Table of Content

    05 January 2022, Volume 42 Issue 1 Previous Issue   
    Geographical Contributions and Prospects of Chinese Heritage Studies in the Past 30 Years
    Juan Zeng, Yuanxi Liu, Lin Lin, Shiqin Xiong
    2022, 42 (1):  1-15.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003418
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    In the past 30 years, the study of Chinese heritage at home and abroad has gradually increased. Influenced by Western heritage research, Chinese heritage research has been developed and conducted independently, forming a huge interdisciplinary heritage research system with unique Chinese academic characteristics. Among them, architecture has led to the evaluation, repair, and activation of heritage material carriers. Sociology has focused on the excavation and construction of heritage history and cultural value. Archaeology has continued to promote heritage archaeology and interpretation. Geography, with its comprehensive vision, has made abundant achievements and become increasingly important, but its research context is rather vague. Therefore, to clarify the specific geographical contribution in the field of heritage research, this study, based on CNKI, CSSCI, WOS, and other databases, uses the knowledge graph tool to sort 1,172 geographical papers from 1990 to 2020. The contributions of this study are as follows: The first concerns obvious stage characteristics. The number of studies has increased rapidly since 2005, peaking thrice in the last decade. The number of articles presented a "zigzag" type development trend, and keywords showed olive type development characteristics. The research has experienced the initial stage of "World Heritage" (1990-2004), the multi-exploration stage of "intangible cultural Heritage", "agricultural heritage" and many other topics (2005-2012), and the in-depth research stage focusing on practice and theory (2013-2020). Second, the cooperation network of scholars presents a "small agglomeration and large dispersion" pattern. This includes a large number of independent scholars, small coauthors scattered sporadically, and a closely linked aggregation group in which the core authors have a high primacy ratio. Third, cultural heritage research is the largest in quantity. The content involves agricultural cultural heritage, intangible cultural heritage, world heritage, and other sections. Agricultural heritage research is at the forefront of the international and becomes hotspots in geographical heritage research, with the literature focusing on the impact of ecologically sustainable environmental change and tourism development and utilization, and gradually expanding its scope to include the origin of the evolution of agricultural, landscape, economic and cultural value research. Based on the analysis of 198 papers with a high citation rate, this study shows the geographical research characteristics of emphasizing the orientation of reality and practice, focusing on the relationship between subject and object, and attaching importance to spatial analysis. In the future, geography should make more contributions to consolidate the leading position of agricultural heritage research, promote theoretical output, build the heritage research academic community, and expand the multi-perspective of heritage research.

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    Review of Chinese Intangible Cultural Heritage Research since the 21st Century: With the Possible Contribution of Geography
    Wei Tao, Haohui Cai
    2022, 42 (1):  16-28.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003428
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    It is an era of "heritage" that we live in. After nearly two decades of practice and exploration, the social and academic circles have accumulated rich experience in the protection of intangible cultural heritage, especially the scholars of ethnology and art, who have made outstanding contributions to the development of intangible cultural heritage (ICH) protection system with local characteristics. However, comprehensive and critical geographical studies have paid less attention to this topic with less contribution. Firstly, this paper reviews the practice of intangible cultural heritage protection since 2003, starting from the birth of the concept of "intangible cultural heritage" and the revival of Chinese traditional folklore culture. The research progress of China's intangible cultural heritage is analyzed through the database of CNKI. And it is found that the intangible cultural heritage research has experienced two periods-rapid prosperity and steady growth, but relatively few papers have been published in high-quality and geographical journals. Due to the large number of related papers, it is impossible or unnecessary to exhaust all research topics. Therefore, based on the research and practical experience, three key topics in the academic research of intangible cultural heritage are summarized: "characteristics and the construction of meaning", "transmission and the reflection on systems", and "development and community initiative". And Section 3.1 focuses on the basic characteristics of intangible cultural heritage, the importance of intangible cultural heritage as social construction, and the significance of "making" intangible cultural heritage. The current basic laws and regulations for the protection and transmission of China's intangible cultural heritage-representative projects and representative transmitters of intangible cultural heritage are re-examined. It is called for respect for the views and opinions of community group when turning to the "community" in intangible cultural heritage. And it is believed that Chinese scholars have formed a new method and new theoretical system of intangible cultural heritage research with local Chinese characteristics, by actively learning from the academic achievements of western critical heritage research. Secondly, intangible cultural heritage has been incorporated into the national political system as an important cultural resource to promote the implementation of major national strategies. Rethinking the significance and role of intangible cultural heritage under the three geographical national strategies of rural revitalization, urban development and cultural nation, it is found that as a unique cultural resource, intangible cultural heritage plays an important role in promoting the implementation of major national strategies and urban and rural development. And it is believed that the social significance and academic value of intangible cultural heritage should be further explored continuously. Finally, five possible topics for geographers to study intangible cultural heritage are proposed in this paper-transmitters' daily life, social justice, mobility, natural and cultural interaction and international communication, so as to encourage and inspire the geographical research of intangible cultural heritage in the future.

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    The Superposition of Place Meaning and Place Identity of Qiaoxiang in the Context of Tourism Development: A Case Study of Wulin, Jinjiang, Quanzhou
    Yong Yang, Yongguang Zou, Qi Sun
    2022, 42 (1):  29-42.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003422
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    Using qualitative research methods and taking Wulin in Jinjiang, Quanzhou City as an example, this study investigated the construction characteristics of Qiaoxiang's place meaning superposition from three aspects: entity dimension, social relations and local values, and revealed the superposition process of the place meaning of Qiaoxiang under the background of tourism development and the resulting place identity problems of different subjects including overseas Chinese. The study found that: (1) The superposition of place meaning under the dislocation of man and land is mainly completed through transmission mechanisms such as imagination and tourism system, which makes the overseas Chinese "absent in form" but "present everywhere in content" in Qiaoxiang, and promotes the transformation of Wulin into a place pattern mixed with tradition and modernity. (2) The superposition of place meaning has the attribute of relationship, and multivariate interactions are the remarkable features during its formation. The place meaning is essentially a manifestation of the man-land relationship. When the man-land relationship is no longer determined by the traditional geographic relationship or kinship, the weak bond relationship between man and land cannot be consolidated by the place meaning, which is manifested as the alienation of the relationship of "overseas Chinese-family members-hometown". (3) In terms of local values, the place meaning of Qiaoxiang has experienced a meaning superposition from the home scale to the national and ethnic scales, highlighting the selective representation of power on the place meaning in the context of tourism, and dynamically displaying the controversy on the orientation of spatial values of different subjects and the guidance of the national mainstream cultural values to the local. (4) In the context of tourism development, the superposition of the place meaning of Qiaoxiang has triggered the instrumental and selective "shopping cart" identity of overseas Chinese and the differentiated identity of local residents, and the identity structure of different subjects is full of tension, differentiation and even conflict.

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    Perception of Brand Personality of Urban Cultural Heritage: A Case Study of Qiming Li, Jiangmen, Guangdong
    Mingliang Lin, Minghui Yang
    2022, 42 (1):  43-54.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003419
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    Place branding is an important means of enhancing place value. It promotes the competitiveness of a place by delivering a unique image distinguished from other places to the audience, to stimulate the development of the local economy and enhance the value of the place. Place branding is not merely a simple top-down marketing process, but a process in which multiple stakeholders collectively assign value to a place. Consequently, more scholars have begun to consider how consumers perceive place brands from the bottom-up. Existing marketing research has focused on the implicit aspects of brand perception. The measurement of implicit perception helps to better predict consumer preferences and behavior. Therefore, psychology, neuroscience, and cognitive science methods are used for brand perception. However, place branding has insufficiently considered implicit attitudes. The complexity of place branding lies in the fact that it is affected by the interaction between humans and places, and the differences in the meanings of different groups in the construction of places lead to contradictions in the meaning of place brands. Non-representational theory can provide an epistemological explanation for solving implicit and unconscious spatial practices in human-place interactions. This study posits that the combination of non-representational theory and psychological methods will help provide a new research approach for the implicit perception of place brands. Therefore, this study adopted Qiming Li in Jiangmen, Guangdong Province, as an example. Based on the priming paradigm, this study used brand personality questionnaire surveys and clue task experiments to analyze people's perceptions of place brand personality. By comparing the differences in implicit attitudes between residents and non-residents, and the differences between the explicit and implicit perceptions of local residents, we analyzed the impact of people's implicit perceptions on the construction of place branding. The results revealed that due to the difference in daily life experience between residents and non-residents, they have constructed different place meanings in Qiming Li. Non-residents regarded it as an urban renewal project, while local residents integrated daily life memories and experiences with it, leading to differences in implicit perception. The difference between the explicit and implicit attitudes of local residents indicated that the place brand of Qiming Li was only a consumption and self-expression tool, which had generated a functional level of place identity, but lacked recognition at the affective and value levels. People's perceptions of both explicit and implicit perceptions contributed to the construction of the meaning of place brands. Therefore, place branding needs to consider non-representational experiences and eliminate non-representation through bottom-up participation. Representational memories, emotions, and experiences were integrated into the brand narrative. This study helps compensate for the lack of focus on implicit cognition in past place brand research, and attempts to provide an explanation of the human-place interaction. The impact of people's daily life experience, embodied cognition, and place identity into the brand enables place branding to gain sustainable value proliferation.

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    The Mechanism of the Influence of Tourists' Perceived Cultural Distance on Ethnic Cultural Heritage Intention
    Jiaguo Wang, Haixin Yang, Mi Zheng
    2022, 42 (1):  55-66.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003424
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    Although the impact of perceived cultural distance on tourists' behavioral intention has attracted great attention from tourism academic circles, relevant research conclusions are inconsistent and the action mechanism is unclear. Based on the theoretical framework of "cognitive-affective-conative" and by introducing the theory of travel career pattern, this study constructs a research model that includes Tourists' Perceived Cultural Distance (TPCD), perceived novelty, perceived cultural risk, cultural experience intention, and tourism experience. Taking two typical ethnic cultural heritage tourist destinations as case sites, a total of 705 valid questionnaires were collected. Partial Least Squares-Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM) tools were used to examine the path, mediation effect, and moderation effect of the structural model. There were three significant findings. First, TPCD positively affects perceived novelty and perceived cultural risks, and perceived novelty positively influences cultural experience intention, while perceived cultural risks negatively affect cultural experience intention. Second, perceived novelty and cultural risk play an intermediary role in the process of TPCD's influence on cultural experience intention, verifying the scientificity and applicability of the "cognitive-affective-conative" theoretical framework. Third, tourism experience negatively regulates the positive impact of TPCD on perceived cultural risk, and the moderating effect of TPCD on the positive impact of perceived novelty is not significant, thus demonstrating that tourism experience is insufficient to influence the relationship between TPCD and perceived novelty. The research has found a more reasonable explanation mechanism for the inconsistent conclusions of the simple attribution study of cultural distance-tourist behavior, exploring the complex psychological mechanism of the influence of TPCD on cultural experience intention. This article explains the hypothetical path from three standpoints: the cognitive, affective, and conative stages. It verifies the important mediating role of perceived novelty and cultural risk, and the moderating effect of tourism experience based on the theory of travel career pattern. In addition, a unique contribution of this paper is that it breaks through the limitations of previous similar studies in terms of research subjects. Most of the existing studies have been conducted on transnational tourists in international tourism scenarios, while our study finds that cultural distance has an equally significant effect on travelers' behavioral intentions in ethnic tourism contexts within the same country.

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    Continuous Space Production of Living Heritage Sites Based on TSL Model: A Case Study of the Old Town of Lijiang
    Min Zhao, Peng Li, Changchun Chen, Zhiwei Bian
    2022, 42 (1):  67-77.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003427
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    Living heritage sites will have continuous changes in continuous use, and the general rule of their evolution has not been systematically studied. The evolution of living heritage sites is a continuous space production process. It is of great significance to reveal its characteristics and logic for the protection, utilization and inheritance of living heritage sites. Tradition, site and living are the three elements to express the liveness of heritage sites. The three elements are coupled with the "spatial ternary dialectics" (representation of space - space practice-space of representation) to build a TSL (Tradition-Site-Living) model. Applying this model to study Old Town of Lijiang, it is found that: 1) The Old Town has experienced three stages of space production, namely "consumption in space" around the intention of the ruling class under the guidance of political function, "production in space" around the needs of the citizen class under the guidance of industrial and commercial function, and "space production and consumption" centered on the activities of outside operators and tourists under the guidance of tourism function. Core communities have played a key role, and the reconstruction of core communities in different periods has a direct impact on the transformation of space production. 2) The change of external environment factors promotes the succession of the core use functions of the Old Town, triggering the interaction of living, site and tradition, so as to realize the space production process of each stage. The function adjustment is inseparable from the transformation of physical space, and the shaping of place will lead to the change of social life and the variation of cultural tradition. The power subject in social relations restricts the shaping of place and guides social life through traditional construction. The reconstruction of social relations can promote cultural exchanges and traditional evolution, and the transformation of lifestyle will promote the adjustment and optimization of physical space. 3) The continuous space production of living heritage sites is the result of the operation of endogenous mechanism driven by external factors, which follows three logics: the continuous change of time and space, the driving of external environmental factors and the operation of internal living elements. The logic of temporal and spatial continuous change shows that the living heritage sites are constantly changing in the continuous space production, but always inherit the historical and cultural value. The driving logic of external environmental factors shows that the change of external political and economic environment leads to the transformation of physical space, and the change of external social and cultural environment leads to the change of social structure, lifestyle and cultural representation. The operation logic of internal living elements shows that the ternary interaction of "living-site-tradition" is the operating mechanism of continuous space production of living heritage sites. The living heritage site is a space-time continuum composed of time, environment and space, and the TSL model provides a theoretical framework for revealing the basic rule of continuous changes in living heritage sites.

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    Process, Characteristics and Mechanism of Spatial Transformation in Traditional Villages from the Perspective of Spatial Production: A Case Study of Maihuayucun Village in Huangshan City
    Xiaohua Chen, Yongyan Huang, Xiuxian Wang
    2022, 42 (1):  78-86.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003425
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    Traditional villages are the best witness of the process of agriculture civilization, with rich material and intangible culture heritage. However, under the influence of rapid urbanization, industrialization and globalization, the development of traditional villages is faced with dilemmas such as the decline of material space, the inactivation of cultural space and the hollowing of social space. Scientifically guiding the function renewal and spatial adaptive transformation of traditional villages is not only the practical needs of their protection and development, but also an important topic of rural development and planning research in China. Taking the national traditional village Maihuayucun Village in Huangshan City as an example, on the basis of field investigation, combined with the relevant literature review, and based on the perspective of "ternary dialectics" of space production, this paper analyzes the spatial transformation process, characteristics and driving mechanism of traditional villages from the three dimensions of material space, social space and institutional space. The results show that: (1) Since the reform and opening up, Maihuayucun Village has gradually evolved from a traditional agricultural village to an industrial village characterized with bonsai industry, which has experienced three stages: endogenous slow transformation and development, exogenous space rapid expansion and orderly space quality improvement. (2) The spatial transformation of traditional villages is characterized by the functional differentiation and remodeling of material space, the disintegration and reconstruction of social space, and the gradual improvement of institutional space. The space function has gradually changed from the traditional production and living function to multiple composite functions such as ecological leisure, characteristic bonsai planting, commercial operation and service, and cultural inheritance and display. The livelihood of villagers has been diversified, from the traditional single agricultural planting industry to the diversified livelihood methods such as bonsai management, farmhouse entertainment, and tourism services, and the social relations have changed from closed tradition to open and modern. And the subject of institutional space has changed from the dual subject of village committee and villagers to the multiple subject of government, village committee, villagers, capital and tourists. (3) The changes of social relations, capital investment and power intervention are the main driving forces for the spatial production of Maihuayucun Village. The three forces interact and promote the interactive evolution of social space, material space and institutional space, and jointly promote the spatial transformation. With the disintegration of traditional agricultural economy and the growth of bonsai industry, the growing demand for production and residence of villagers has promoted the continuous expansion and transformation of village material space. Driven by bonsai industry and rural tourism, the exogenous construction of villages has developed rapidly, and the support of a large amount of external capital has provided a strong driving force for the spatial transformation of villages. A series of rural development policies and measures issued by the state, especially the implementation of the rural revitalization strategy, provide strategic guidance and policy guarantee for the protection, development and spatial transformation of traditional villages. In the context of rural revitalization and integrated rural and urban development in the new era, and the increasingly complex relationship between man and land in rural areas, it is particularly important to explore the differentiated and distinctive path of China's rural transformation and development. And the research on the temporal and spatial characteristics and mechanism of rural spatial transformation of different types and different spatial scales needs to be further broken through. This paper can provide reference for relevant researches in terms of research perspective, research ideas and research spatial scale, and provide guidance for the protection, development and planning of traditional villages

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    Reproduction of Tourism Space in Ethnic Villages under the Practice of Multiple Power Subjects: A Case Study of Zhaoxing Dong Village in Guizhou Province
    Baoling Dong, Kai Bai, Yonghong Chen
    2022, 42 (1):  87-99.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003421
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    In the context of tourism development, modernization and commercialization relentlessly colonize ethnic areas, reshaping the physical, social, and significant spaces of tourism destinations. Due to the influx of capital and the change of power subjects, ethnic tourism villages have become a new reality through the continuous deconstruction and construction of multiple subjects. The separation and integration of modernity and tradition has led to the alienation and tension of village social relations and structure. To examine the power subjects, spatial forms, spatial relations, and emotions involved in the process of tourism reproduction, this study, adopting Zhaoxing Dong village in Guizhou Province as a case, uses Lefebvre's theory of spatial production and the methods of field survey and in-depth interview to analyze the relationship between physical space, social space, and emotion from the three dimensions of social space and meaning space. This study assesses the "material-relationship-emotion" connection of multiple power subjects and self-consistency with tourism development. The results show the following. First, physical space can be replanned with the change of power subjects, which is conducive to the return of the labor force. The authenticity of villages can be maintained under discipline and control, but the constructed landscape symbol is the misplaced expression of ethnic villages. Second, for conflicts in the social space, local residents adopt the strategy of concession and do not withdraw, reaching a tacit understanding of space use and management at the wrong time with the managers. Zhailao, an authoritarian figure, has become a representative of resolving differences and promoting the consolidation and cohesion of social relations. Through the transfer and comprehensiveness of tourists and foreign operators, it reflects the open and inclusive hospitality and philosophy of local residents. Third, the meaning space can be reproduced through the local residents' emotional injection of festival events and culture, the inheritance of cultural habits, the inheritance of local conventions, and the memory and imagination of nostalgic things. From the perspective of tourism space reproduction, the study reviews and examines the multi space of Zhaoxing Dong village tourism and concludes that there are many social problems in Zhaoxing village, which imply many social contradictions. However, under the consensus of sharing interests, positive games, and harmonious coexistence, the multi-power subjects in Zhaoxing village have different opinions. After evaluating the development trend and potential of local tourism, they will make their own spatial arrangement, spatial compromise, relationship concession, and emotional adjustment under the consideration of multi-mediation, multi-organization coordination, and multi-relationships, to adapt to the changes in the physical, social, and meaning spaces engendered by tourism development. These changes can help shape the modern local culture, maintain the original rural style, embody ethnic customs, and carry forward rural humanistic and moral values. Moreover, they can provide a practical reference for the sustainable development of tourism and the prosperity and revitalization of beautiful ethnic villages.

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    Optimization of Cultural Heritage Site Governance Based on the Perspective of Community Empowerment: A Case Study of Rebala Village
    Xinxin Chen, Bohua Li, Yindi Dou, Hongri Tan, Peilin Liu
    2022, 42 (1):  100-112.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003416
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    Based on the perspective of community empowerment, this study integrates research on cultural heritage site governance, clarifying the current situation of cultural heritage site governance in the context of tourism development. Through the process of community empowerment, the phenomenon of "power loss in community" caused by tourism is transformed into "community empowerment." The study considered the village of Jabala in Longshan County, Hunan Province as an example and, using text analysis and in-depth interview methods, analyzed how to optimize the governance path of cultural heritage sites. The results indicated the following: (1) the power loss in the cultural heritage site community is embodied in four aspects: economic, psychological, social, and political loss. The economic loss in communities is embodied in uneven employment opportunities, unequal income and remuneration, and uneven development opportunities. Psychological loss in communities is affected by multiple factors such as lack of development opportunities for residents, lack of government support, and a wide gap between residents' psychology and reality. Psychological loss is a weakening of local value identity and the local attachment complex. The social loss of communities is affected by the discouragement of the dissemination of traditional culture and a fracture of the social network. The political "aphasia" of community residents hinders their willingness to stay in their hometowns. (2) Cultural heritage sites redistribute resources, rights, and capital through community empowerment methods such as "power to," "power with," and "power from within." "Power to" and "power from within" achieve effects through three levels: the protection and inheritance of intangible cultural heritage resources, the protection and utilization of tangible cultural heritage resources, and the activation and creation of public spaces. "Power with" aims to jointly plan community affairs and rationally allocate space resources and benefits. (3) Regarding "power with," strengthening policy transparency and community discourse will help community entities participate in governance. Regarding "power to," expanding resource distribution channels and strengthening cooperation between entities will help expand the channels of community governance. Regarding "power from within," standardizing governance entities, governance objects, and supervision methods will help refine community governance policies. Research will help improve the theoretical system of cultural heritage governance, optimize the governance path of cultural heritage sites, and provide references for the governance of other ethnic minority cultural heritage sites. It is an active exploration of local governance strategies, such as the activation of cultural heritage sites and the creation of public spaces. This study explores "how to optimize the governance of cultural heritage sites." In the future, based on this research, we will deepen the discussion on "how the community will interact with cultural heritage sites after being empowered," interpreting "the response to the optimized cultural heritage site" and perfecting the overall framework for research on the governance path of cultural heritage sites.

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    The Logic and Test of the Industrial Policy of "Active Government" in Towns: The Perspective of New Structural Economics
    Da Li, Shaowen Zhang
    2022, 42 (1):  113-122.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003420
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    From targeted poverty alleviation to rural revitalization and from industrial poverty alleviation to industrial prosperity, the township government is the policy frontier in the implementation of the national strategy. In this regard, the cohesion, rationality, effectiveness of policies, and even industrial policies are key indicators for testing the governance capabilities of grassroots governments. To understand why the township government chooses the right industry and formulate a reasonable industrial policy in rural revitalization, the new structural economics of "growth identification and contingent guidance framework" is used to analyze and put forward a logical framework for the evolution of the industrial policy of the township's "active government." This involves the following. The first is industry selection, i.e., selecting industries with similar resource endowments and constraints based on the "two-step six-track method"; relying on the growth identification and facilitation framework (GIFF) analysis framework of new structural economics; selecting industries based on the science of historical culture, institutional background, geographical environment, and economic foundation; and "to cross the river by feeling the stones." When choosing a target, do not surpass the limits of your own development and blindly seek high level and fast speed. It is necessary to set the annual target reasonably to ensure "jump and touch." The second is policy formulation, i.e., formulating reasonable policy content and selecting appropriate policy tools for the selected industries to support industrial development. It involves in-depth analysis of the constraints of the selected industries; prescribing the right remedy; putting forward the basic outline of the policy; and grasping the policy direction. By eliminating industrial constraints, industrial cultivation, and enterprise support, the industrial structure can be gradually adjusted and optimized, and the development of leading industries can be steadily promoted. It further involves focusing on relying on the private market, information, subsidies, and other policy tools as the main means, and using the "active government" to guide enterprises to gain development space through the "effective market." Based on the aforementioned logical framework, the present situation of the industry in Menghan Town, Xishuangbanna Prefecture, Yunnan Province, and the comparative advantage industries of target townships were analyzed; specific policy recommendations were provided for the industrial development of Menghan Town; and a practical test of the logical framework was completed. The township government should constantly adjust the goals and means of industrial policy in the next stage according to the development stage and constraints. First, it is necessary to examine the comparative advantages of poverty alleviation industries, find targets within counties and provinces, and classify poverty alleviation industries scientifically. Conversely, appropriate policy tools must be selected to effectively eliminate constraints on industrial development and pave the way for the continued prosperity in the industry. Finally, the "active government" should make arrangements in advance and guide the industry to develop toward the two ends of the "smiling curve" through policies such as fiscal subsidies and tax reductions and exemptions.

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    Spatial Distribution Characteristics and Influencing Factors for Homestay Inns in Southern Jiangsu and Northern Zhejiang
    Shikun Shen, Chunyun Shi
    2022, 42 (1):  123-135.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003417
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    With the acceleration of urbanization and industrialization, the migration of rural labor force has led to the decline of rural industries and communities. As one important way to adjust the rural industrial structure and revitalize rural culture, rural tourism has developed through the rural revitalization strategy and the leisure tourism transformation. In this context, with the use of idle housing resources, homestay inns are meeting consumers' increasing demand for leisure, while also improving facility capability regarding rural tourism, maintaining local landscape, and becoming an important industry for rural tourism. Thus, we took southern Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang, which have strong economic power and close regional cooperation, as examples, and used the location retrieval service in the Baidu Map API to obtain information on homestay inns. Then, we analyzed the spatial distribution characteristics of homestay inns with the help of ArcGIS, and Geodetector was used to further analyze the influencing factors leading to the spatial differentiation of homestay inns. The main conclusions are summarized as follows: (1) Homestay inns in southern Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang are both clustered in terms of spatial distribution, and tend to be distributed in areas with low terrain and water systems around tourism resources and traffic roads. (2) Homestay inns in southern Jiangsu have differences in the degree of agglomeration among cities, showing "a lumpy distribution of four core and secondary centers," while the spatial agglomeration of homestay inns in northern Zhejiang is balanced and has a wide range of contiguous areas, with a gradient distribution in the west, east, and middle. (3) Consumption level, market conditions, and traffic capacity are important common factors affecting the distribution of homestay inns. Interactions between any two factors enhances the explanatory power of the spatial differentiation, which proves that the unique distribution phenomenon of homestay inns is formed under the interaction of multiple influencing factors. (4) Homestay inns in northern Zhejiang are weakly affected by objective factors. In addition, the spatial distribution of homestay inns along a lake or river is a distinguishing characteristic between southern Jiangsu and northern Zhejiang. Homestay inns in southern Jiangsu are usually close to scenic spots, while homestay inns in northern Zhejiang are less dependent on tourism resources. Overall, the study aims to provide a reference for factors suitable for homestay inn operation and those to be improved, and to promote the transformation and rational layout of the homestay industry. The study is of practical significance to the distribution planning of homestay inns in areas with higher economic development, and it also summarizes the distribution characteristics of typical clusters of homestay inns.

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    Features, Models and Logic of Function Renewal of "Living-Production-Ecological" Space in Tourism-Driven Traditional Villages: A Case Study of Zhang Guying Village, Hunan Province
    Yindi Dou, Weiyi Ye, Bohua Li
    2022, 42 (1):  136-147.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003423
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    In the context of new urbanization and rural revitalization, analyzing the function renewal features, modes and logic of traditional villages based on the perspective of "living-production-ecological" space can reflect the multi-functional value mining process and the socio-economic structure transformation process of tourism-driven traditional villages to a certain extent. This study sorts out the spatial function evolution of Zhang Guying Village in the past 30 years through field investigation, constructing the land use transformation matrix by using GIS spatial overlay, and makes empirical research on the function renewal features of the "living-production-ecological" space in Zhang Guying Village.The research conclusions are as follows: 1) The function renewal of the "living-production-ecological" space in Zhang Guying Village is mainly manifested in the tourism adaptability characteristics of the integration of production and residence in life functions, tourism of production functions, landscaping of ecological functions, and diversification of tourism functions, showing the development trend of the integration of "production-life" and "ecology-production" functions based on the rural authentic experience, as well as the spatio-temporal differentiation characteristics of the degree of functional renewal in space and orderly deepening in time. 2) The "living-production-ecological" space system of Zhang Guying Village realizes the renewal and integrated development of tourism functions of traditional functional space through three modes: the development of human landscape and the excavation of folk culture of living space, the construction of diversified and high-quality tourism service modules of production space, and the conservation of ecological environment and natural landscape combing of ecological space. It has obvious functional space transformation and integration direction and interactive characteristics of rural tourism and residence. 3) Tourism-driven rural society drives tourism development and functional renewal through the construction of supply-demand relationship, drives multi-stakeholders to participate in tourism management,through the extension of demonstration effects along with expanding the scope of function renewal and deepening the degree of function renewal, and promotes the diversified development of tourism functions through host-guest interaction feedback. As a part of the "living-production-ecological" space system, under the interaction of various socio-economic elments, the tourism renewal process of spacial function also reflects the orderly change of spatial structure of orderly housing construction, agglomeration of production layout and expansion of ecological space, as well as the improvement of spatial attribute quality of production efficiency, improvement of living level and improvement of ecological environment, reflecting the co-evolution process of all aspects of the rural "living-production-ecological" space system. The quantitative analysis method adopted in this study is relatively simple. Although it complements the qualitative perspective and expounds the functional renewal features and modes of the "living-production-ecological" space in traditional villages, the research results are still subjective. Therefore, the research results of this study may deviate from the actual situation. As this study takes the features, modes and logic of functional renewal as the main analysis content, in the follow-up research, we can focus on a specific aspect of tourist villages, absorb the relevant theories and research methods of other disciplines, and carry out the thematic analysis of the impact of functional renewal. With the help of study site, this study constructs the spatial function renewal framework of the "living-production-ecological" space in traditional villages, so as to provide theoretical and empirical reference for the organic renewal and living development of traditional villages.

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    The Characteristics of Rural Homestead Housing in Guangdong Province Under the Background of Rural Revitalization
    Tao Xu, Ziyang Zhu, Huaxiang Ding, Jianneng Xiao, Yaolong Zhao
    2022, 42 (1):  148-159.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003426
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    Since the reform and opening up, China has achieved great progress in industrialization and urbanization. However, due to the long-term implementation of the economic development model of "emphasizing cities over township" and the urban-rural dual system, the gap between urban and rural development is constantly increasing, and the problems of land resource allocation and contradiction between man and land in rural areas have gradually emerged. Rural homestead is the main place where farmers live, with unique land use characteristics. The information such as the structure and utilization status of houses on it can clearly reflect the local rural economic situation and homestead problems. Therefore, understanding the characteristics and differences of rural homestead housing is of great significance to understand and grasp the situation and problems of rural development and promote the implementation of rural revitalization strategy. Based on the rural cadastral survey data of Guangdong Province and combined with GIS spatial analysis method, this paper analyzes the characteristics of rural homestead housing. The results show that: (1) The rural housing in the study area is relatively low, mainly with one floor, supplemented by two and three floors, mainly brick and mixed structure, supplemented by concrete structure, and there is a certain correlation between the number of floors and the spatial distribution of the structure. Among them, the proportions of one storey house, brick structure and mixed structure house are 59.42%, 37.71% and 42.60% respectively. (2) There are obvious regional differences in the number of floors and structural spatial distribution of rural homestead housing in the study area. Low-rise, brick and mixed structure houses are mainly distributed in remote areas such as northern and western Guangdong, and high-rise and concrete structure houses are mostly concentrated in the Pearl River Delta. (3) The vacancy and idleness of rural homestead housing in the study area are common. The average vacancy rate and idle rate are 6.75% and 5.66% respectively, and the rate of one househould with multiple houses reaches 23.88%. The phenomenon of rural hollowing is obvious, and 50.87% of the villages in districts and counties are above the moderate hollowing, mainly distributed in the fringe area of the Pearl River Delta and Meizhou in northern Guangdong. At the same time, there is a certain phenomenon that the average household homestead area exceeds the standard. (4) The characteristics of rural housing utilization in Guangdong Province are affected by factors such as policies, economy, transportation, physical geographical condition and local customs. And the influencing factors in different regions are different, such as the special folk customs have a greater impact on rural housing in eastern Guangdong, and the economic situations and urban siphon have a greater impact on the characteristics of rural housing in the edge of the Pearl River Delta. There are obvious spatial differences in the utilization of rural homestead housing in Guangdong Province, and there are many idle homestead resources. There is great potential for the optimization and adjustment of rural construction land for rural revitalization.

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