05 February 2024, Volume 44 Issue 2 Previous Issue   
The Influence of Airport Service Quality on Air Travel Choices: A Case Study of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area
Wang Liao, Xiaoshu Cao, Tao Li, Xingchuan Gao
2024, 44 (2):  195-211.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003819
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High-quality air service is important for achieving high-quality aviation development. As the primary customers of air travel services, passengers are the most important evaluators of the service. Therefore, research on their air travel choices is key for promoting the coordination of multi-airport regions. Based on stochastic utility psychological perception theories, this study discusses the impact of the key dimension of airport service quality on air travel choices using the structural equation model-logit model. The results show that air travel choice is not a simple linear extension of behavioral intentions as there are two key dimensions of airport service quality: First, mandatory service processing is inevitably the most time-consuming and tedious process for passengers at airports. This waiting time is perceived as a sign of low airport service capability, whereas the level and quality of service provided by staff in this process is an intangible factor for passengers. This in turn affects the level of passengers' ratings of airport services, especially for business travelers. Therefore, airports need to recognize the time and resource constraints of passengers and work with airlines to streamline the check-in process, ensure security control, and reduce waiting time. One solution is to use shared self-service devices or automated robots that allow any passenger of any airline or flight to check-in and check-out on the same device. Second, while facilities, equipment, and environment are not universal considerations for passengers, differences in passenger perceptions are evident between airport types. Within multi-airport regions, the facilities, equipment, and environment of major airports are above passengers' psychological expectations, while auxiliary or other airports need to pay more attention to this service, which illustrates that the improvement of airport service quality requires changes to unidimensional and monolithic thinking but also focus on passengers' overall perception of service experience from a multidimensional perspective, as well as consideration of the spatial and temporal characteristics of different airport types in the multi-airport region to make targeted improvements. Moreover, passengers do not have an obvious preference for particular airlines, but low-cost airlines still hold a certain appeal for passengers when they take off from regional airports, which also means that low-cost airlines ' entry into the market has anti-risk properties for regional airports. Within the limits of China's aviation controls, the presence of low-cost carriers can still improve the chances of an airport being chosen. Therefore, different airport types within the same multi-airport region often need to compete differently to achieve regional synergistic development. To enhance airport service quality, it is essential to fine tune service quality standards, based on airport's types. The improvement of airports' performance should include a phased integration of assessments of service experience settings. Airports should adopt differentiated spatial designs for their service functions based on the goal of airport integration, with a view to achieving optimal management at minimal cost while being able to effectively guide passengers in their air travel choices.

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Zoning of Territorial Space for Ecological Restoration Based on Potential Ecological Background Pattern Framework: A Case Study of the Guangdong-Hong Kong- Macao Greater Bay Area
Wei Zhang, Nao Long, Shenggang Li, Long Wang
2024, 44 (2):  212-225.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003817
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Ecological restoration zoning is the concept of carrying out ecological restoration scientifically. In existing zoning studies, an effective technical solution is to use ecosystem service supply and ecological security pattern analysis as starting points. These studies have mostly focused on the negative ecological effects of high-intensity human activities and are still essentially focused on at-risk areas. Zoning is used for identification, the potential for effective regional ecological restoration is not considered systematically, and there is insufficient support for the theory and practice of ecological restoration. However, ecological restoration is a product of human society and economic processes of input and output. In addition to accurately identifying ecological risk areas, research on restoration zones should also consider regional ecological protection policies and economic differences to increase investment in environmental protection and improve the effectiveness of ecological protection in a targeted manner. Based on the current paradigm, the spatio-temporal matching of social economy and natural resources is taken into consideration, to realize the optimization of an ecological restoration zoning technical scheme. Taking the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area as an example, a regional framework for the ecological restoration of land space based on ecological background pattern and potential was constructed. The results show that ecosystem services have declined significantly in the past ten years, and there are areas with good natural resilience and strong support from protection policies. Township as the unit of ecological restoration zoning. 1) The ecological maintenance area accounts for 7.7% of the total area, and focus should be on comprehensive improvement to promote economic and ecological sustainability. 2) The ecological protection area accounts for 44.5%, and focus should be on protection and stronger policy control. 3) The ecological improvement area account for 11.9%, and diversified and continuous maintenance measures should be adopted to strengthen the redundancy of regional ecological network. 4) The ecological restoration area accounts for 35.9%, and the priority for restoration should be areas with high natural resilience and policy support, and should mainly comprise long-term restoration projects. The coordinated restoration area has a high natural restoration; however, the policy support is insufficient. Cooperation with higher-level governments or with regional joint governance should be initiated to improve efficiency of the overall restoration in the region.

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Accessibility of Healthcare Resources to Public Housing in Shenzhen, China: Indirect Map Service and Optimized Two-Step Floating Catchment Area Method
Lirong Hu, Shenjing He, Shiliang Su
2024, 44 (2):  226-235.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003824
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In China, the equal accessibility of social infrastructure, especially public housing and healthcare, has become a prominent concern in solving the problems of rapid but uneven growth-oriented urbanization in the post-reform era. However, few studies have focused on the accessibility of various healthcare resources to different types of public housing using different transport modes. Utilizing Internet map services, this study first calculated the travel time from talent, economically affordable, and public rental housing to hospitals using three transport modes—walking, public transport, and driving—in Shenzhen, China. Subsequently, the optimized two-step floating catchment area method (2SFCA) was employed to comprehensively evaluate the accessibility of healthcare resources to public housing and explore differences in healthcare accessibility among different populations. The results reveal that: (1) Public housing is located far away from healthcare resources, with 15% of public housing unable to access AAA hospitals within 30 minutes by car, and only 10% able to access ordinary hospitals within 15 minutes. (2) Accessibility of healthcare resources to public housing exhibits spatial heterogeneity, gradually declining from special to non-special economic zones. (3) Talent housing experiences the best accessibility, followed by affordable and public rental housing. (4) Public transportation and walking exhibit greater spatial variation in accessibility than driving. Theoretically, the current public housing accessibility in Shenzhen reflects the common problems of public housing accessibility throughout the country. In the process of promoting the equal accessibility of basic public services, focus on its accessibility should be emphasized. This study proposes an optimized 2SFCA by introducing a Gaussian distance decay function, establishing a multilevel search radius, considering supply and demand-side competition effects, and using real-time traffic big data. Our methodological framework simultaneously considers differences among various types of public housing, hospitals with different service capacities, and diverse travel modes. This provides a new research perspective for a comprehensive and thorough understanding of the equal accessibility of basic public services.

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Effects of Built Environment on the Spatio-Temporal Trajectories of Shared Bicycles: A Case Study of Shenzhen
Zhenhai Xiang, Qing Li, Liang Hong, Jie Sheng, Pengfei Ban
2024, 44 (2):  236-247.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003829
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With the rapid development, shared bicycles have gradually become an important part of slow urban traffic in China and have played an important role in satisfying the travel needs and facilitating the transfer of residents. Exploring the spatial and temporal characteristics of the impact of the built environment on shared bike travel is of practical importance to reshape the construction of low-carbon transportation and an urban-friendly cycling environment dominated by slow traffic and public transportation. We analyzed the spatio-temporal characteristics of shared bicycle travel through multi-source big data including Shenzhen's shared bicycle OD data, OSM road network data, Baidu Street View, and POIs and used a multi-scale geographical weighted regression model (MGWR) based on the "5D" index of the built environment to analyze the spatial difference characteristics of the impact of different built environment on shared bicycle flow. The findings of the research indicate that: (1) In terms of time, the shared bicycle flow in the morning and evening peaks of both working and rest days is more significant than that of other periods, and the peak period of the remaining days lags behind that of the working days. (2) In terms of space, the spatial distribution characteristics of the traffic flow of shared bicycles during each peak period exhibit a spatial pattern of "multiple aggregation cores and several extended belts." (3) Significant differences were observed in the impact of various built environmental factors on the flow of shared bicycle travel, among which, employment facility density, enclosure degree and population density had a positive effect in each period; their influences were globally significant; and the remaining factors demonstrated varied characteristics in each period. (4) Factors with significant influence showed different spatial scales in different periods. The spatial changes of employment facility density and enclosure in each period were generally flat; the spatial changes of proximity, density of shopping facilities, and the nearest distance to subway stations in some periods were generally flat; the spatial changes of building continuity and relative walking width were obvious in some periods. Moreover, population density and green vision rate had different spatial characteristics in different periods. This study restores the travel track of shared bicycles, analyzes the spatiotemporal characteristics of shared bicycle travel in multiple periods of working days and rest days and long-term series, and increases micro-built environment factors of subjective perception of people and experience dimension based on existing objective material space environment variables, to explore the spatiotemporal differences of the impact of different built environments on the travel flow of shared bicycles which compensate for the existing shared-bike travel time and space characteristics, build a shortage of environmental impact research, and provide references for the construction of an urban-friendly cycling environment and the creation of a slow walking space.

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Endogenous Problem of Fishermen's Livelihood in South China Sea: Based on Field Work of Naozhou Island in Guangdong
Facheng Gao
2024, 44 (2):  248-257.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003768
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Using fieldwork, this study investigated the endogenous issues of fishermen's livelihood vulnerability on Naozhou Island, Guangdong. Existing literature shows that current studies focus on external factors such as the resource reduction, climate impact, policy changes, and fishermen's mode of operation to explore the vulnerability of fishermen's livelihoods to reveal the resource-based impacts of fishermen's livelihood difficulties and to explain the impacts of exogenous factors on fishermen's livelihoods. However, to some extent, these studies have neglected fishermen's internal problems and failed to understand fishermen's perspective on whether the improvement of capital can offset fishermen's production inputs and improve their production relations. The study on Naozhou island found that the existing studies have ignored the endogenous problems of the fishermen's livelihood vulnerability; in the era of collective economy, each fisherman's family had a small boat, but the fishermen joined together to work for the "state" on a big boat. Currently, the market economy has ordered this type of cooperative relationship to disappear. Owing to the characteristics of marine fishing operations, everyone must help each other in cases of difficulties when going to sea. In the same boat, the crew members may be immediate or distant family members to avoid malicious harm. However, if production tools require high investment and fishery resources are scarce, cooperation is no longer important. Whoever has more money to purchase large ships has a greater opportunity to control the scarce fishery resources, which is essentially the change in production tools that led to a breakdown in production relations. Although fishermen still talk about traditional relatives' contact, the situation of "As soon as the ship arrives, there is nothing left" has made fishermen realize that competition is the essence of relationships in their fishing villages. Fishermen's mobility, combined with the outflows and reflows created by various realities at the time of the survey, further demonstrates that fishermen, as the labor force, are not able to participate in the market competition of labor factors, nor are they able to get rid of the fishing skills inherited from their parents. They want to leave behind their status as fishermen but have to rely on the status of fishermen for basic labor security. All of these aggregate into endogenous forces, ranging from the inputs of fishermen's production tools and their own skills to the ambiguity of their age and identity. This constitutes an endogenous mechanism for the vulnerability of fishermen's livelihoods, which offers a disincentive effect of institutional arrangements on fishermen's withdrawal from marine production and exacerbates the predatory exploitation of marine resources fueled by modern consumer markets. Consequently, it is difficult to determine the effectiveness of marine ecological protection policies. Research has shown that, based on Marx's theory of Productivity and Relations of Production, the vulnerability of fishermen's livelihoods is inherent in their own insurmountable rapid increase in productivity and their failure to establish relations of production that are adapted to the needs of productivity, which creates tensions in human–sea relations. Therefore, to solve the vulnerability of fishermen's livelihoods, it is necessary to start from the cultural specificities of fishermen, reform their relations of production from the inside out, update their skills, establish effective organizations, and gradually alleviate the tensions in human–sea relations to construct a community with a shared future for mankind and the ocean.

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Chinese Historical Perceptions of the Xisha Islands and Study of Changes under the Action of Wind, Tides, and Waves
Genqi Yan, Hao Wu
2024, 44 (2):  258-268.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003822
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This study provides an in-depth understanding of the islands and sandbars within the Xisha Islands, located in the South China Sea, with the aim of distinguishing them based on different geological, ecological, and historical features. The changes in the marine ecosystem and the conservation measures taken to maintain the rich biodiversity of the archipelago are also explored. The main objective of this study was to differentiate islands and sandbars based on geological, ecological, and historical criteria and to examine the period of formation, geological features, and altitudinal characteristics of these terrains. The dynamic characteristics of sandbars were explored as the basis of island formation by focusing on their sensitivity to external environmental factors and assessing the presence of vegetation and human activities. The overall implications of these findings for marine life and conservation efforts on the Paracel Islands were analyzed. To achieve these objectives, geological investigations, historical documentation, and ecological assessments were combined. Key methods included geochronological analysis to date the formation of the islands and sandbars, assessment of elevation and geological composition to analyze the vegetation cover on these terrains, and a review of the historical documentary record to gain insights into human activities and investigate the marine ecosystem and its biodiversity. The geological studies revealed that islands are usually formed over a long period of time (approximately 4,000 years or more) and above the water surface, with beach rocks formed around them and a large amount of coral detritus accumulating on the embankment, which in turn forms a sand dike encompassing the dyke and the coastline. This protects the embankment and coastline, making the island expand in size, increase in elevation slowly and become more stable, and the landscape less susceptible to deformation. In contrast, sandbars are relatively young (within the last 3,000 years) and low in elevation, are often inundated at high tides, and are more dynamic, including accretion and erosion, making them vulnerable to environmental changes. Vegetation grows on these islands and sandbars and planted vegetation is a prominent feature. Increased vegetation cover enhances the stability, height, and area of these terrains and plays a vital role in ecological conservation. This study also presents findings on the overall declining trend in marine organisms such as corals, sea turtles, and seabirds in the Xisha Islands, the causes of which are mainly related to anthropogenic (e.g., fishing) and natural (e.g., climatic causes such as typhoons and biological causes such as reduction in food availability) factors. In addition, the Government of Sansha Municipality (a special administrative region overseeing the Xisha Islands) in China has implemented the following measures: artificially cultivating marine plants, setting up marine life protection stations, establishing marine life nature reserves, and stepping up the fight against illegal hunting, which are examples of a series of effective measures that emphasize the need to strengthen comprehensive conservation measures in the face of increasingly severe environmental challenges. This study helps understand the geological and ecological characteristics of the Xisha Islands and provides an important reference for ongoing marine conservation efforts. This methodology for distinguishing between islands and sandbars based on different criteria lays the foundation for further research on biodiversity and environmental changes in the area. In addition, this study highlights the importance of maintaining fragile ecosystems in the face of mounting environmental challenges. Overall, this comprehensive study of the islands and sandbars of the Paracel Islands highlights the dynamic nature of these terrains, the influence of vegetation on their stability, and the need to strengthen integrated measures for marine conservation efforts in the South China Sea.

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Theoretical Elaboration and Policy Typologies of Specialty Towns: Evidence from Zhejiang, China
Xiaohui Hu, Tanchen Lin, Tianyao Zhang, Xuliang Zhang
2024, 44 (2):  269-279.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003830
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The construction of specialty towns is positioned as an important breakthrough and down-to-the-ground path in the implementation of China's new-type urbanization strategy. It highlights the roles of place-based industrial specialization and agglomeration economics. In this process, the Chinese government plays a supportive and guiding role in enabling and aligning multiple actors to engage with to build new platforms for innovation and entrepreneurial activities that integrate the functions of production, living, and ecology. The specialty towns construction strategy is aimed at promoting people-based urbanization and the regional ability of endogenous development. Given the "top-down" and standardization-led nature of the specialty towns policy program, implementation and practices at the local level are both challenging and problematic. This paper adopts perspectives and concepts from evolutionary economic geography and agglomeration economics to explore the antecedents and mechanisms of urbanization. It emphasizes the geographical spatiality of the program in local implementation. Taking 134 provincial specialty towns of Zhejiang province as research cases, the paper refers to a mixed set of methodologies of on-site, interview-based fieldwork; an online survey; and a document analysis to identify the historical foundations, industry attributes, and development objectives of the specialty towns. It also generates a typology of the 134 specialty towns, as well as a typological guideline regarding policy intervention for the broader implementation of specialty towns in China. Three main types of specialty towns are identified in our study: The first type is built on the basis of state-led, sci-tech industrial parks/new towns, whose development aims are oriented toward the development of new industrial paths. The second type is based on firm-led specialized markets located in small administrative towns that support the upgrading and renewal of existing local traditional industries. The third type is featured by the local presence of place-specific natural or sociocultural resources, and it is based on scenic spots. It is oriented to the development of the tourism economy. In conclusion, this study promotes the incorporation of evolutionary economic geography perspectives into the policy implementation of specialty towns and calls for taking the concepts of history, space, and place into account for a better understanding of these towns. By so doing, future policy methods will not be standardized, quota-based, and top-down.

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Spatial Production of Chengdu Bamboo Craft Village in "Post-Rural" Context: From the Perspective of Three-Fold Model of Rural Space
Wenli Zhang, Xigang Zhu, Siqi He, Yonghong Yan
2024, 44 (2):  280-291.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003826
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The transformation and reconstruction of traditional villages into "post-rural" tourism communities constitute a primary pathway for achieving modernization in rural areas on the outskirts of large metropolitan areas and advancing countryside revitalization. The evolutionary process of this transition also serves as an important perspective for understanding the socio-economic development of rural areas in China. We selected Chengdu Bamboo Craft Village as a case study, employing a comprehensive rural spatial framework based on the "rural locality-representations of the rural-everyday lives of the rural." Grounded in a multi-dimensional analysis perspective of "capital-power-individual," it dissects the multi-dimensional spatial reproduction process of "post-rural" tourism communities, aiming to provide support for exploring the spatial evolution, relational changes, and governance practices of rural tourism destinations under the backdrop of capital invest in rural areas. The main conclusions drawn are as follows: (1) The tourism development and governance of Bamboo Craft Village went through two phases and two models, transitioning from the lease-operation tourism model formed by early external enterprises to the later community-based tourism model established by social work organizations. The convergence of these two models achieved the synergy of internal and external driving forces, promoting sustainable tourism development in Bamboo Craft Village. (2) Under the lease-operation tourism model, external enterprises became the dominant power in the representations of the rural, shaping the representation of the rural as the main dimension in the triple space. Through top-down institutional construction, village space production was guided to realize the tourism concept of external enterprises. (3) The community-based tourism model clarified the position of the community as the major subject of everyday life in the tourism development of Bamboo Craft Villages. Under the empowerment and co-power philosophy, the introduction of social work organizations enhanced the tourism participation efficiency and governance level of the village subject, ensuring its discourse power in rural space production. (4) The spatial production system of "post-rural" tourism communities is jointly driven by order discourse subjects and everyday lives subjects. The issuance and response to rural revitalization policies from the national to local levels serve as external opportunities driving the transformation of traditional villages into tourism, where external enterprises intervene in rural space reconstruction for capital appreciation and recycling under policy guidance, constructing the envisioned development prospects of rural tourism communities at a macro level. Facing increased urban-rural migration, "post-rural" communities are actively adapting to both the benefits and drawbacks of modern influences. Additionally, the guiding role of short video media in the visual consumption era promotes landscape production and visual consumption in the Bamboo Craft Village. The fundamental driving force of "post-rural" spatial production is formed by the combined feedback of bottom-up subject actions and the visual consumption demands of tourists at the micro level. This study further expands the localization empirical research of the three-fold model of rural space, which helps guide the healthy development of rural tourism communities in the suburbs of metropolitan areas and achieves the dual purpose of promoting rural economic development and optimizing social ecology.

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The Modes and Influence Mechanisms of Education in the County City: Based on the Perspective of Educational Gentrification
Jie Pan, Xiaojin Cao, Tianke Zhu
2024, 44 (2):  292-302.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003825
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In the context of county urbanization, research on the modes and mechanisms of rural families' education in county cities is of great significance for overall urban and rural development and optimization of county governance systems. Combining the two theoretical lines of production and consumption in the study of gentrification of education, this paper puts forward a research framework for the analysis of the phenomenon of rural families' education in county cities at the county level. This study adopts the method of semi-structured interviews and participatory observation, and analyzes the different modes and deep mechanisms of rural families education in the county city from the perspectives of different participants, such as the government, markets, schools, and families. The research reveals the following: 1) Owing to the differences in family capital accumulation and family development strategies, rural families have varied modes of education in the city, which can be divided into mobile, settlement, and isolation education in the county city. 2) Several considerations for future development contribute to the differentiated choice between housing and renting among urban residents. Concurrently, with the end of their children's education, the county seat, at the forefront of urbanization, lacks the core power to retain people, thus prompting a certain degree of population return and outflow. 3) Urban education is jointly promoted by the government, capital, schools, individuals, and other parties, among which the local government, as the authority subject, is the core promoter of urban education. Real estates, intermediary companies, and private schools have participated in and promoted the flow of educational capital. The basic logic behind promoting urban education is the reproduction of family-oriented education. 4) Paying attention to the development demands of urban groups is the basic essence of returning to human-centered new urbanization and the essential requirement to alleviate the negative effects of education in county cities. Returning to the original definition and characteristics of educational gentrification, this study discusses the phenomenon of education entering a county city at the county level. First, it is difficult to reach a consensus on the definition of middle class. Second, by thinking about the phenomenon of education in the county city, we can see that rural family education in the county city is different from the educational gentrification discussed in the past, which is a discussion and extension of the existing concept of educational gentrification. Moreover, social characteristics such as mobility, rent-to-buy differentiation, and identity differences have obvious impacts on the process of urbanization in Taihe County. However, there has been insufficient discussion on the specific process of the spatial displacement of county families into urban families, high-income families into low-income families, and local residents into migrant residents. In the future, this phenomenon can be further explored based on multiple types of data, such as real estate agent, community household status, and interview text. This research focuses on county towns, from the theoretical perspective of educational gentry into the city, to explore the mode and effect mechanism of rural family education into the county city, as well as the differences between the traditional concept of educational gentry and the phenomenon of education into the county city in the context of county towns, further promoting the high-quality development of urbanization at the present stage as well as promoting social equity and justice to provide reference.

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Construction and Restoration Strategies of Green Infrastructure Network in Mountainous Counties Based on Multi-Source Data: A Case Study of Wanzhou District, Chongqing
Ziming Wang, Liang Lyu, Feng Wang
2024, 44 (2):  303-314.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003777
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The conflict between ecological protection and town development is particularly pronounced in mountainous towns with fragile ecological environments and constrained construction conditions. Cross-scale Green Infrastructure (GI) is characterized by a balance between ecological protection and human needs. The establishment of a county-level GI network can provide a shared basic framework for the development and biological conservation of mountainous towns. The Wanzhou District of Chongqing has the typical characteristics of a southwestern mountain town with ecological problems such as habitat fragmentation and reduced disturbance resistance. This study was based on the biological flow process, guided by geometric morphology, circuit, and graph theory, and it followed the logic of "hubs, links, and pinch points". First, the morphological spatial pattern analysis method was applied to identify the GI network hubs, and their importance was classified according to the current-flow betweenness centrality index. Next, an ecological resistance surface was established based on multi-source data, and the minimum cumulative resistance model was applied to identify the links. It also calculated their importance and ranked them based on the average resistance, path length, and average value of the connected hubs. Subsequently, the current-flow density distribution was analyzed, and ecological pinch points were extracted in conjunction with the links. According to the results, the GI network of Wanzhou District contains 42 hubs with an area of 996.35 km2, accounting for 28.83% of the total study area. The hubs were generally dense in the east and sparse in the west, forming a pattern of "one screen, three belts, and scattered distribution." Among them, the GI network hubs formed by the Fangdou-Qiyao Mountain group and the Yangtze River and its coastal green areas are of the greatest importance, followed by the Tiefeng Mountain, Dengfeng Reservoir, and the central-eastern forest areas, whereas the small patches scattered in the central southwest-northeast oriented valleys are of the least importance. Additionally, 80 links were identified with a total length of 292.97 km, with long paths and low importance in the eastern region and short paths and high importance in the western region. Furthermore, 142 ecological pinch points were extracted, accounting for 9.60% of the corridor length dominated by land-use types of farmlands (55.89%) and woodlands (35.71%); pinch points were mainly concentrated in the east, which is the key area in guaranteeing the ecological stability of the county GI network. Finally, this study proposes zoning, grading, and precise protection and restoration strategies based on the relative importance of hubs and links and the land-use types of ecological pinch-point areas. These strategies provide a scientific basis for decision-making to coordinate the conservation and development needs of mountain towns.

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Spatial Differentiation Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Buddhist Monasteries in Yunnan Province
Wen Peng, Yuliang Yang, Yafei Huang, Kaize Zou, Kailong Duan, Yangdong Shen
2024, 44 (2):  315-325.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003754
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The spatial distribution characteristics of Buddhist monasteries in Yunnan Province, a typical sample area of Buddhist diversity, have not been studied. Therefore, in view of the situation and from the perspective of Buddhist geography, samples of Buddhist monasteries from 540 cultural relic protection units at all levels were selected to examine the spatial differentiation characteristics and influencing factors of Buddhist monasteries in Yunnan Province. GIS spatial analysis was combined with fieldwork methods. The following results were obtained: 1) Buddhist monasteries in the province are generally distributed in agglomerations, being concentrated in Dali, Honghe, and Kunming. The spatial distribution density is centered around three core areas, with other more discrete areas. The Chinese Buddhist monasteries are distributed in an inverted U-shaped band in the central part of the province, the Tibetan Buddhist monasteries are distributed in a "single core, many centers" pattern, and the Theravada Buddhist monasteries are distributed in a "two-side dense, middle-sparse" pattern. 2) Laterally, Buddhist monasteries are mainly distributed in the Jinsha, Lancang, and Pearl River basins, with considerable differences between sub-basins. Vertically, the monasteries have a "three-step" distribution characteristic, which corresponds to the vertical landforms. 3) The complex human-geographic environment of Yunnan is a key factor in the differentiation of Buddhist monasteries. The geographical structure is a fundamental force that determines the spatially differentiated character of Buddhist monasteries. The central geographical location connecting the four directions relies on the geographical environment to form a balance of distribution of the three types of Buddhist monasteries. Landforms and elevations combine to affect the distribution of ethnic groups with different livelihoods based on elevation and thus affect the distribution of Buddhist monasteries. The cultural structure has contributed to the formation of a pluralistic coexistence pattern in exchanges among various monasteries. The exchange through river basin corridors may have led to the development of Chinese Buddhist monasteries in the eastern Yunnan Plateau. Tibetan Buddhist monasteries form agglomeration centers in Diqing and Lijiang, in the northern part of the Longitudinal Ridge Valley, and southern Buddhist monasteries form major distribution areas in Dehong, Xishuangbanna, and other locations. The strip-shaped ethnic corridors formed by different ethnic groups based on geographical space have a high spatial fit with the distribution of Buddhist monasteries. The linear space, with the ancient road serving as an axis, has promoted interactive development of Buddhist monasteries of different sects. The mode of governance, influenced by institutional structure, has promoted changes in the distribution range of various monasteries in different historical periods, and changes in the relationships among the central government, local government, and Tusi system have altered agglomeration and distribution of Buddhist monasteries.

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Spatial Structure of Tourist Flow in Sanya and Tourists' Visiting Characteristics Based on Anchor Theory
Yi Li, Fengxia Wang
2024, 44 (2):  326-338.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003796
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The spatial structure of tourist flow represents the tourists' flow pattern, shows the difference of tourism resources, and provides the basis for the balance and sustainable development of tourism. Based on the digital footprint data obtained from the online travel notes on Qunar.com, this article describes and analyzes the spatial structure of tourism flow in Sanya City using the research methods of flow statistics, association rule mining, and social network analysis under the framework of anchor theory; further, it condenses the characteristics of different types of tourists at different time scales. The key findings include: (1) The spatial structure of Sanya's tourism flow is affected by the popularity of scenic spots, showing a flow pattern of "one core and two cores" and several core paths; the core area is located along the coastline, showing the characteristics of coastal tourism city. (2) In the spatial structure of Sanya's tourist flow, the distribution of core nodes is uneven, and the phenomenon of structural holes is obvious, showing the spatial pattern of uneven distribution of scenic spots and fierce competition among scenic spots. (3) In the structure network of Sanya's tourist flow, most tourists are medium-scale travelers, followed by small-scale travelers and large-scale travelers. (4) The tourist attraction system of Sanya's tourist flow is hierarchically distributed and has multiple anchor attractions. Different anchor attractions have different attractions to tourists of different types and time, except for beach tourist destinations and island areas. Therefore, targeted marketing for different types of tourists is a challenge for the future development of Sanya's tourism. In this article, the anchor point theory is introduced into the study of tourism flow. Based on the flow direction statistics, association rule mining and field investigation, the rules of the anchor point selection of tourism flow are established, verified, and supplemented by the social network analysis method. Theoretical support and quantitative data support complement each other. The application of anchor theory and association rule mining not only enriches the theoretical framework in the field of tourism flow, but it also scientifically determines the anchor points of the tourism flow's structure network. This is helpful to understand tourist behavior and mode, and it can provide targeted suggestions for the precision marketing of tropical coastal tourist cities.

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Spatial Definition of Urban-Rural Fringe Based on the Physical Urban Area: A Case Study of Guangzhou City
Pengfei Fang, Zhendong Luo, Ji Zhang, Yufei Bi
2024, 44 (2):  339-349.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003798
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The urban-rural fringe is located between the central urban built-up area and the rural hinterland, which is a transition zone for land use, economic development, and population structure. It is the most dynamic area between urban and rural areas and has become the focus of academic research in terms of geography, sociology, and urban planning. Boundary definition is the most fundamental and primary task for urban research and is particularly important for the spatial definition of the urban-rural fringe. However, a literature review reveals that an unclear spatial definition hinders in-depth scientific research on the urban-rural fringe. The absence of a spatial scope also results in a lack of targeted spatial governance policies attuned to the unique characteristics of urban, non-urban, rural, and both urban and rural areas. Existing policy instruments that exclusively focus on urban or rural areas face significant challenges in fringe regions. Recently, the establishment of a national land spatial planning system has created favorable conditions for studying the spatial definition of urban-rural junction areas. The simultaneous implementation of Territorial and Spatial Planning surveys as part of the construction of this planning system also provides technical support for accurately defining these junction areas. High precision "three adjustments" data allows for an accurate representation of the current state of urban and rural land use, enabling the precise identification of the physical geographical extent of cities. In the context of this study, a reasonable and widely accepted method for spatially defining the urban-rural fringe is essential. To address these issues, this study proposes a spatial definition method based on the urban entity regions identified in three land spatial planning surveys. The approach relies on mature territorial planning technology and addresses three key questions: indicators, thresholds, and units for defining the urban-rural fringe. 1) These indicators were derived from the precise identification of physical urban areas by the Ministry of Natural Resources of the People's Republic of China. The research units were administrative villages and neighborhood committees from previous government policies. It can effectively connect with the territorial spatial planning technology system; 2) Adopt the 25% to 75% ideal value and cluster analysis method recognized based on a comprehensive review of relevant literature and practices in spatially defining the urban-rural fringe domestically and internationally. At the end of the paper, Guangzhou is taken as a typical case study to test the effectiveness of the proposed method in defining the spatial boundaries of the urban-rural fringe. It was determined that a threshold of 10%-75% is reasonable for the spatial definition of the urban-rural fringe in Guangzhou. 3) Through the literature review and practice of government on the spatial definition of urban-rural fringe, as well as the urban-rural fringe identification and examination in Guangzhou. This study proposes a definitive approach based on the physical urban areas of territorial and spatial planning. Finally, accurate measurement indicators, clear research units and highly operable definition methods has an effective integration into the process of Territorial and Spatial Planning, which could provide a solid foundation for further spatial research and the implementation of effective governance strategies.

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Progress in Research on Port Geography in China
Renrong Xiao, Pengjun Zhao, Zhangyuan He, Ge Li
2024, 44 (2):  350-364.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003828
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Port geography is an important aspect of transportation geography. To reveal the context and characteristics of port geography research in China, we selected 24 high-quality Chinese journals published by The Geographical Society of China and China Society of Natural Resources. 552 papers related to Port Geography from these journals between 1982 and 2022 were analyzed, the results showed that research on Port geography in China has been through initial, exploration, rapid development, and research perspective transformation stages. This field has five main themes: hinterland studies, the systems, networks, and development of ports, and port-city relationships. Research on port hinterlands focuses on the integrated development of port hinterlands. However, there is still a need for further exploration because the measurement of port system centralization and decentralization is the focal point of port systems. With the development of multimodal transportation, changes in port systems have intensified the competition among ports, which scholars have tended to interpret from a macroscopic perspective. The structure of port networks involves topics such as topological spatial arrangements, changes in network structure, and network security assessments. Scholars place particular emphasis on the impact of port networks on China's development. Prior development studies have been based on comprehensive planning that considers natural, economic, and societal conditions, port layout, and site selection as crucial research subjects. However, in recent years, some emerging development strategies have started to investigate port logistics and enterprises, and port terminals, offering recommendations and considering the interests of businesses; The research on port-city relationships centers on the development of the port-city interface, and analysis of waterfront areas also captures the interest of scholars. The economic relationship between the port and the city is relatively complex, and scholars have not yet reached a consensus on it. Overall, research focusses on the impact on the national economy, but theories are relatively lacking. Port geography research in China has paid little attention to society, institutions, culture, or supply chains that are popular in Western research. In future, we should pay attention to the impact of extreme weather and geopolitics, deepen research on ports' internal wharves and enterprises, promote the application of Automatic Identification System data, and construct theories on port logistics.

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Research Progress on the Impact of Returned Overseas Talent on Regional Development
Chenhui Hu, Haining Jiang
2024, 44 (2):  365-378.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.temp.003796
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This study responds to the current rapid increase in research on the current focus and future direction of the impact of returned overseas talent on regional development at home and abroad, which still lacks a relatively systematic literature review. The study aims to provide a scientific basis for exploring the utility of talent returning from overseas. Using CiteSpace for the literature review, we retrieved 631 relevant papers in core journals from two databases, "Web of Science" and "China National Knowledge Infrastructure." With the help of quantitative statistics, collaborative networks, and keyword hotspot evolution, we analyzed and reviewed relevant studies and drew the following conclusions: First, based on the trend of increasing of literatures, the research shows a three-stage process from to 1998-2007, to 2008-2013, and 2014-present. The studies cover a wide range of topics, including regional innovation, economic development, and social differentiation, from multiple disciplines and perspectives, such as economics, management, sociology and geography. Second, the research is constantly expanding and deepening. The research subjects were refined from returned overseas talent as a whole to returnee entrepreneurs, executives, teachers, and other returned overseas talent in different fields. Research content has gradually shifted from technological progress and innovation to economic growth and enterprise efficiency and then to social structure and social cognition. The research results within each field were systematized. Lastly, The impact of returned overseas talent on regional development mainly stems from the advantages of human capital and international social capital contributed by the overseas experience of those returning. In the context of relatively underdeveloped regions, the impact of returnees on regional innovation, economic development, and social differentiation is widespread and multiscale, from the regional, organizational, and individual levels. To conclude, the research is based on regional realities; the theoretical contributions have gradually improved and diversified, and the research methods are both qualitative and quantitative. There is scope for future research on the following aspects: exploring the impact of returned overseas talent on regional development from a spatial perspective, looking at different spatial carriers in the region, the interaction mechanism between returned overseas talent and regional development, and the data sources, and methods used to study the impact of returned overseas talent on regional development.

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