trade, from physical goods to intangible goods, is the major process of promoting the integration of the Greater Bay Area of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao, from the primary to the more advanced one. In addition, the process of trade integration has a great spillover effect and it has perfected the regional basic road network. What’s more, the construction of industrial clusters has promoted the emergence of industrial clusters, boosted regional innovation and pushed the integrated area to a new platform for cooperation. The article summarizes the literature on trade and regional integration and would have some theoretical significance. Based on the summary of existing trade theories and empirical studies, the paper develops the conjecture on the dynamic role of trade in regional integration over a long period of time. And through the empirical demonstration of integration of Guangdong, Hong Kong, Macao Bay area, it has laid the foundation for the dynamic role of integration theory in the future study.
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    Spatio-temporal Evolutionary Characteristics of the Economic Development in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area and Its Influencing Factors
    ZHOU Chunshan,LUO Lijia,SHI Chenyi,WANG Juehan
    2017, 37 (6):  802-813.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003011
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    To build the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area has already become the state development strategy, indicating a new stage of the cooperation among the three places-Guangdong, Hong Kong and Marco. At the same time, the Greater Bay Area has raised the increasing interests of researchers in the fields of all kinds. The existing studies on the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area have been done qualitatively, mainly focusing on the functions, regional relationship and development strategies, while there lacks the research on the regional economy and its spatiotemporal evolutionary structure. In this paper, some quantitative methods have been applied to study the spatiotemporal evolutionary characteristics of the economic development in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area. First, a comprehensive economic indicator system was established based on the relevant data of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area from 1995 to 2015. By means of the Entropy Evaluation Method, the entropy of each indicator was determined. With the comprehensive assessment model of economic development, the level of economy in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area was calculated. Secondly, the paper used relative development rate (Nich), standard deviation, variable coefficient as well as Exploratory Spatial Data Analysis to analyze the spatiotemporal evolutionary characteristics of the economy in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area since 1995. Finally, the paper explored the possible influencing factors on the economic development in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area. The results show that: 1) the economy developed rapidly with some fluctuations as a whole which can be divided into four stages according to its growth rate. Besides, the gross economy has increased and it developed an exported-oriented economy. However, the adjustment of industrial structure was slow. During the study period, Hong Kong and Macao experienced the highest growth rate followed by Guangzhou and Shenzhen, who have already ranked at the first level in the Bay Area; 2) the absolute disparity increased, in the contrary, the relative disparity decreased. Besides, the polarization of economy first experienced a downward trend but then it was strengthened; 3) the spatial characteristic of economy changed from polar central structure composed of Hong Kong and Macao to multi-central structure with Guangzhou and Shenzhen standing out besides Hong Kong and Macao, a reversed “U” type can be seen in the trend analysis; 4) external environment, location and regional policies turned out to be the main influencing factors on the spatiotemporal characteristics of regional economy. After 21 years’ development, the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area has changed its economic structure from a core-periphery to a network, which indicated the increase of the connection among the cities. In order to improve the international competition of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area, this paper gave suggestions from the perspectives of industrial transformation, ecological protection, regional cooperation, cultural innovation and so forth.
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    Spatial-temporal Evolution of Urban Land Use Efficiency in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area
    ZHU Mengjue,FU Xiaoting
    2017, 37 (6):  814-823.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003012
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    Based on super SBM model and Tobit regression analysis model, this paper established an input and output model of land use, analyzing the characteristics of spatial-temporal evolution of urban land use efficiency in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area from 2000 to 2015, discussing influential factors and proposing relevant suggestions. The results showed that: 1) The land use efficiency in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area experienced a decreasing trend from 2000 to 2005 but continuously increased to a relatively higher level between 2005 and 2015. The land use efficiency in 2015, from high to low, was Guangzhou-Foshan-Zhaoqing area, Hong Kong-Macao area, Shenzhen-Dongguan-Huizhou area and Zhuhai- Zhongshan-Jiangmen area. Further, the gap between the Small Pearl River Delta area and Hong Kong and Macao area was narrowing and the integration of Guangzhou-Foshan-Zhaoqing area significantly exceeded the land use efficiency in Hong Kong-Macao area. 2) From the perspective of urban space pattern of land use efficiency, it can be divided into three levels: The first level included Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Zhuhai, whose urban land use efficiency values were over 1.4. The second level included Hong Kong, Macao and Foshan, whose land use efficiency values were between 1.2 and 1.4. The third level included Dongguan, Zhaoqing, Jiangmen, Huizhou and Zhongshan, whose land use efficiency values were lower than 1.2. Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Zhuhai have increasingly become the central cities in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area. 3) The land use efficiency level is contributed by both pure technical efficiency and scale efficiency, but the former one outweighs the latter one. In 2000, pure technical efficiency in small cities was higher than that in the other cities. And the scale efficiency remained at a lower level, so they were able to enlarge investment scale to enhance efficient figure. The land expansion has speeded up since 2005 and the scale efficiency has increased to a higher level. Expanding cities’ scale to increase urban land use efficiency would lead to uneconomical land use efficiency. Pure technical efficiency has become the driving factor in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area. The increase of land use efficiency should convert from land and labor-driving to innovation driving. From the perspective of urban space pattern of pure technical efficiency in 2015, it can be also divided into four levels: The first level included Guangzhou, Zhuhai, Shenzhen, Foshan and Macao, whose pure technical efficiency values were over 1.4. The second level included Hong Kong, whose pure technical efficiency value was between 1.2 and 1.4. The third level included Dongguan, Zhaoqing, and Jiangmen, whose pure technical efficiency values were between 1.0 and 1.2. The fourth level included Huizhou and Zhongshan, whose efficiency values were lower than 1.0. 4) By using the Tobit regression model to conduct regression analysis of land use efficiency, the results showed that the key driving factors affecting land use efficiency of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area were the economic level, the industrial structure level, the technique innovation level, the government opening degree and the government macro-control. Because of the difference of driving factors, the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area should customize and optimize strategy to strictly control excessive land area investment and to enhance technique innovative ability, environmental benefits and to strengthen regional spatial integration.
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    Historical Changes in the Port and Shipping Industry in Hong Kong under the Policies of Hong Kong and China’s Mainland
    XIU Qinghui,CHEN Dongxu,YANG Zhongzhen
    2017, 37 (6):  824-834.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003014
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    Based on the group for the port in Hong Kong and some coastal ports in China’s mainland, the concentration ratio and Herfindahl-Hirschman index of the container throughputs were used to analyze the status of the port and shipping industry in Hong Kong in the port group. Compared with the ports in China’s mainland in the port group, the pace of development of the port and shipping industry in Hong Kong has gradually slowed down and lagged behind that of China’s mainland. And then, the standard deviation ellipse of port container throughput was used to get that the center of gravity of port transportation in the port group has been transferred from Hong Kong to China’s mainland. The reason why the port and shipping industry in Hong Kong will make such a change is mainly due to the implementation of the relevant economic policies in Hong Kong and China’s mainland. The study found that: 1) The free port policy in Hong Kong has played a huge role, and the free port policy in Hong Kong indirectly increased the volume of cargo of Hong Kong port and promotes the development of its port and shipping industry. The policy of reform and opening up in China’s mainland made the port and shipping industry in Hong Kong a further improvement and the pace of development of the port and shipping industry ranked the top in the world. Because China’s mainland ports were not able to meet all their export needs during the construction phase, and at the same time, under the attraction of the free port policy, most of China's goods choose to import and export from Hong Kong. 2) The increased export demand of China has stimulated the rapid development of ports in China’s mainland. Since its accession to the WTO, the ports of China’s mainland and Hong Kong have taken the share of the export demand of China. Although Hong Kong's free port policy has led Hong Kong to assume greater export volume, the pace of development of both is at a fair level. 3) After the implementation of the bonded port policy and the tax rebate policy in the ports of China’s mainland, the tax advantages of Hong Kong port is gradually weakened. The competitiveness of ports in the mainland surpassed that of Hong Kong and the export demand undertaken gradually surpassed that of Hong Kong Port. Namely, the port and shipping industry in Hong Kong has experienced three development stages: rapid growth from the 1970s-1990s, solid growth from 2000-2005, and sluggish growth from 2006-2015. However, economic policy is not the only factor that affected the development of the port and shipping industry in Hong Kong. The fluctuation of the port and shipping industry in Hong Kong is also greatly related to the current decline of the global shipping industry and the tendency of the ports moving from centralized to balanced. Although the development of the port and shipping industry in Hong Kong is lagging behind at present, the implementation of the strategy of Guangdong, Hong Kong and Macao Bay Area will be an opportunity for the further development of the port and shipping industry in Hong Kong.
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    Development Path of Industrial Cluster Based on the Perspective of Co-evolution: A Case Study of Toy Industrial Cluster in Chenghai,Shantou City
    XU Lin,SHEN Jing
    2017, 37 (6):  835-843.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003009
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    Research on path evolution of industrial clusters contributes to industrial upgrade and improving competitiveness. The industrial cluster is a complex adaptive system, and its path evolution is interwoven with multiple populations, presenting multiple path dependence, thus the traditional research method is difficult to abstract its theoretical model. The co-evolution theory which provides a new perspective of dynamic interaction is an important concept applied in researching the economic landscape evolution while little research has focused on the cluster especially the differences and mechanism of each population in the various phases of industrial cluster. Since the industrial cluster is made up of firms that are bound together geographically, technologically and relationally, and is subject to changes in institutions, its path evolution is the aggregate outcomes of firms, network, institutions and their synergies. The triangle stakeholders play different roles on the different stages of path evolution. Thus our work proposes a triangle analytical framework of industrial cluster path evolution with “firm, network and institution”. Then the empirical study uses the framework to analyze Chenghai’s toy industrial cluster, located in Shantou city, Guangdong Province, which is a successful representative of typical industry cluster that has grown up since China’s reform and opening up and development. The results show that path evolution of the industrial cluster is strongly impacted by the synergistic action of firms, network and institution. Firms, network and institution interact like a spiral on path evolution of industrial cluster based on the local initial conditions firstly and then change their mechanism of industrial as to follow the changing of environment in the three stages of path evolution including path creation, path development, path locking or new path creation. In regard to the path evolution of Chenghai’s toy industrial cluster, the cumulative effect of local path dependence with the constantly updated and spiral interactive adaptation as well as the co-evolution of firms, network and institutions jointly promote the toy industrial cluster from the resource gathering, flexible production system to innovative system. Therefore, a competitive cluster seems to be a co-evolutionary hotspot. In addition, the study finds that in the context of societal transition and economic globalization, three important factors have a huge impact on the path evolution of industrial cluster in China, they are the coupling of multiple spatial scale institution transformation with the local factors in the context of marketization and globalization, the interaction feedback of regional culture, firm behavior and network, as well as key roles of leading firms. Consequently, our findings provide suggestions for promoting the path evolution of industrial cluster, such as making full use of local endemic assets, establishing a collaborative network driven by leading firms, creating a collaborative environment among firms, governments and institutions by local institutional innovation to set up a “global pipeline-local buzz” mechanism.
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    Characteristics of Development and Construction of Commercial Complex in Hangzhou Based on Consumer Society
    CUI Wanzhen,WU Qianbo
    2017, 37 (6):  844-851.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003002
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    Consumer society is an important background of urban development. Taking Hangzhou as an example, the paper analyzes the evolution process and trend characteristics of commercial complex by adopting the theory of consumer society and the statistical method of commercial geographical data. It found that Hangzhou experienced the boom of traditional retail stores and department stores along the streets. Since 1990s, a large number of commercial facilities including Hangzhou department store building, Hangzhou Tower, Intime department store as the representatives, has been built up in the Wulin Square surrounding, which marked the formation of Wulin CBD and Yan’an road business axis with Department stores as the main retail industry. In the 21st century, commercial complex is rising on the edge and suburbs of the city with the rapid agglomeration of urban population and the formation of large residential areas, which built a Multicenter commercial space and reconstructed the retail industry of CBD in Hangzhou, becoming an important carrier of urban consumption space in the current. Along with the rising of the commercial complex, mass scale of building, diversification of function, the layout in the suburbs, are the remarkable characteristics of the commercial complex, which meet the daily and diversified needs of the rapidly growing urban population in Hangzhou. From the perspective of the future development of commercial complex, firstly, many commercial complexes will focus on the market, and it face the saturation excess crisis in Hangzhou; secondly, urban population growth has stagnated and community complex will rise in the current; thirdly, the cultural commercial complex is emerging with globalization, which meet consumer demand of local residents and foreign tourists; fourthly, Alibaba as the representative of the electricity supplier is restructuring the traditional retail business complex, such as Intime commercial complex is to carry out the electricity business operation system. Therefore, the large scale, the daily community oriented, intelligent electricity suppliers and local culture will become an important feature of commercial complex, which matches the rapid expansion of urban space, and will be actively integrated into daily life services, internet information technology and culture characteristics, thus creating humanism and personalized urban consumption space in Hangzhou.
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    Trade Linkages between ASEAN and Great Powers and Their Influencing Factors
    WANG Qian,SONG Tao,LIANG Yi,ZOU Jialing
    2017, 37 (6):  852-861.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003000
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    Southeast Asia is the key to China’s peripheral diplomacy. In “the Belt and Road” construction period, it is meaningful to study on the trade links and influencing factors between ASEAN member states and major world powers. On the one hand, it will help to grasp the changes of international trade forces in Southeast Asia since 2000. And on the other hand, targeting the important influencing factors, China will strengthen the bilateral cooperation with ASEAN to promote more in-depth cooperation in the future. Based on social network analysis and gravity model, this paper analyzes the degree of centralism in the trade network, role similarity of ASEAN and its main trade objects, then discusses the factors that affect the trade between the two sides, such as distance, population, GDP, political system differences, trade agreements, and puts forward some proposals about future trade development between China and ASEAN. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) The trade density between ASEAN countries and major powers has been increasing since 2000. Singapore, Malaysia are the bellwethers of ASEAN's foreign trade; 2) Among the major powers, the roles of the United States and China in the trade network are similar, and the probability of their competition in ASEAN trade is also large; 3) ASEAN’s trade dependence on China has been rising since 2000, while the economic dependence on the USA and Japan has been relatively reduced; 4) The regional multilateral trade organization can promote the trade between countries, and counteract the hindrance of distance; 5) China should establish more preferential trade policies with ASEAN to enhance bilateral economic dependence, enhance political mutual trust and promote non-governmental exchanges.

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    Functional Pattern of Cultivated Land and Its Cause in Metropolitan at the Sub-district Scale: A Case Study of Guangzhou
    YE Xiaoqi,SONG Xiaoqing,TAN Zi’an,WU Zhifeng
    2017, 37 (6):  862-873.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003006
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    Cultivated land is a kind of land-use type with a strong variability, and also a typical human-nature coupling system. The research on the functional pattern of cultivated land and its causes can effectively promote the study of land use change. At present, functional diversity is a prominent feature of cultivated land use change in metropolis. Multifunctional cultivated land management is one of the main cultivated land management modes to meet the demands of urban and rural residents, is also important basis of cultivated land resource utilization and management. It is of great theoretical and practical significance for multifunctional cultivated land management to study the functional pattern of cultivated land and its causes on micro-scale, because it can be more finely presents the cooperative or conflict relation among cultivated land functions. As one of the metropolis in China, Guangzhou has a typical problem of cultivated land protection. The paper chose Guangzhou as the research area, used spackle-database about land use and socio-economic data to evaluate the functional pattern of cultivated land, regional linkage and its cause at the sub-district scale by using the entropy method. On the basis of the value of cultivated land functions, Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to explore the relationship between functions. In accordance with the above process, three results can be obtained as follows: 1) The total function value of cultivated land mostly ranges from 0.301 to 0.400. It is obvious that cultivated land functions as a whole are weak in Guangzhou. There are differences in spatial structure and intensity among functions of cultivated land. On the whole, the functional pattern of cultivated land in Guangzhou shows that the north is the strongest, followed by the south, and the central part is the weakest. These functions are affected by the abundance of cultivated land resource, the terrain and the distance from the city center. 2) According to the results of Spearman rank correlation analysis, it is more performance for the collaborative relationship among functions. Because there is a strong relationship among functions, it can’t implement effective multifunctional cultivated land management through the optimization of a single function. However, harmonizing the relation and promoting regional cooperation can help to achieve it. 3) As its functions are dynamic, the management measures must be adjusted in different stages. In general, the cultivated land functions have a large room for improvement. To coordinate the relationship between functions is not only a matter of concern for multifunctional cultivated land management, but also one of the important challenges to find the path of effective management. According to the current development situation and demand of Guangzhou, the paper discusses the policy of multifunctional cultivated land management from the aspects of coordinating the development and management of cultivated land, developing cultivated land functions according to local conditions and giving more preference to protect the rights and interests of all parties. We need to rediscover the cultivated land, reconstruct the value of cultivated land functions and find ways to achieve sustainable development of cultivated land, so as to protect the cultivated land, promote urban development and achieve social harmony.
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    Physical Properties of the Seabed Inversed by Chirp Data in the Qiongzhou Strait
    CHEN Jing,LYU Xiuya,CHEN Liang,ZHENG Hongbo,LIN Qiujin
    2017, 37 (6):  874-879.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002943
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    The Chirp sub-bottom data can not only characterize the geological structure information of stratum, but also can inverse the physical properties of surface sediments in seabed. Chirp signal is generated by computer with stable energy and good consistency. Formulated-frequency technology is applied to Chirp sub-bottom profiler, and higher frequency gradually attenuates when the signals travel through the sub-bottom sediments. We could study the changes of the physical properties of the sub-bottom sediments by the varieties of the attenuation. This paper uses the chirp data got from the cable route survey of China Southern Power Grid second connecting with Hainan Grid and Biot-Stoll model to inverse the physical properties of surface sediments in seabed of this sea area, and get the inversion velocity, density, porosity of surface sediments. The relative errors of inversion porosity, density are less than 10%, as compared with those of situ detection, which states that the inversion data are basically consistent with the situ detection data. This method can inverse the physical properties of surface sediments on the whole sub-bottom profile continuously, but needs to be optimized to improve the accuracy. This indicates that using chirp data to inverse the physical properties of surface sediments in seabed in Qiongzhou Strait sea area by Biot-Stoll model is feasible, which provides a new choice to get the physical properties of surface sediments indirectly in this sea area, and a new reference of using sub-bottom data in sea engineering survey.
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    Common Problems in Academic Writing:Based on the Peer Review of the Papers in Tropical Geography in Recent Years
    LI Xiaoling
    2017, 37 (6):  880-886.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003015
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    Based on the peer review of the papers in Tropical Geography in recent years, according to the structural framework of academic paper, the common problems in the academic writing about title, abstract, keywords, introduction, data, material, research method, result, discussion, conclusion and reference are summarized. They are analyzed and explained with some typical cases, so that the readers can have better understanding of the problems. The summary, analysis and explanation of these common problems would have certain practical guidance to the editors and the authors.

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