Tropical Geography


Effect of the Relationship between Environment and Attitude on Behavior: Migrant Workers' Leisure Behavior in Guangzhou

Ying Zhao(), Hongyu Yan, Zidan Mao   

  1. School of Tourism Management, SunYat-sen University, Zhuhai 519082, China
  • Received:2023-01-03 Revised:2023-03-08 Online:2023-12-07


Leisure plays an important role in people's happiness; therefore, facilitating participation in leisure activities has become one of the pathways to improve urban residents' wellbeing and realize high-quality new urbanization. This study focuses on migrant workers' leisure behavior and quality of life. Based on the self-selection hypothesis and structural equation modeling analysis, this study explores the influence of both leisure environment and leisure attitude on leisure behavior. First, our analysis of the leisure environment revealed that leisure behaviors differed according to leisure environments. Residents of resource-rich communities had the longest leisure time, a medium leisure distance, and a positive leisure attitude. Communities with medium leisure resources had the shortest leisure time and closest leisure distance. Communities with scarce leisure resources had the longest leisure distance and the most negative leisure attitude. Second, by examing the match of leisure attitudes and leisure environments, we found that the average leisure time of matching groups was longer, and they generally spent their leisure time within 1 kilometer around the community. Furthermore, the leisure time of residents in communities with scarce leisure resources did not show significant differences. For the mismatching groups of leisure attitudes and environments, about 60% of the residents spent less than 2 hours on average per day, and the leisure distance did not show any significant difference. Third, the structural equation modeling analysis indicated that both attitude and environmental attributes can affect migrant workers' leisure behavior; they further interact with each other and jointly determine residents' leisure behavior. The temporal (leisure time) and spatial (leisure distance) dimensions of leisure behavior are influenced by different mechanisms. Leisure attitude has the most direct effect on leisure time, while the effects of leisure environment on leisure distance are complex. Socio-demographic attributes affect leisure environment, leisure attitude, and leisure behavior. Men and women do not differ in terms of leisure time, but women's leisure distance is greater than men's. Age has no significant effect on residents' leisure behavior, but younger persons enjoy more leisure. Monthly household income has a significantly negative effect on residents' leisure time and leisure distance, while it has a significantly positive effect on leisure environment. Persons with higher education pay more attention to their leisure life, and spend more time and travel to participate in more leisure activities. This study makes three contributions. First, in the context of leisure scenarios, it promotes the combination of self-selection effect and rational behavior theory, and fully considers the role played by attitude in the mechanism of environmental influence on behavior. Existing studies of transportation mostly follow functionalism in the pursuit of efficiency, and the scope and ability of residents' self-selection is limited. This study of leisure behavior empirically demonstrates the importance of leisure environment and leisure concepts cultivation. Second, the study of migrant workers' leisure provides inspiration for the construction of new urbanization. In China's rapid urbanization, migrant workers have made positive contributions to the development of cities at the sacrifice of their youth and health. The leisure self-selection effect can be used to improve residents' leisure participation and subjective well-being by enhancing the community's leisure environment. Third, the migrant worker group is diversifying. With the deepening of new urbanization, their daily lives are changing and they are making continual efforts to adapt to urban life, rather than remaining passive.

Key words: Leisure behavior, Migrant workers, Leisure environment, Leisure attitude, Guangzhou

CLC Number: 

  • C913.3