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    Hotspots and Trends of Foreign Spatial Justice Research: Visual Analysis Based on Knowledge Map
    Lin Lin, Heng Chao, Guicai Li
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (5): 808-820.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003296
    Abstract921)   HTML20)    PDF (2326KB)(197)      

    The issue of "spatial justice" has become a hot topic among urban research and planning scholars in China. An analysis of 1516 English-language documents in the Web of Science (WOS) from 2000-2021 was conducted through CiteSpace. Knowledge maps of keyword clustering, core author groups, and research institutions were mapped to reveal the hotspots and trends of foreign spatial justice research. The results reveal the following: (1) Foreign literature issuance exhibits a phased upward trend, divided into three stages of exploration (S1), stabilization (S2), and explosion (S3). The publication volume increased steadily in S1, contending and flourishing around the theme of space deprivation, exclusion and poverty. The publication volume has increased significantly in S2 compared with S1, the connotation of spatial justice is gradually clear and complete, environmental justice has received significant attention, and the influence of process and procedural justice is increasing. The spatial justice research has explosively grown in S3, focusing on the value effect and practical significance of spatial justice in the post-globalization era and stock development period. (2) A total of three hotspots emerged in foreign spatial justice research: The rise of research targeting youth and children, who have become one of the main actors and are motivated by awareness and environmental change to actively participate in the fight for justice on a global scale. Environmental justice research is booming with divergent and extended content, focusing on waste trade and climate change. The public and green spaces of the city have become research hotspots as the pursuit of spatial justice value turns to high quality and sustainability. (3) Trends in spatial justice research abroad include integration of environmental justice and urban space, as well as scale synthesis and thematic expansion driven by technological progress. In general, the maturation of foreign spatial justice research provides an important reference for the theoretical construction and practical application of spatial justice in China. How to connect with the international frontier, form research results with local characteristics, and effectively implement them in current spatial practice in the context of new urbanization is an urgent issue to be solved.

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    Basic Characteristics and Genesis of Cavernous Weathering Features on the Steep Slopes of Danxia Landscape in Danxiashan UNESCO Global Geopark
    Yuexin Shi, Liuqin Chen, Dingding Du, Le Chai, Zihan Wang
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (1): 103-114.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003614
    Abstract764)   HTML18)    PDF (3420KB)(191)      

    Cavernous weathering is widely distributed in different climate zones worldwide. The dominant controlling factors and their formation processes have long been discussed in the geomorphological community; however, many controversies remain. In the danxia landscape, various forms of cavernous weathering develop on steep slopes. They are important elements of the landscape and provide shelter for the preservation of many precious historical cultures, yet there have been few studies investigating their origin. Danxiashan is representative of the Natural World Heritage site 'China Danxia', with widespread cavernous weathering features of various sizes and shapes, providing a good opportunity for investigating the origin of cavernous weathering in subtropical humid climates. Typical caverns on sandstone and conglomerate slopes at five sites in Danxiashan were selected and studied by field investigation, morphological measurement, meteorological monitoring, sample microscopic observation, and salt experiments. The results show the following. First, the diameters of the cavern openings vary from centimeters to meters, and the shape of the cavern openings is elliptical to elliptical. The tafoni on conglomerate slopes are generally large and tend to grow upward and inward, while the caverns on sandstone slopes are generally small and arranged in a honeycomb-like structure. Second, lithology is fundamental for the development of caverns. At the macroscopic scale, it determines their location and arrangement because the caverns generally align within the lamination of beddings or cross-beddings. Indeed, the morphological characteristics of caverns developed differently under varying lithologies. At the microscopic scale, the red beds consist of abundant soluble mineral components, such as feldspars and carbonate cements, which are chemically dissolved in the seepage of acid rainwater, the salt crystallization of which leads to the destruction of the rock texture. Collectively, they would have initiated the formation of caverns. Third, the favorable microclimate within the caverns is a key factor that is water and salt accumulation, and consequently, salt weathering and enlargement of the caverns over time. Notably, the microclimate within the Jinshiyan Cave has provided favorable conditions for algae colonization, which controlled the formation of the cell-and-wall structure of the regular honeycombs at the Longlingpian Rock. Finally, the dominant controlling factors were dissimilar between caverns and interplayed in different development stages of cavernous weathering, the entire progression of which was potentially regulated by a self-organized mechanism. However, the influencing factors and critical values of the positive and negative feedback mechanisms require further study.

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    The Landscape Schema of Bayu Terraced Field Human Settlements Responding to Regional Natural Features
    Wenjing Liao, Huasong Mao, Ping Luo
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (1): 155-167.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003607
    Abstract564)   HTML21)    PDF (2935KB)(428)      

    The Bayu terraced human settlement is an on-site living cultural heritage site that responds to natural features such as mountainous landforms and seasonal hydrology. Research into the site selection, technology, and combination of Bayu terraced human settlements can provide historical insight for the construction of resilient urban and rural developments in the southwest mountainous areas and the simultaneous protection of small and micro wetlands. Complete and representative remote sensing images of terraced fields in the Bayu area, combined with historical data analysis and field investigation using the visual landscape schema language, this study analyzed the single-terraced water conservancy technology, the spatiotemporal combination model of this technology, and the three construction characteristics of the terraced human settlement environment. As a result, the landscape schema system of the Bayu-terraced human settlement system was constructed. First, the research found that, in response to the Bayu Mountain topography and the rainfall characteristics of "spring drought and summer flood," a series of in-terrain terraced water conservancy technologies have been formed, such as winter paddy field for the autumn and spring, flushing fields for flood discharge in the summer, and hoarding paddy fields for closing water in all seasons. Second, Bayu terraced water conservancy technology forms a water resource management model of "autumn storage, winter fertility, spring ploughing, summer drainage" adapted to "spring drought and summer flooding", and a combination of "high storage, low irrigation" that conforms to the geomorphology that is formed. Finally, the terraced human settlement responds to the difference in water safety under the influence of geomorphology, presenting an "organic dispersion type" terraced human settlement pattern in low-mountainous hilly areas where the intersecting terraced base and the conservation forest and the scattered residential patches nest occlusion. The conservation forest is a "large area concentration type" terraced human settlement pattern in low-mountainous hilly areas where the intersecting terraced base and the conservation forest and the scattered residential patch nest in occlusion. In summary, Bayu terraced water conservancy technology types, combination methods, and the construction mode of terraced human settlements in mountainous topography integrate with Bayu's unique geographical geomorphology and hydrological conditions. These are important for the current low-impact development and construction of urban and rural areas and the protection of traditional construction wisdom. There are also positive references.

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    Terrestrial Biodiversity Hotspots and Their Threats in Guangdong Province
    Shoubao Geng, Zhongyu Sun, Min Zhang, Wei Xu, Xia Zhou, Yuyao Ye, Jialing Dai, Zhengqian Liu
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (3): 359-371.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003636
    Abstract537)   HTML72)    PDF (1459KB)(342)      

    Biodiversity plays an important role in providing ecosystem services and maintaining ecosystem stability, which are closely related to human welfare. The identification of biodiversity hotspots and analysis of their threats provide effective ways for biodiversity conservation and restoration. Current studies generally combine species diversity and its threat situation to determine hotspots for priority protection. However, in-depth analysis of threats to biodiversity hotspots is still lacking. Guangdong Province is one of the key biodiversity areas in the world, but it faces great challenges in biodiversity preservation. To understand biodiversity hotspots and their threats in Guangdong Province more completely, this study developed a heat index for terrestrial biodiversity by considering plant species diversity, animal species diversity, and landscape diversity based on multi-source data of plant and animal species, ecosystem stand types, and land use. Then, the heat index was used to identify biodiversity hotspots, and their threat levels and controlling factors were analyzed according to the major threats to biodiversity. The results showed that areas with high values of terrestrial biodiversity heat index were mainly distributed in mountainous regions with relatively few human disturbances, whereas most areas with low values were concentrated in estuarine plains and intermontane basins with heavy human activities. Based on the zonation of the heat index, four biodiversity hotspots were identified, Yunwu Mountain, Nanling Mountain, Luofu Mountain, and Lianhua Mountain, with area percentages of 15.54%, 44.90%, 17.66%, and 21.90%, respectively. The area of biodiversity hotspots was 59,931.82 km2, accounting for 33.58% of the total land area of Guangdong Province. The 122 nature reserves within hotspots had an area of 6,594.39 km2, covering 61.33% of the whole area of the total 204 terrestrial nature reserves in Guangdong Province. This proportion gradually decreased with reduction of nature reserve grade, indicating that the nature reserves in hotspots were principally at a higher grade (nation and province levels) rather than at a lower grade (city and county levels). However, the area of these nature reserves in hotspots was only 11.00% of the whole area of hotspots, and most of the nature reserves that were not distributed in hotspots were located in the northeastern cities of Heyuan and Meizhou. Therefore, a large number of potential demands for biodiversity conservation still exist. For the four hotspots, the biodiversity in Yunwu Mountain was primarily under moderate to severe stress, with the intensity of economic development as the controlling factor. The biodiversity of the other three hotspots mainly underwent slight to moderate stress. The most important threat was the extensive economic development of the central part of Nanling Mountain and the southern parts of Luofu Mountain and Lianhua Mountain, whereas the periphery of Nanling Mountain and the northern parts of Luofu Mountain and Lianhua Mountain were more threatened by habitat quality or geological hazards. In addition, extreme stress on biodiversity occurred in all four hotspots, although within very small areas. Thus, more targeted management strategies for biodiversity should be proposed according to the stress levels and controlling threats. The results of this study provide a scientific reference for the comprehensive conservation and precise restoration of biodiversity hotspots in Guangdong Province.

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    Estimation of Mangrove Aboveground Biomass in China Using Forest Canopy Height through an Allometric Equation
    Xin Wen, Kai Liu, Jingjing Cao, Yuanhui Zhu, Ziyu Wang
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (1): 1-11.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003616
    Abstract505)   HTML39)    PDF (1934KB)(504)      

    Mangroves, which have extremely high primary productivity, are efficient coastal blue carbon ecosystems. Aboveground biomass (AGB) is an important component of vegetation carbon pools. Thus, accurate estimation of mangrove AGB is critical for studying carbon cycle and climate change. While the practical significance and application of information obtained on mangrove AGB in China is apparent, studies of this nature in China at a national scale have rarely been reported. Remote sensing technology is convenient, efficient, has a wide observational range, and can be used for large-scale ecosystem monitoring. Canopy height is a structural parameter that is positively correlated with the AGB of vegetation. The Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) spaceborne Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) satellite, launched in recent years, is able to obtain vegetation canopy height. This study employed forest canopy height derived from GEDI satellite-based LiDAR and an allometric equation based on the allometric theory to estimate mangrove AGB in China in 2019, and the quantitative and spatial distribution of mangrove biomass and their main influencing factors were analyzed. The results showed that the total and mean AGB of mangroves in China in 2019 were about 1,974,827 t and 73.0 t/hm2, respectively. Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao area showed the largest total mangrove AGB, reaching 843,836 t. The mean values of AGB in each province (region) with mangrove ecosystems nationwide ranged from 53.3 to 92.1 t/hm2, of which the largest was found in Hainan Province, reaching 92.1 t/hm2. In Hainan, Taiwan, and Fujian provinces, mean mangrove AGB was higher than the national mean. Considering nature reserves, the mean AGBs of mangroves in Neilingdingdao-Futian and Mai Po mangrove nature reserves in Shenzhen Bay in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao area and Dongzhaigang mangrove nature reserve in Hainan province were relatively high, with values greater than 110 t/hm2. The accumulation and distribution of mangrove AGB in China are affected by latitude and anthropogenic factors. This study provides a comprehensive analysis of mangrove AGB in China based on remote sensing and an allometric equation and can provide a database and technical reference for estimating carbon storage in mangrove ecosystems. It will also contribute to the implementation of ecological restoration and protection measures for coastal mangroves, as well as carbon emission control in China.

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    Soil Carbon Stock and Potential Carbon Storage in the Mangrove Forests of Guangdong
    Guoming Qin, Jingfan Zhang, Jinge Zhou, Zhe Lu, Faming Wang
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (1): 23-30.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003606
    Abstract494)   HTML14)    PDF (644KB)(435)      

    Mangroves occur in coastal intertidal zones and play an important role in terrestrial and marine carbon cycles. Accurate estimations of mangrove carbon stocks and sequestration potential can help quantify the contribution of mangroves to addressing climate change and achieving carbon neutrality goals. The carbon stocks and burial rates of different mangrove communities and regions in Guangdong Province were studied through literature collection and data integration. The soil carbon densities of the Rhizophora stylosa and Bruguiera gymnorhiza communities were 0.27 and 0.23 Gg C/hm2, respectively, while the soil carbon density of the Kandelia obovata community was the lowest at only 0.13 Gg C/hm2. The area of mangroves in Guangdong Province is 9,106.2 hm2, the total carbon stock is 1,542.02 Gg C, and the soil carbon density is 0.23 Gg C/hm2. The total carbon reserves of mangroves in thirteen regions are in the following order: Zhanjiang (894.5 Gg C) > Yangjiang (195.4 Gg C) > Jiangmen (97.7 Gg C) > Zhuhai (91.0 Gg C) > Maoming (59.6 Gg C) > Shantou (51.4 Gg C) > Zhongshan (49.2 Gg C) > Huizhou (36.1 Gg C) > Guangzhou (35.1 Gg C) > Shenzhen (18.3 Gg C) > Shanwei (10.8 Gg C) > Dongguan (2.83 Gg C) > Chaozhou (0.11 Gg C). Using the 210Pb method, the sediment accretion rate was found to be 13.47 mm/a. Qi'ao Island had the highest sediment compaction rate of 31.5 mm/a, followed by Zhenhai Bay, with 16.5 mm/a, Shenzhen Futian, with 15.9 mm/a, and Leizhou Bay, with the lowest sediment compaction rate of 7.3 mm/a. The carbon sequestration capacity of Guangdong province is approximately 19.72 Gg C/a, with the Leizhou Peninsula having the highest (6.05 Gg C/a) and Futian, Shenzhen having the lowest (0.66 Gg C/a) capacities. The carbon storage of mangroves in Guangdong Province was 1,542.02 Gg C, which was higher than that in other regions. The carbon sequestration capacity of the mangroves was relatively strong. Therefore, the protection and restoration of local mangroves may substantially contribute to the mitigation of climate change while providing additional benefits. This assessment, on a provincial scale, provides insights into blue carbon sequestration capacity, thus contributing to the synchronous progression of blue carbon management.

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    Intelligent Planning of Village Roads for Rural Revitalization: A Case Study of Gangtou Village, Huadu District, Guangzhou
    Yina Liu, Shitai Bao, Meixuan She, Shunqing Chen
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (2): 226-233.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003625
    Abstract474)   HTML22)    PDF (1668KB)(206)      

    A rural revitalization strategy has been proposed, and more attention has been paid to village planning, which has become an important measure to adjust to local conditions, implement policies accurately, and build a beautiful countryside. The core of rural revitalization involves planning first, promoting industry, serving the countryside, and planning the village as the unit. An important aspect of village planning is road planning and design, which is essential to further connect agricultural production, country living, and ecological space of the village; promote production; serve life; and strengthen traffic between the village and the external region. Owing to the differences in geographical and natural conditions and the level of economic development between urban and rural areas in China, village road planning cannot copy the previous methods of road route selection and urban road planning. Instead, it is necessary to explore a universal, efficient, and intelligent village road planning method that considers the actual situation of rural development by considering agricultural production, villagers' lives, industrial development, historical and cultural protection, and other factors. In the context of rural revitalization, this study takes the village as the planning unit, considers the natural environment, current layout, and development needs of the village, uses the qualitative and quantitative fuzzy analytic hierarchy process to analyze and quantify the natural, social, demographic and other factors of the village road planning and their weights, and uses the weighted superposition analysis method to form a comprehensive cost grid of the village with multiple elements. A process-based village road planning GIS tool is constructed, and the minimum cost path algorithm was used to automatically generate the village road network with the minimum comprehensive cost. Taking Gangtou Village in Huadu District of Guangzhou City as an example, the feasibility of the above methods, technical processes, and GIS tools was verified, and a village-wide comprehensive cost grid was efficiently generated. According to the five elements of residential areas, cultivated land, historical monuments, public facilities, and entrances and exits of external roads, five categories, seven starting points, and 16 ending points of village planning roads were automatically extracted, and a four-level village road from multiple starting points to multiple ending points was automatically generated, including four main roads with a width of 5-8 meters, two secondary main roads with a width of 3-5 meters, nine productive branch roads with a width of 2-3 meters, 13 living branch roads, and one village road. The results show that the village road planning method proposed here can efficiently generate multi-type and multi-level village roads, and the planned road network not only has a minimum construction cost but also good connectivity and practicability. The village road-planning method proposed in this study integrates natural, social, demographic, and industrial development factors and their characteristics, providing systematic ideas and automated methods for village road planning. This is helpful for promoting the intelligence of village road planning.

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    Temporal and Spatial Variations of Mangroves and Their Driving Factors in Southeast Asia
    Yunlei Chang, Jingjuan Liao, Li Zhang
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (1): 31-42.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003610
    Abstract458)   HTML28)    PDF (1993KB)(136)      

    Mangroves are woody wetland communities that grow in the intertidal zones of tropical and subtropical coasts and are among the most productive ecosystems in the world. Mangroves provide important support for coastal ecological and environmental protection, social development, and economic progress. Those found in Southeast Asia are a key portion of global mangroves. The study of spatiotemporal changes of mangrove forests and their driving factors in Southeast Asia can provide a theoretical basis and supportive evidence for the scientific protection and effective management of mangrove ecosystems. Based on the cloud computing platform of the Google Earth Engine, Landsat satellite data, and mangrove distribution data sets, combined with the Theil-Sen median trend analysis and Mann-Kendall test methods, this study analyzed the spatial variation trend of mangroves in Southeast Asia from 1990 to 2020. A factor detector and an interaction detector in the geographic detector method were used to quantitatively analyze the driving factors. First, the results showed that, from 1990 to 2020, the overall mangrove area in Southeast Asia showed a downward trend, with an area reduction of 1,467,883.1 hm2 and an annual average loss rate of 1.1%. According to the statistics of the mangrove area change rate based on cellular network data, the total loss of mangrove area was as high as 40.11%. Of the total mangrove area, the regions with a change rate between -99% and -50% accounted for 28.57%, regions with a change rate between -49% and -5% accounted for 8.79%, and regions with a change rate between -4% and -1% accounted for only 13.95%. Regions with a change rate between 1% and 99% accounted for 8.18%. Only 0.4% of the mangrove area remained unchanged. The regions with increased mangrove area were primarily distributed in the Philippines, western and eastern Indonesia, and northern Vietnam. Second, the improvement and degradation of mangroves in Southeast Asia showed a concomitant distribution from 1990 to 2020. The degradation area of mangroves (79.25%) was much larger than the improvement area (20.32%) in Southeast Asia. Specifically, the significantly degraded areas accounted for 31.58%, the slightly degraded areas accounted for 47.67%, the significantly improved areas accounted for 4.75%, the slightly improved areas accounted for 15.57%, and only 0.42% of the area remained stable. Finally, the increase in aquaculture pond area was the main driving factor for mangrove area decline, with q values above 30%. Additionally, the shortest distance of mangroves from roads and population changes also had significant effects on the decline of mangrove area. The average annual temperature, precipitation, and topography had a relatively low degree of influence on mangrove changes. The results of the interaction detector indicated that all factors showed interaction enhancement, and the interaction between the culture tank and other factors was significantly stronger than that between other factors. The single factors with relatively weak driving force, such as average annual rainfall, temperature, and topography, had a significantly stronger influence on the interaction with other factors and showed a nonlinear enhancement effect.

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    Evolution of Rural Settlement Scale in Tunpu Settlement Gathering Area in the Last 20 Years: A Case Study of Xixiu District of Anshun City
    Zhenqin Chen, Cuiwei Zhao, Haiqin Zu, Qingping Lu, Qiuzhu Pan
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (1): 168-177.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003611
    Abstract434)   HTML13)    PDF (1804KB)(99)      

    In the context of social transformation and urbanization, rural settlements have undergone drastic changes, and some rural settlements, including characteristic settlements, have been declining or even dying out. Research on scale and grade evolution is essential for the optimization of rural settlement spatial patterns and the protection of characteristic settlements. Based on the data of rural settlement patches in Xixiu District in 2000, 2010, and 2020, this study investigates the distribution characteristics and evolution of rural settlement scale in Xixiu District, and analyzes the development and changes occurring in Tunpu settlement during this process by using the rural rank-size rule and settlement scale hierarchy model. The main conclusions are as follows: (1)Overall, the total scale and number of rural settlements show an increasing trend, and the scale of Tunpu settlements continues to increase. The area of Tunpu settlement accounted for more than 20% of the total area of rural settlements in the three periods. (2)The scale distribution of rural settlements in Xixiu District was in accordance with the law of rural rank size. The theoretical values of most rural settlements differ minimally from the actual values, the fitting degree is gradually improved, and the negative exponential distribution characteristics gradually become prominent, showing the distribution characteristics of "first settlement" and "vertical tail." The scale of rural settlements tended to be concentrated in 2000-2010 and balanced in 2010-2020. (3) The spatial distribution of rural settlements in the different grades was relatively stable. The first- and second-grade settlements were mainly distributed in areas with small relief and developed economies, the third-grade settlements were evenly distributed in the area, and the fourth- and fifth-grade settlements were distributed in areas with large relief. The number has evolved from low to high, and at the same time, small-scale and scattered settlements quickly fill the 5-level settlements. Simultaneously, small-scale and scattered settlements quickly fill the 5-level settlements. (4) The Tunpu settlement is an important high-rank and high-scale settlement in Xixiu District. The scale growth of the Tunpu settlement with high rank shows stability, while the scale growth of the Tunpu settlement with low rank shows instability, and the development of rank shows retrogression. There are differences in the scale and grade of development of Tunpu settlements at different military levels. The higher the military level, the better the regional conditions and the higher the scale and grade development of settlements. In the future, Xixiu District should focus on rectifying small-scale and scattered settlement patches, optimizing the layout of settlement land, Playing the role of "leading" settlements, and forming a scientific and reasonable rural settlement scale structure. The development of the Tunpu settlement in the Xixiu District is facing a series of problems. This study discusses the changes in the scale of rural settlements in the study area, which provides a realistic foundation for the classification and protection of Tunpu settlements and the creation of regional characteristic settlements. Additionally, it provides new perspectives for research on the scale of rural settlements and the protection of characteristic settlements.

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    The Empowerment of Rural Women through Digital Entrepreneurship: A Case of Typical Villages in Qianpai Town, Guangdong Province
    Yuxiang Li, Yuming Luo, Yongchun Li, Zeqi Chen, Zhuolin Mai, Xin Mai
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (2): 234-246.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003620
    Abstract420)   HTML16)    PDF (1671KB)(156)      

    In the era of the digital economy, live-streaming of agricultural products has become a new means of rural revitalization, which not only promotes the transformation of the rural economy but also deepens the dual promotion of villagers' rights and identities. Based on the practice of rural women's participation in the live-streaming of agricultural products, this study discussed the extent to which the live-streaming economy reconstructed rural women's identities and reproduced their production and living spaces from the perspective of feminist geography. Based on a sampling of villages representative of Qianpai Town, Guangdong Province, this study unfolded the opportunities, processes, and effects of women's empowerment in rural spatial transformation through qualitative research methods, such as participatory observation, in-depth interviews, and discourse analysis. Findings of the present study included: (1) while the live-streaming economy was found in the rural area, not only were diversified resources, such as policy, education, material, and cultural support, brought to Qianpai Town, but also rural women who either originally worked in cities or engaged in agricultural production obtained their new empowerment power. (2) The empowerment of rural women was prominently manifested in the reconstruction process of women's identity during the practice of digital entrepreneurship. Owing to the development of the digital economy, rural women self-reconstructed their identity from "migrant workers" to "returning entrepreneurs" and from "knowledge receivers" to "culture communicators", showing that they could expand their way of livelihood by mastering the right of independent employment, as well as the expansion of women's social network and the prominence of their dominant position. (3) The rural reconstruction under the live-streaming economy was a complex and dynamic process in which rural production and living spaces, private spaces, and public spaces were intertwined. The "familiarization" of live-streaming places broke the boundary between women's production and living spaces and facilitated the economic transformation of home space and the socialization of private space, thus contributing to the reconstruction of production and living spaces in rural areas. Overall, the practice of women's digital entrepreneurship contributed to the enhancement of their sense of self-value and the reshaping of their roles at home and in society to raise their voice and status in the economic activities of the family. This study argued that the coupling of rural women and the "live-streaming economy" in the digitalization process of rural areas provides a new research ground for deepening the understanding of women's empowerment mechanism through digital technology and the evolving human-place relationship of rural China. The analysis presented contributes to the exploration of the rural transformation and development processes from the perspective of the interaction between "women" and "place" and provides actionable insights into rural restructuring. The results of this study help to better understand the effects and mechanisms of the live-streaming economy on rural women as well as on their production and living spaces, thereby presenting theoretical and practical insights into rural women's empowerment through digital technology.

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    Spatial Distribution and Characteristics of Population in the Guangdong-Hong Kong- Macao Greater Bay Area Based on Night-Light Remote Sensing
    Shanshan Li, Wentan Lin
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (3): 384-394.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003640
    Abstract415)   HTML52)    PDF (4110KB)(303)      

    The Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA) is one of the most open regions in China, with the strongest economic vitality and fastest population growth, playing an important role in China's development strategy. Using GBA as the research area, Luojia1-01 radiance images and high-precision land type data from 2022 were merged to obtain the noctilucent index of land fusion. Stepwise regression models based on district-level administrative divisions were constructed and their accuracy was verified. Finally, the 500 m spatial distribution characteristics of the population for the GBA in 2020 were analyzed from multiple perspectives, including population size and density, spatial directivity, spatial agglomeration degree, and dispersion characteristics. The results show the following: 1) the integration of Luojia1-01 radiation brightness value and high-precision land type data guaranteed population spatialization accuracy, while scattered population agglomeration points could be identified by Luojia-01, and details of population distribution in the image saturation zone could be distinguished by land type data; 2) Population quantity and density had a highly synergistic spatial distribution relationship with five population agglomeration areas in the GBA, with sparse population in marginal cities. The population scale decreased outward from the accumulation regions; 3) Population distribution presented significant spatial directivity along the Guangzhou, Dongguan, Shenzhen, and Hong Kong directions, which proved that the economic level is an important factor affecting the spatial distribution of the population. Regional coordinated development in emerging economies was obvious among these cities along the direction, thus attracting population migration and agglomeration; 4) The population agglomeration feature was remarkable in this area, with 68% of the population concentrated within 27.64% of the spatial range. Popular hotspots were located in the regions of Dongguan, Shenzhen, and Hong Kong, with cold spot areas mainly distributed in Zhaoqing and Jiangmen. Population intensity was excessive in Tianhe, Yuexiu, and Haizhu Districts of Guangzhou City, and policy intervention is urgently needed for these districts to mitigate population pressure and improve the living environment, thus promoting regional coordinated development. The results of this study prove that Luojia-01 data are capable of population research at the municipal administrative division level. The revealed spatial distribution characteristics of the population have reference significance for urban policy formulation, planning management, and coordinated development in the Greater Bay Area. There are also some shortcomings in this study, such as the lack of population distribution exploration due to the limitation of satellite acquisition and a decrease in the accuracy of population spatialization results due to spatial-temporal inconsistency in the data. Further studies are needed to improve the accuracy and reveal additional features of the population spatial-temporal distribution in a long-term series.

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    Mangrove Forest Change in Haikou Dongzhaigang Nature Reserve and Its Association with Surrounding Communities
    Xiaohong Gu, Penghua Qiu, Wei Chen, Wenqian Zhou, Xiaojuan Chen, Shili Yang
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (1): 43-58.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003617
    Abstract408)   HTML13)    PDF (3935KB)(334)      

    Human activities such as deforestation, farming, and uncontrolled construction have had a negative impact on mangrove areas in the Reserve. This paper explores how the mangrove area and space have changed since the establishment of the Dongzhaigang Mangrove Nature Reserve, as well as the relationship between this change and the community residents around the Reserve. Six remote sensing images, from 1976 to 2021, were used to obtain wetland data of different ages in the Dongzhaigang Mangrove Forest Nature Reserve in Haikou City. Using the transfer matrix, a questionnaire survey, and principal component analysis, we analyzed the changes in mangrove forests in protected areas and their relationship with surrounding communities over the past 45 years. The results show that: (1) From 1976 to 2021, the area of mangroves in the reserve has increased from 1,395.84 hm2 in 1976 to 1,589.28 hm2 in 2021, showing a trend of "suddenly slowing and rising" during this period, and the proportion of mangrove area has increased from 28.6% in 1976 to 32.6% in 2021, becoming the main wetland type. The largest decline (250 hm2) in the mangrove area was from 1976 to 1985. The largest growth occurred from 2005 to 2018, when the mangrove area increased by 190.08 hm2. (2) From 1976 to 2021, 91.77 hm2 of mangrove wetlands in the study area were converted into other wetlands, 10.71 hm2 were converted into non-wetlands, and 267.71 hm2 of other wetlands and 28.21 hm2 of non-wetlands were converted into mangrove wetlands. In the same period, the transfer targets of mangrove forests in the reserve were muddy beaches (34.32 hm2), rivers (25.81 hm2), marine aquaculture farms (21.06 hm2), other land (10.58 hm2) and flooded wetlands/interiors. Land flats (8.26 hm2); silt beaches (177.41 hm2), rivers (38.18 hm2), other land (28.21 hm2), deltas/sands/sand islands (22.15 hm2), flooding Wetlands/inland tidal flats (21.79 hm2), and paddy fields (6.34 hm2) are the most common areas transferred into mangroves. (3) Fishing income from surrounding community-dwelling individuals was significantly associated with farming, disfiguring forest-digging pond areas, conservation awareness, and mangrove area variation. The factor quality of fishing practices (cos2), values of fishing practices and income, months of fishing, fishing volume, and conservation attitude in the surrounding community residents accounted for more than 0.6 in the principal component analysis of area change of mangrove forests, where the factor quality of fishing practices and fishing income were more than 0.8. The decline in residential fishing frequency corresponds with the shift in household income sources, the occupational move from fishing to wage and service industries, the obvious increase in conservation awareness and the conservation attitude of residents, and the transformation of the mangrove area away from serious destruction to less fragmentation. The contributions of freshwater farms, resident population, number of secondary schools, and village to mangrove distance factors were all greater than 10 and negatively correlated with mangrove area change. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the relationship between mangroves and community residents to obtain a scientific reference for the utilization, protection, restoration, and management of mangroves in the Dongzhaigang Mangrove Nature Reserve.

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    Individual Tree Crown Delineation and Aboveground Biomass Estimation of Sonneratia apetala Based on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Remote Sensing Images
    Chuying Yu, Hui Gong, Jingjing Cao, Yanjun Liu, Kai Liu
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (1): 12-22.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003609
    Abstract399)   HTML18)    PDF (2640KB)(206)      

    Accurate mangrove biomass measurement is necessary for the management and protection of mangrove ecosystems. Sonneratia apetala was the first high-quality mangrove species to be introduced for mangrove restoration in China. Compared with other mangrove species, Sonneratia apetala has higher productivity and can store large amounts of carbon in its living biomass. However, accurate depiction of the single-wood canopy of Sonneratia apetala is challenging because of its high clumping density and intricate canopy structure. While traditional satellite remote sensing focuses on regional or larger-scale monitoring needs, the newly emerged Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) remote sensing has significant advantages for monitoring mangroves at finer scales. However, few studies have used UAV data for mangrove biomass analyses. In this study, we successfully used consumer-grade UAV data to estimate the height and aboveground biomass (AGB) of Sonneratia apetala on Qi'ao Island, Zhuhai, Guangdong Province. We used a variable window filter algorithm to detect the treetops. Individual tree canopy segmentation was performed using the seed region-growing algorithm. Additionally, we constructed a regression equation for height (H) and diameter at breast height (DBH) of Sonneratia apetala in the study area and optimized the traditional allometric equation. Finally, mangrove AGB was estimated at the tree level using the optimized allometric equation, and the results indicated that the AGB of Sonneratia apetala could be accurately extracted using UAV images. The accuracy of the tree delineation was 67%, the correlation between H and DBH was DBH = 2.2726H-6.4415, and the correlation coefficient R2 was 0.8713. The aboveground mass of a single wood of Sonneratia apetala in the study area ranged from 29.60 to 388.44 kg, with a mean value of 145.72 kg and a total aboveground mass of 368.97 t. Partial spatial clustering was observed in the distribution of the aboveground mass of Sonneratia apetala in the study area, with a Moran's I index value of 0.594. The aboveground mass of Sonneratia apetala at the edge of the area and in the window part of the area was found to be smaller, mainly for two possible reasons. First, the natural death of Sonneratia apetala in part of the study area created a window, but its surrounding seedlings were still in the biomass accumulation stage. Second, the aboveground mass of Sonneratia apetala at the edges of the study area is often lost due to its vulnerable nature and anthropogenic factors. The average number of Sonneratia apetala in each quadrat was 6.3 and the AGB in the study area ranged from 2.99 to 247.24 t/hm2, with a mean value of 92.14 t/hm2. The estimated AGB based on UAV data was consistently lower than that generated from field data. The methods described in this study offer the possibility of easily repeatable, low-cost UAV surveys, providing a faster and more economical approach for monitoring mangrove forests than traditional ground surveys. These results may assist in decision-making regarding ecological monitoring, resource use, mangrove introduction, and scientific advancement of mangroves in China.

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    Characteristics and Causal Mechanism of Topsoil Slip in Ductile Shear Zone of the Shanwei Section of the Lianhuashan Fault Zone
    Ping Wang, Xianneng Wang, Anfeng Lai
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (1): 88-102.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003612
    Abstract389)   HTML13)    PDF (8330KB)(419)      

    The Shanwei Special Cooperation Zone (SSCZ) in Shenzhen is the main distribution area of the Lianhuashan Fault Zone. Two large ductile shear zones pass through the SSCZ. The ductile shear zone of the SSCZ is henceforth referred to as "the zone". Severe plastic progressive deformation, stretching, and compression occurred in the late Jurassic-Neogene period in the zone, because of which the structure and properties of the rock mass underwent significant changes. There are three levels of structural planes in the zone: brittle faults, schistosity planes, and joints in the rock mass. The ductile shearing action changes the rock mass structure, leading to poor integrity. According to existing data, the compressive strength of the rock in the zone is equivalent to 0.31-0.86 of the original rock, indicating that the strength of the rock is obviously attenuated by ductile shear action. Using ground investigation and remote sensing, we found 1,614 topsoil slips in the zone. The density of topsoil slips in the hillside area (16.2 topsoil slips per km2) was much higher than that outside the zone (1.3 topsoil slips per km2), indicating that the slopes in the zone are more prone to shallow damage. To study the geological risk zonation of geological hazards in the SSCZ, it is necessary to determine the characteristics and distribution rules of topsoil slips in the zone, analyze its causal mechanism, and predict its development trend.ⅰ) Ground surveys and remote sensing showed that monocase topsoil slip is small in the zone and sliding mainly occurs along the bedrock surface. Sliding masses are mainly solid and completely weathered rock. ⅱ) The frequency of geological disasters under the action of certain factors in the study area is divided by the frequency of geological disasters in the area. The natural logarithm of the divisor is taken as the information value to evaluate the relationship between geological disasters and various factors. The results show that the density of topsoil slips is positively correlated with the degree of ductile deformation (strong→medium→weak), distance from brittle fracture (near→far), and topographic slope (high→low). Moreover, the distribution density is strongly related to the geomorphic unit, slope direction, original rock type, and slope type. ⅲ) The above analyses are combined with regional, geological, exploration, meteorological, and other data. Results from this combination show that topsoil slips in the zone are produced under weak background conditions formed by the influence of multi-stage tectonic action dominated by ductile shear forces, the slow rise of the hillside area, and the induction of typhoons and rainstorms. Their development and changes are characterized by migration, self-healing, and expansion. ⅳ) Most of the current topsoil slips occurred during Super Typhoon Mujigae in 2015, after which the region experienced several rainfall events with intensities higher than those of Typhoon Mujigae, yet the number of topsoil slips did not increase significantly. This shows that after a general shallow sliding event, the sensitivity of the slope to shallow damage decreased, and generation took a long time before entering the next outbreak period.

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    The Changing Trend and Driving Factors of Water Frequency Fluctuations in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area
    Song Song, Zhifeng Wu, Zheng Cao, Fangdi Sun, Jinxin Yang, Qifei Zhang
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (3): 372-383.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003642
    Abstract389)   HTML45)    PDF (2887KB)(364)      

    The distribution of surface water is highly dynamic both spatially and temporally, and very sensitive to climate change and anthropogenic interference, especially in highly urbanized regions. The abundance of surface water and its spatiotemporal distribution indicate the availability of water resources and the difficulty of water development and utilization. Consequently, it is essential to perform reconstruction and trend prediction of surface water body changes with high accuracy in time and space for scientific research as well as for practical purposes such as flood prevention, sustainable development of water resource systems, and regional ecological management. The Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA) is highly developed economically and societally and is characterized by a subtropical humid monsoon climate with an extensive distribution of surface water bodies. Under the integrated pressure of continuous natural environmental change and intense human activity, concerns regarding both the water environment and water security in this area is increasing at an unprecedented rate. In this study, we collected water distribution information from 2001 to 2020 at 5-year intervals, as well as annual and monthly water extent dynamics data for the GBA from the Global Land Analysis & Discovery database. Subsequently, the spatial and temporal changes in water extent, frequency, and distribution characteristics in the last two decades were investigated using remote sensing and geographic information system methods. Finally, elastic analysis was conducted to identify the sensitivity of water body changes to changing environmental parameters, including precipitation, temperature, and urbanization. Focusing on the national and regional strategic needs of GBA, the research objectives of this study were to explore the mechanism of temporal and spatial dynamics of the water extent and frequency, trace the volatile areas of regional water changes, clarify the driving factors of water distribution changes, and provide a basis and guidance for comprehensive management of water resources, flood disaster prevention, and control in areas with high human activity. The first result shows that in the last two decades, the water extent and frequency of the GBA are on a decreasing trend, with an average decreasing rate of 50, 31, and 11 km2/a for maximum, annual, and permanent water extent, respectively, while a large proportion of seasonal water bodies changed into permanent and flood-prone bodies during the same period. Second, although the water frequency showed distinct spatial and urban/rural heterogeneity, it was on a decreasing trend in most of the GBA, except in the eastern region. A steeper decline was observed in urban areas, especially the emerging urban regions. Third, the dike-pond system decreased both in water extent and frequency, while the large and medium-sized lakes and reservoirs in the upper catchment increased in extent. Finally, elastic analysis suggests the dominant driving factor of regional water body change is land use change, which contributed more than 80% to the decrease in water extent, and the reservoir increase is mainly due to precipitation change. The results of this research provide scientific guidance for regional water resource guarantee, water environment optimization, and sustainable development promotion. In addition, this research can serve as a decision-making reference for the development of the "One Belt One Road" national strategy and Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area.

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    Spatio-Temporal Niches of Main Fish Species in the Mangrove Creeks of the Nanliujiang River Estuary
    Yanan Cheng, Xin Huang, Zhiqiang Wu, Hao Liu, Hao Xu, Qiongyuan Su, Liang Zhu, Peng Xu, Liangliang Huang
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (1): 59-70.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003604
    Abstract379)   HTML13)    PDF (1959KB)(256)      

    Mangroves are one of the most important wetland ecosystems. The development of fisheries in tropical and subtropical bays or estuaries is closely associated with mangroves since the high heterogeneity of the mangrove ecosystem provides a suitable habitat for marine organisms. However, multiple factors have led to a significant reduction in mangroves, such as water pollution, disease, insect pests, invasive alien species, and climate change. It is crucial to understand the relationships among organisms, as well as the interactions between organisms and their environment, by studying the ecological niche width and overlap of species. Therefore, two new perspectives of ecological niche width and ecological niche overlap were used to understand the interspecific ecological relationships, competition mechanisms, and resource utilization status of fish communities in mangrove forests. Based on the data collected during seasonal sampling in July 2019 (summer), October 2019 (autumn), January 2020 (winter), and May 2020 (spring) in the Nanliujiang Estuary, the index of relative importance (IRI), Shannon index, and Pianka index were employed to analyze the temporal and spatial niche of the main fish species in the mangrove creeks and to study niche differentiation among the main fish species by redundancy analysis. A total of 17,680 individual fish were collected in this study, belonging to 12 orders, 23 families, 37 genera, and 45 species. Ten main fish species with IRI>100 were identified. Among the main fish species, the temporal niche breadth ranged from 0.46 to 1.78, with the highest of which belonging to Butis butis (1.78) and the lowest belonging to Pseudogobius javanicus (0.46). The spatial niche breadth ranged from 0.81 to 2.05, with the highest of which belonging to Synechogobius ommaturus (2.05) and the lowest belonging to P. javanicus (0.81). The spatiotemporal niche breadth of six species was greater than 2 (wide-niche species) that included Mugil cephalus, Coptodon zillii, Bostrychus sinensis, S. ommaturus, B. butis, and Pisodonophis boro. With regard to overlap, the temporal niche overlap between M. cephalus and P. javanicus was the highest (0.928), whereas that between Ambassis urotaenia and Terapon jarbua (0.001) was the lowest. The spatial niche overlap between A. urotaenia and Gambusia affinis was the highest (0.979), whereas that between M. cephalus and P. javanicus (0.178) was the lowest. Finally, the spatiotemporal niche overlap between C. zillii and P. javanicus was the highest (0.822), whereas that between A. urotaenia and Terapon jarbua (0.001) was the lowest. The two-dimensional temporal and spatial niche pairs in the mangrove creeks of the Nanliujiang River Estuary significantly overlapped (Qik > 0.6), accounting for 6.7% of the total species pairs, indicating that the temporal and spatial distributions of species were quite different and the temporal and spatial niche overlap was affected by seasonal changes. Redundancy analysis revealed that the main factors affecting spatiotemporal niche differentiation of the main fish species in the mangrove creeks of the Nanliujiang Estuary were water temperature, salinity, and Chlorophyll a. And the main fish biomass in winter was positively correlated with salinity; the main fish biomass in spring was positively correlated with dissolved oxygen, pH and Chlorophyll a; the main fish biomass in summer was positively correlated with total organic carbon, water temperature and Chlorophyll a; the main fish biomass in autumn was positively correlated with total nitrogen, turbidity and total phosphorus.

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    Soil carbon stock and potential carbon storage in the mangrove forests of Guangdong
    Guoming Qin, jingfan Zhang, jinge Zhou, Zhe Lu, Faming Wang
    Tropical Geography   
    Accepted: 17 January 2023

    Place-Making and Emotional Mechanisms in the Reconstruction of Urban Village: A Case Study of Innovative and Creative Spaces in Huangpu Village, Guangzhou
    Yuancheng Lin, Hongtao Lai, Ren Yang, Min Wang, Qian Xu
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (2): 320-329.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003619
    Abstract362)   HTML23)    PDF (1081KB)(271)      

    With the continuous advancement of urban renewal, innovative and creative spaces in the urban village have attracted much attention as a new model of space restoration. In the process of material space transformation, the emotional identity and place identity of innovative and creative spaces in urban villages are reconstructed. However, communities and residents in the urban village remain often been neglected in previous studies, most of which focused on the material and economic perspectives. In other words, the emotional mechanisms and spatial influences of relevant subjects in innovative and creative spaces have not received sufficient attention. By focusing on the innovative and creative spaces of Huangpu village in Guangzhou as an example, this study employed in-depth interviews, network text analysis, and other methods to explore the impact of innovative and creative spaces on residents' sense of place and their role in creating a local emotional identity within the context of urban renewal from the perspective of emotional geography. The innovative and creative spaces of the urban villages exerted a different impact on the local emotion and space identity of multiple subjects through the reshaping of the material environment, culture, and social relations. The improvement of the material environment of the innovative and creative spaces in the urban villages enhanced the emotional identity and local attachment of residents. The cultural values of modern industrial forms were not able to shape the local and cultural identities of residents but increased the level of makers. The local identity of the tenant group was based on creativity and cultural atmosphere. The innovative and creative spaces of the urban villages formed a social network relationship with industry as the link by strengthening the interaction and connection between the subjects, establishing a common emotional attachment and local identity, and transforming the original traditional living space into a multi-dimensional space with consumption, production, and leisure attributes. The emotion and atmosphere of the innovative and creative spaces were displayed during the interaction between makers and residents and during the production of creative products and made different subjects participate in the process of space-remodeling. Not only did this process strengthen the perception and recognition of innovative and creative elements and rural areas, but it also established the recognition of a common local value. Given the current emphasis on the reuse of stock space resources, such as industrial heritage and historical buildings, it is particularly important to focus on the emotional connection between humans and the environment. From the perspective of emotional geography, it is of great significance that the emotional effect and meaning of constructing innovative and creative spaces on rural development are elucidated. This study provides not only a theoretical perspective for a deeper understanding of the relationship between the innovative and creative spaces and the locality of urban villages but also insights into promoting culturally oriented urban renewal.

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    Coordination Mechanism of Village-Level Industrial Park Transformation Based on the Perspective of Stakeholders: A Case Study of Heshan City, Guangdong Province
    Lixia Jin, Zhangrong Xiao, Yuming Xie, Junjie Zhang, Jie Guo, Zhimin Wen
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (2): 213-225.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003624
    Abstract355)   HTML7)    PDF (1654KB)(131)      

    Interest relationship is are the most basic among all social relations. In the field of urban renewal, the game process, conflict mechanism, and coordination mechanism among multiple stakeholders are important issues for cities to improve their sustainability. The stakeholders involved in the transformation of village-level industrial parks are more diverse, the interest differentiation is more frequent, and interest conflicts are more intense. The existing research mainly tries to explore the status quo, mode strategy and interest game in the transformation process of village industrial park from the aspects of power, system and space, and points out the importance of interest balance among "land stakeholders" such as government, market and property owners, but there are still deficiencies in the multi-subject participation mechanism and interest coordination mechanism. Due to the lack of advantages in location value, public finance and industry introduction, peripheral cities in the Pearl River Delta represented by Jiangmen are unable to ensure the positive guidance of spatial value remodeling and the full expression of diverse interests, resulting in slow progress of the reconstruction. Therefore, based on the stakeholder perspective of the urban regime theory, and constructing the multi-scale and multi-subject analytical framework of "stakeholder identification-interest conflict analysis-interest mechanism coordination,"the stakeholders in the upgrading of the village industrial park in Heshan City were investigated through a literature review, expert rating, and questionnaire interview. This study examines the practical problems of the village industrial park in Heshan City, Guangdong Province,to identify the stakeholders, interest demands, and conflicts involved in the transformation of the aforementioned. Subsequently, combined with typical park reconstruction cases, the interest game process of core stakeholders such as government departments, state-owned enterprises, private enterprises, financial institutions, village collectives, and villagers is discussed.Additionally, the evolutionary path and micro-mechanism framework of the formation of diversified interest alliances, the achievement of diversified goals, and the coordination of multi-subject interests are revealed in this process. Research shows the main constraints to the implementation of village-level industrial parks are the unequal power of stakeholders, unfair participation of power, unreasonable benefit distribution, and compensation mechanism. The participant-subjects and related capital input, source and income, collaborative transformation of industry and space, as well as the responsibility and power relationship of the implementation subject are more complex. In turn, government departments such as the Finance Bureau and the Bureau of Natural Resources are forced to form formal or informal partnerships with developers, enterprises and original owners. In the less developed areas of the Pearl River Delta, the mode of "government-led plusdiversified participation"is usually adopted. By entrusting full power to governmental financial organizations such as the Finance Bureau and the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration Commission, village collectives and villagers are united with developers, operators, and financial institutions to form formal and informal cooperation relations, such as government-village and government-enterprise alliances, as well as interest distribution and incentive mechanisms. Additionally, the achievement of political, economic, social, and ecological diversification goals is promoted.Finally, this study proposes the following areas for future research: First, research on the micro behavior decision-making and mechanism of the village industrial park reconstruction can be conducted to further explore the "institutional space" of the reconstruction and its incentive and constraint mechanismto reveal the underlying"power-capital-space"and the political economic logic behind it. Second, against the background of multiple driving factors, there are also significant differences in the form, process, and mechanism of cooperation between the interest subjects of the village-level industrial park transformation. The differences in the main subjects in different modes, their temporal and spatial effects, and the mechanisms of action need to be further explored. Finally, the study investigates the social and cultural spatial response, governance path, and subject initiative of the village industrial park transformation, and reveals the possible ways in which village collectives and farmers' active social spatial practicescan improve their own situation through the logic of spatial governance.

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    Coastal Ecosystem Restoration Strategy Based on Carbon Storage Change: A Case Study of the Southeast Coastal Zone of Hainan Island
    Tiancheng Sun, Zicheng Ma, Zanhui Huang, Zhaofan Wang, Si Chen, Yao Xiao, Cuirong Xie, Changhai Yue, Fengming Jia, Qian Zhang
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (3): 443-458.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003643
    Abstract348)   HTML15)    PDF (3932KB)(548)      

    Carbon peak and neutralization, land space ecological restoration, and sustainable management of sea areas and islands are all important components of national development strategies. In recent years, owing to the impact of natural factors, human interference, and global climate change, the ecosystem of the southeast coast of Hainan has been seriously damaged, and its carbon sink function has decreased significantly. This decline in the ecological quality of the southeast coast of Hainan is inconsistent with the positioning requirements of the Hainan Free Trade Port and the National Ecological Civilisation Construction Pilot Zone. Thus, ecosystem restoration based on carbon storage needs to be urgently explored. Using the southeast coast of Hainan Island as an example, the carbon storage module based on the InVEST model, combined with the land use data of the study area in 2000, 2010, and 2020, the carbon storage of the study area was estimated. The carbon sink and carbon source areas were divided, and the carbon storage function was evaluated. Over the past two decades, carbon loss in the study area has been identified, and areas with serious carbon loss were identified, with the ecological restoration functional area divided. The results showed that the ecosystem in the study area was damaged to varying degrees, decreasing by 1.11 Gt over 20 years. Traditionally, the area of the carbon source is always larger than that of the carbon sink. Areas with poor and extremely poor carbon storage functions were 39.84 and 27.31 km2, respectively. According to the superposition results of the carbon storage function and terrestrial ecosystem service value, four restoration units (natural restoration area, artificial auxiliary area, reconstruction restoration area, and moderate development area) were selected. In light of the different restoration areas and under the guidance of land space planning and the idea of carbon neutral and carbon peaks, ecological restoration strategies, including rehabilitation and restoration of wetlands, shoreline restoration, wetland reconstruction, and strengthening supervision, have been proposed in a targeted and differentiated manner. The research results have important reference value for strengthening the protection of the restoration area in the southeast coastal zone of Hainan, stabilizing the carbon storage capacity, reversing the trend of carbon loss, and realizing effective protection and restoration of the damaged ecosystem. Furthermore, the ecological service function and quality of coastal zones, and the marine ecological compensation mechanism, can be further improved.

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    The Effects of Altitude and Land Use on Organic Matter and Integrated Fertility of Soils in the Northern Tropics Mountain
    Ping Wang, Honglian Hua, Zhiqiang Ding, Xiaoya Yu, Xiao'ai Tan, Yuhui Li
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (1): 144-154.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003618
    Abstract348)   HTML9)    PDF (1295KB)(271)      

    This study was conducted to gain insight into the distribution characteristics of Soil Organic Matter (SOM) and Soil Integrated Fertility (SIF) in various mountain soil zones and several typical land use types (secondary forest, banana plantation, and rubber plantation) on different altitude gradients in the northern tropics and the Butterfly Valley area in Jinping County, Yunnan Province, China. The surface (0-20 cm) and subsurface (20-40 cm) layers are distinguished. SOM, pH, total N, total P, total K, and available N, P, and K were measured. The SIF was evaluated using the modified Nemorow index method, and the key limiting factors were analyzed. First, the results show that the SOM content ranges from 21.91 to 120.67 g/kg for the surface layer and 16.38 to 101.88 g/kg for the subsurface layer, with the mean SOM of the surface layer (75.32 g/kg) greater than that of the subsurface layer (51.57 g/kg, P > 0.05). In terms of SIF, that of the surface layer was 1.15-1.59 and that of the subsurface layer was 0.94-1.44, with the mean SIF of the surface layer (1.35) greater than that of the subsurface layer (1.16). This shows that there is a significant positive correlation between the altitude gradient and SOM as well as SIF. Ranking of SOM and SIF for the surface layer (P < 0.05). Second, the SOM for the surface layer of the secondary forest, banana plantation, and rubber plantation were 26.61, 13.48, and 11.91 g/kg, respectively, while the SOM for the subsurface layer of these three typical land use types are 19.28, 9.61, and 8.91 g/kg, respectively. With regard to SIF, they were 1.48, 1.33, and 1.21 for the surface layer, and 1.17, 1.10, and 0.94, respectively. Notably, both in the surface and subsurface layers, the SOM and SIF were largest in the secondary forest, followed by the banana plantation, and then the rubber plantation. The SOM of the secondary forest was significantly greater than that of the banana and rubber plantations (P < 0.05), whereas there was no significant difference among the SIF of these three land use types. Finally, as the altitude increased, the factors limiting the SIF change from available N and available P to available P and available K, and the effect of pH gradually strengthened. The factors that maintain and limit the SIF of different land use types at low altitudes are generally consistent with natural soils at the same altitude. Therefore, in the process of future mountain development and utilization, it is important for low-altitude areas to supply nitrogen and phosphate to the soil. In medium- and high-altitude areas, supplementation with phosphate and potash is useful, and a suitable pH helps the soil release nutrients and promotes plant uptake and utilization.

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    Intelligent Identification of Rural Housing in Economically Underdeveloped Areas Based on Deep Learning and Mathematical Morphology
    Chunhua Lao, Yanhui Lin
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (2): 179-189.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003628
    Abstract345)   HTML23)    PDF (3315KB)(101)      

    With the rapid growth of China's economy and the supportive government policies and funds, the demand for and the expansion of rural housing in China are on the rise, which tightens requirements for rural housing. However, most of the present rural housing suffers from unplanned growth. The sprawl of rural housing adversely affects the quantity and quality of land resources, in particular, productive agricultural lands; therefore, it is necessary to regulate the growth of rural housing and protect farmlands through spatiotemporally continuous monitoring. Currently, the monitoring of rural housing in China is mainly conducted via in-situ inspection of the national land survey, which is restricted by unfavorable conditions (e.g., weather, outbreaks, and traffic) as well as impairing real-time and reliable control over information collected. To resolve this issue, this study proposed an intelligent model to recognize rural housing in underdeveloped areas based on deep learning and mathematical morphology (MobileNet-MM). The model was based on high-resolution remote sensing data, MobileNetV2 (a convolutional neural network architecture well performing on mobile devices), and mathematical morphology. First, the obtained data were segmented and manually screened and tagged to construct a training dataset. Second, the training dataset was used to train MobileNet-MM, with the expansion operation being used to compensate for identification errors of deep learning. Finally, the accuracy of MobileNet-MM to identify and monitor rural housing was tested, resulting in 84.5% accuracy. The comparison of the accuracies of MobileNet-MM and ResNet34 (a state-of-the-art image classification model) indicated that ResNet34 misclassified a large area of rural housing that was mainly distributed on the edge of the region as well as cropland and vegetation as rural housing, with its weak ability to recognize actual rural housing. The MobileNet-MM model predicted rural housing accurately and land boundary precisely, with the misclassified area being scattered, and its average accuracy, is 10.6% higher than that of ResNet34. The novelties of this study were two-fold: (1) a high-resolution training dataset of rural housing in underdeveloped areas was generated, which provides data support for the development of subsequent models; and (2) an intelligent model to recognize rural housing in underdeveloped areas (MobileNet-MM) based on deep learning and mathematical morphology was proposed.

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    Geopolitical Risk Assessment and Influencing Factors of Countries Participating in the Belt and Road Initiative
    Fang Hu, Yubo Li
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (6): 1160-1171.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003686
    Abstract345)   HTML3)    PDF (1342KB)(437)      

    The Belt and Road Initiative aims to achieve common development and prosperity for all countries. Building a scientific and reasonable geopolitical risk assessment system is an important prerequisite for participating countries to prevent and resolve geopolitical risk. Taking 64 countries in the six economic corridors of the Belt and Road Initiative as the assessment object, this study builds a geopolitical risk assessment system based on post-transaction costs. It analyzes the geopolitical risk level, spatial and temporal distribution characteristics, and influencing factors using the full array polygon graphical indicator method, Global Moran's I, and the spatial Durbin model. The research results show that: 1) From the time dimension, the geopolitical risks of participating countries show a trend of first rising and then falling, reaching a peak in 2015. 2) From the perspective of spatial distribution, high-risk areas are mainly concentrated in the Middle East and South Asia, while medium to high risk areas are concentrated in Indochina and the Arabian Peninsula. Most of the low to medium risk countries are Western Pacific island countries, while low-risk countries are mainly in Central Europe. The clustering characteristics of geopolitical risks are obvious. The results of Global Moran's I show that from 2011-2020, the geopolitical risk concentration area was initially located in the Middle East and South Asia, and then in 2015, Europe and East Asia also experienced high geopolitical risks. By 2020, it was still mainly concentrated in the Middle East and Eastern Europe, however, generally, the regions with high geopolitical risk will still be mainly concentrated in the Middle East and Eastern Europe. 3) The research results on the factors influencing geopolitical risks indicate that political stability, economic freedom, economic growth, increased education expenditure, and better natural resources have a significant inhibitory effect on geopolitical risk, while increases in the unemployment rate, population size, and oil resources, will to some extent, promote the generation of geopolitical risks. The indirect effect results show that political stability, economic freedom, and the unemployment rate of the host country have a significant impact on surrounding countries. Based on this, we believe that countries participating in the Belt and Road Initiative need to improve their government governance capabilities, accelerate their modernization transformation, effectively utilize the resources, funds, and technologies brought about by the Belt and Road Initiative. Furthermore, actively integrate into the regional economic cooperation framework of the Belt and Road Initiative and improve their ability to manage geopolitical risks. This study enriched the evaluation system of geopolitical risks. During the construction of the evaluation indicators, the results emphasized the sudden and violent characteristics of geopolitical risks, further explained the violent confrontation and economic game existing in geopolitical risks, and effectively enriched the literature on the spatial characteristics and influencing factors of geopolitical risks of countries participating in the Belt and Road Initiative. It should be pointed out that there are still some limitations in this study. This study is based on countries participating in the Belt and Road Initiative and there are deficiencies in the discussion of geopolitical risk for countries not in the region. Future research can be based on a global perspective, further enriching the evaluation index system of geopolitical risk, and conducting more in-depth research on the spatial transmission path and geopolitical risk avoidance measures.

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    Spatial Pattern and Influencing Factors of Rural E-Commerce Logistic Level in China
    Fan Wang, Mingfeng Wang
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (2): 247-257.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003621
    Abstract341)   HTML20)    PDF (1742KB)(159)      

    The deepening of the social division of labor in economic development has led to the emergence of the logistics industry. The development of distribution plays an important role in optimizing regional resource allocation and improving regional competitiveness. The construction of logistics and distribution facilities not only promotes the upward movement of agricultural products but also the downward movement of industrial products, playing an important role in both the production and consumption sides, especially in rural areas. Existing logistics research based on the spatial perspective mainly focuses on the exploration of urban logistics and distribution, including the evaluation of urban logistics hubs and the construction of logistics systems, and so on. There is limited research on the evaluation of rural logistics and distribution level and its spatial characteristics. Moreover, in a comprehensive view, owing to the difficulty of obtaining logistics data in rural areas, the existing research lacks systematic and quantitative analysis on the layout of rural logistics and distribution facilities and their formation mechanisms. Therefore, this study explores the spatial distribution and clustering characteristics of e-commerce distribution levels in rural areas of China, as well as the influencing factors of rural logistics levels. Data are derived from the administrative village e-commerce distribution points from the third national agricultural census of 2016, and analytical methods such as spatial autocorrelation and ordinary least squares regression models are employed. The level of rural logistics displays a staggered distribution of high and low values, and some regions have homogeneous provincial distribution characteristics between high and low value areas; this is especially significant in Chinese provinces such as Hebei, Jiangsu, and Shandong. Overall, rural logistics distribution in all four major regions of China is at a low average level, but regional differences still exist at the geographic level, with high-high (H-H) agglomeration areas concentrated in the Yangtze River Delta and Bohai regions. The agglomeration phenomenon is particularly significant in Hebei and Zhejiang Provinces. The low-low (L-L) agglomeration area is mainly located in the Sichuan-Tibet region. From the spatial variation characteristics, the increase in the proportion of e-commerce distribution villages at the municipal level has more practical value than the increase in the number alone. Different factors have a differential impact on the level of rural e-commerce distribution construction in each region. Ethnic minority characteristics in the eastern region can enhance the level of rural e-commerce distribution, while ethnic characteristics in the central, western, and northeastern regions do not have a significant impact on the development of such facilities. The development of roads, public transportation, and other infrastructure in the central and western regions has a direct impact on the development of rural logistics and distribution. The more mountainous administrative villages, the worse the level of logistics and distribution construction, and the western and northeastern regions exhibit particularly significant performance. This study adds to the knowledge on the development level of China's rural logistics, helps promote the development of rural e-commerce, provides a solid foundation for the implementation of a rural revitalization strategy, and enhances the purposeful and scientific construction of rural distribution points.

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    Spatial Pattern and Influencing Factors of Urban Invisible Consumption: A Case Study of Changsha
    Yixin Liang, Qiang Ye, Yao Zhao, Zhuoyang Du, Yuxuan Wan
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (4): 707-719.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003665
    Abstract338)   HTML8)    PDF (3573KB)(124)      

    Urban invisible consumption space is a physical consumption space with weak visibility in urban public space, which has become a new channel for urban business and consumption development. It is progressively becoming an important part of the urban business. Analyzing the spatial pattern and influencing factors of urban invisible consumption is an important basis for promoting online and offline commercial development in cities. Taking Changsha City as an example, the invisible consumption space of the city was identified using POI and business information data of Gaode open platform. Using the Gatiss-Ord index and the geographically weighted regression model, we analyzed the spatial distribution of the urban invisible consumption with different levels of Internet participation. The results show that: 1) the main consumption type of invisible consumption space in Changsha is experiential service consumption; 2) the invisible consumption space infiltrated by the Internet, with Wuyi Square and Red Star Business Circle as the main core areas, presents a structural form of "a main core area, an auxiliary core area, strip distribution, and a point-like mixture"; 3) compared with the traditional invisible consumption space, which is less influenced by the Internet, the invisible consumption space infiltrated by the Internet has clear spatial heterogeneity and less spatial autocorrelation. The results show that the urban invisible consumption space tends to cluster in areas with a mature business atmosphere, convenient transportation, high cost-effective rent, and close to residential areas. The spatial distribution of invisible consumption in Changsha presents a basic spatial structure in line with the central place theory, showing a polycentric form of agglomeration and diffusion. Urban invisible consumption space clusters in the local industrial and commercial center. Moreover, the evolution of places shows a trend of infiltration and aggregation to blocks and the location influence is weak, but it is not "no location influence at all". Its distribution characteristics are in line with the theory of flowing space on the scale of urban internal block. However, invisible consumption space use is positively influenced by the Internet, and its potential commercial value lies in promoting and making full use of the existing urban space resources. In addition, for an "online famous city", the offline consumption activities in the network platform are increasing in abundance, and invisible consumption space will become a more important place to perceive the hidden vitality of the city.

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    Daily Monitoring of Ecological Conservation Red Line Based on Intelligent Recognition of Soundscape and Analysis of Intrusion Factors
    Linsen Wang, Suhong Zhou, Pengcheng Lai, Dan Zou, Jiangyu Song
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (2): 202-212.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003631
    Abstract333)   HTML18)    PDF (1916KB)(122)      

    Ecological conservation red line is an important initiative for ecological civilization construction in China. Studies and works have been conducted to delineate the ecological conservation red line using remote sensing and manual survey methods. However, the traditional ecological assessment methods ignore the impact of dynamic elements on the ecological environment, and a permanent monitoring system for ecological conservation red line is still necessary. Therefore, this paper aimed to build a daily monitoring system of the ecological conservation red line from the perspective of ecological soundscape, combining deep learning and traditional Geographic Information System (GIS) methods. We analyzed the main factors affecting the ecological soundscape to provide a benchmark for selecting sites for permanent soundscape monitoring. Initially, this study developed the first classification standard of soundscape elements for daily monitoring of ecological conservation red line concerning the "ecological-production-living spaces" concept and existing literature on soundscape and built a deep learning model for training, with training and validation accuracies of 89.88% and 72.41%, respectively. The identification results of this model confirmed that the solution of intelligent monitoring through soundscape is reliable in daily monitoring. Then, the deep learning model was employed to classify and predict the soundscape collected from the case sites and effectively identify the areas with severe ecological encroachment by calculating the proportion of ecological soundscape elements, performing the simulation of daily monitoring, which is important guidance for the actual ecological conservation red line monitoring. Finally, a regression model was used to analyze the spatial characteristics of ecologically vulnerable areas, with an R2 of 0.472. The regression model showed that nighttime light intensity had the greatest influence on ecological soundscape, followed by the distance from residential areas, spatial centrality, and road distance. These factors should be considered when implementing permanent soundscape monitoring sites. In addition, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and topography were not significant in the regression model, which confirmed the shortcomings of considering only the ecological background and ignoring the dynamic biological elements. Daily monitoring should capture dynamic encroachments so that major ecological damage can be detected before it occurs. Therefore, the innovative integration of soundscape elements into the monitoring system meets the basic needs of monitoring ecological conservation red lines daily.

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    Comprehensive Evaluation of Resources and Environmental Carrying Capacity in Guangdong Coastal Zone
    Xiaoding Liu, Liming Tang, Duan Sun, Yili Li, Minduan Xu, Xinyi Kang, Bin Tan, Hong Xiao, Juchao Zhao, Gongxue Feng, Yaolong Zhao, Weilian Chen, Gengran Xu
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (3): 459-473.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003644
    Abstract332)   HTML19)    PDF (3273KB)(342)      

    Guangdong Province is actively building a national marine ecological civilization construction demonstration area, and it is crucial to conduct research and assessment on the resources and environmental carrying capacity of the coastal zones. Under the guidance of the "double evaluation" of the territorial space planning, this study takes the coastal areas of Guangdong Province, namely the 45 coastal counties and the sea areas within the scope of the marine functional areas of Guangdong Province as the research scope It proceeded from the functional orientation of ecological protection, agricultural production, and urban construction to construct the evaluation index system of the resources and environmental carrying capacity of the coastal zone of Guangdong Province. In 2019, based on the evaluation index system, a comprehensive evaluation of the resources and environmental carrying capacity of the coastal zone of Guangdong Province was performed using integrate and integrate multi-scale spatial data, remote sensing, geographic information system, and other technical means and its resource and environmental carrying status were quantitatively revealed. The results showed that approximately 84% of the land area in the coastal zone and more than 1/2 of the sea areas (cities, districts) have overall good comprehensive bearing status of the resources and environmental carrying capacity, which is mainly characterized by loadability. The scale of human socio-economic activities in most regions is within the range of the resources and environmental carrying capacity; however, in some regions it exceeds the threshold, particularly in regions distributed in the Pearl River Delta. Specifically, under the guidance of the ecological protection function, 60.05% of the land area and 14 counties (cities, districts) of the sea area are in a loadable state, mainly distributed in the east and west wings of the urban agglomeration in the Greater Bay Area of Guangdong, Hong Kong, and Macao. Under the guidance of the agricultural production function, the carrying capacity of land agriculture is relatively severe, mainly critical overload, while the number of counties (cities, districts) that can be carried by sea agricultural production is relatively small. Compared with the functions of ecological protection and agricultural production, the area of the loadable area under the urban construction function is the highest, with 86.93% of the land area and 29 counties (cities, districts) of the sea area in the loadable state, and only 3.01% of the land area and 10 counties (cities, districts) of the sea area in the overloaded state. Guangdong Province is a major province of marine economy. As an important place for economic activities in the coastal zone, the ocean is a strategic place to promote the high-quality development of Guangdong Province.. Under the mode of sustainable development, there is still a large scope for the development of resources and environmental carrying capacity in the coastal zone of Guangdong Province. On the premise of ensuring the stability of resources and environment, the loadable area can be further developed and utilized selectively, the allocation of resource elements can be optimized, and a new management mode of high-level protection and efficient utilization of resources can be built. Thus the research results provide a basis for the compilation of territorial space planning and the optimization of territorial space development and protection pattern in Guangdong Province.

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    County-Town-Village Spatial Pattern Under the Function Evolution of Township: A Case Study of Two Counties in Guangdong Province
    Fan Mo, Yaofu Huang, Xinhui Wu, Jing Wang
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (2): 308-319.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003622
    Abstract332)   HTML24)    PDF (2673KB)(192)      

    Since the launch of the Rural Revitalization Strategy, China's rural construction in county seats and villages has made remarkable achievements. Meanwhile, towns have received insufficient attention as a traditionally important node connecting urban and rural areas. Based on historical literature and the most recent survey of Yangxi and Wengyuan counties in Guangdong Province, this study examines how the relationship between county, town, and village changes over time as the functions of towns change. Data from field investigations and villagers' questionnaires obtained from the evaluation of rural construction by the Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Construction in 2021 regarding the two case towns were employed. This study analyzes the function and role of towns in the county-town-village system and further discusses the transformation of the spatial pattern of county-town-village in two case counties. The town has been transformed into a comprehensive functional service space, providing basic services such as daily shopping, preschool education, compulsory education, and basic medical care, and has regained its importance in connecting urban and rural areas in the "hierarchical and open network" spatial structure of county-town-village. As a service center radiating through the entire county, the county seat plays an essential central role in satisfying the rural population with higher-quality modern services in addition to basic services and offering non-routine service functions such as access to medical care and house purchases. According to the differentiated functions of different scales and the contextual geographic conditions in the two case towns, the pattern of county-town-village has diverted into two different spatial structures: the classic "central place" hierarchical and the county-central one. Geographical conditions still matter; in plain areas, transportation links between counties, towns, and villages are more convenient. Therefore, the service needs of villagers are the major influencing factor while they choose where to go. Moreover, a county seat with a stronger comprehensive service capacity is preferred, and the spatial pattern has higher centrality. In hilly areas, topographic barriers, and inconvenient transportation limits public service options. Fewer villagers choose to go directly to county seats owing to the inconvenience, instead, town as a medium space has attracted some village residents. Thus, the spatial pattern of hilly areas is less central and more in the "central place" hierarchical structure. In summary, this study brings town, as a research unit, back to researchers' attention, and demonstrates the shifting roles of towns in the new era. In addition to pursuing the full coverage of facilities, to achieve the rational allocation of resources in the construction of town seats, the study suggests that the demand scale and service threshold of different types of functions should be considered. Meanwhile, the county should be viewed as an inclusive unit that can coordinate the allocation of resources to towns according to their basic conditions. Based on a complete configuration of necessary facilities, towns near urbanized areas can make full use of the radiation capacity of the county or city and reduce the construction of overly urbanized facilities; in areas where transportation within the county is less convenient, the service level of towns needs to be further improved.

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    The Evolution Characteristics and Enhancement Paths of the Economy-Society-Ecology Coordinated Development Level of Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Urban Agglomeration
    Yizhang Chen, Guohua Zhou, Hua Wang, Shuqiang Cui, Fangze Bi, Xuexia Yu
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (3): 519-531.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003645
    Abstract317)   HTML19)    PDF (1350KB)(159)      

    Promoting the coordinated development of urban agglomerations is a fundamental goal in new urbanization construction in China. It is an inherent requirement for condensing the joint efforts of various cities, and a primary path to maximizing the overall benefits and enhancing the competitiveness of urban agglomerations. Based on the composite system synergy degree model, this study analyzes urban agglomeration as a composite system integrated with the economy, society, and ecology subsystems. Using evidence from the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration, we research the evolutionary characteristics of its coordinated development level since the resource-saving and environment-friendly development experimental area was established. We also explore the improvement path of optimizing the coordinated development of urban agglomerations. The results show that from 2007 to 2019: 1) at the urban agglomeration scale, the order degree of economy, society, and ecology subsystems in the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration displays an overall improvement trend, and the synergy degree of the composite system changed from mild imbalance to moderate synergy; 2) at the urban scale, Changsha and Zhuzhou have achieved moderate synergy, while Xiangtan remains at mild synergy; the synergy degree of the composite system in Changsha continues to strengthen, and those in Zhuzhou and Xiangtan are relatively weakened; 3) the two main problems in the coordinated development are that the coordinated level is low, and the socio-ecological subsystem changes slowly with the main infrastructure and environmental governance constraints. In addition, there are obvious gaps in the level of coordination between cities, with constraints in the economic scale, development quality, industrial structure, and pollution emissions; and 4) to further improve the level of coordinated development of the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan urban agglomeration, it is necessary to reasonably formulate the orderly development and coordinate the goals of various subsystems at the scale of the urban agglomeration. It is also necessary to improve the overall management mechanism of finance and public affairs. At the urban scale, cities should make up for their shortcomings, improve their development level, and continuously improve the interaction and cooperation mechanism between cities. The primary contributions of this paper are to add to the discussion on the interactive relationship between the economic, social, and ecological dimensions of urban agglomerations, as well as propose targeted improvement paths to provide certain experiences for the Changsha-Zhuzhou-Xiangtan Urban Agglomeration and other urban agglomerations in China to improve their collaborative development ability.

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    Diagnosis of Territorial Space Ecological Restoration Areas in Urban Agglomeration: A Case Study of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area
    Zhengyu Tang, Shu Feng, Lu Yu, Moxi Tang, Li Xia, Lina Cui
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (3): 429-442.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003641
    Abstract317)   HTML21)    PDF (3504KB)(310)      

    Territorial space ecological restoration has become a significant strategy for the construction of China's ecological civilization. It is also an important strategic task related to national ecological security and human well-being. The continuous expansion of space in urban agglomerations and the high-intensity development of cities have exacerbated the fragmentation of natural landscapes. The ecological security of urban agglomerations and the ecological restoration of territorial spaces have become key issues of common concern to the government and scholars. Currently, the research on ecological restoration of territorial space mostly focuses on the identification of ecological restoration areas based on the key components of ecological security patterns and rarely discusses the coordinated protection and restoration of urban agglomerations by combining the ecological security patterns with human activities. It is particularly necessary to identify the ecological restoration areas and build a technical paradigm for ecological protection and territorial space restoration that can provide a basic support for the ecological integration, construction, and sustainable development of urban agglomerations. Based on ecological network construction and human disturbance assessment, this study diagnoses the territorial space ecological restoration areas of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area and proposes ecological protection and restoration strategies for the territorial space ecological source restoration area, ecological corridor restoration area, and stepping stone restoration area. The results showed that: (1) Human activities in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area had high interference intensities and a wide impact on the ecological environment; areas with high and relatively high interference accounted for 48.65% of the total area, mainly concentrated in the central part of the Greater Bay Area. (2) The ecological network of Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area presented a relatively stable characteristic pattern of "2 breadth lines and 4 length lines". The 2-breadth lines included the continuous mountains in the north and the ecological protection belt of the southern coastal waters. The 4-length lines included the eastern and western land corridors and the central water corridors. (3) The ecological source restoration area of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area was 4,687.42 km2, the ecological corridor restoration length was 1,362.71 km, and the stepping stone restoration area was 833.82 km2, mainly distributed in Zhaoqing, Huizhou, and Jiangmen. To limit human disturbance and restore ecological functions, strategies for territorial space ecological restoration were proposed based on the ecological network function and structural integrity; (4) It is urgent for government departments to overcome the concept of regionalism and build a consensus on the co-disposal of ecological restoration in the territorial space. The construction of cross-domain collaborative governance institutions will efficiently promote the ecological restoration of cross-regional territorial spaces. Considering both human and ecological systems, this study discussed the ecological restoration schema in key areas of ecological networks, coastal ecological restoration areas, and trans-regional ecological restoration areas. The method for urban agglomeration territorial space ecological restoration was formed, including "ecological network pattern-human activity disturbance-restoration area diagnosis-restoration strategy," which will provide a framework for promoting the territorial space ecological protection and restoration in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area.

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    Identification and Activation Pathways of Rural Development Vitality through Multi-Source Data: A Case Study of 221 Villages in Conghua District, Guangzhou
    Yingshi Zhang, Yanfen Feng, Shirong Cai, Fang Wang, Jianzhou Gong, Haiyan Luo
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (2): 281-292.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003626
    Abstract315)   HTML7)    PDF (2474KB)(208)      

    The rural revitalization strategy proposes to promote rural development based on a spatial governance and classification system. The development directions and foci of different types of villages show the characteristics of differentiation. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out accurate and precise studies on rural development to clarify the objectives and directions of rural revitalization by identifying the vitality and activation pathways of rural development. With a focus on 221 villages in Conghua District, the outer suburb of Guangzhou, this study quantified rural development vitality and rural multi-dimensional activation values based on the vitality index of rural development and the evaluation index of rural activation, respectively, derived from multi-source geospatial data and socio-economic statistics, classified activation types according to the methods of hierarchical assignment and combination matrix, and proposed the corresponding activation pathways. The results were three-fold. First, the vitality index of rural development verified by the multiple linear regression model accurately reflected the current course of rural development in the Conghua District in 2020. The proportion of rural areas at or below the middle vitality level of development was 62.89%, indicating that the rural development in Conghua District was lagging. It presents the spatial distribution characteristics of "cross". The villages at or above the high vitality level of development are close to the center of the town (street) where they are located, while low-level villages are mostly distributed in the west and north of Conghua District. Second, there existed a significant differentiation pattern of multi-dimensional activation value in the rural areas. The resource activation values remained at the lower level, while the production and life activation values remained at the middle level, and the ecological activation values remained at the excellent level. The comprehensive activation value was mainly at or above the middle level, with the villages accounting for 55.65%. In other words, Conghua District exhibited a large activation potential with a spatial distribution pattern of "high in the southwest and low in the northeast". Finally, the rural activation type mainly comprised the priority activation type (42.99%), close to the center of each town (street) in space and distributed in the south and west of Conghua District, followed by the ecological leading type (28.96%) and strengthened and upgraded villages (28.05%). The strategy of the priority activation type was to strengthen the integration of rural industries as well as the implementation of planning and design. The ecological leading type was mainly distributed in the north of Conghua District, with the activation direction to develop ecological rural tourism in harmony with environmental protection. Strengthened and upgraded villages were scattered in all towns (streets), with the activation focus on the rural property-leasing economy and the improvement of the transfer of agricultural land and living security. The results of this study can provide effective support strategies and scientific guidance for local governments to promote rural revitalization.

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    Variation Characteristics and Correlation between Vegetation Phenology and Extreme Precipitation in Indo-China Peninsula
    Tongtong Zhu, Shaoqiang Wang, Hui Li, Xia Li, Zhenhai Liu, Zhaohui Qian, Xiaobo Wang, Yuanyuan Liu, Yongkai Tu
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (3): 532-544.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003637
    Abstract314)   HTML22)    PDF (3212KB)(228)      

    The Indo-China Peninsula lies in a tropical monsoon climate zone and is prone to extreme weather events, including droughts and floods. Against the backdrop of global warming, the frequent occurrences of extreme precipitation affect the typical growth and phenology of vegetation. Based on the Sen+Mann-Kendall method and grey correlation analysis, the temporal and spatial characteristics of vegetation phenology and extreme precipitation in the Indo-China Peninsula and their relationships are analyzed. Vegetation phenological indices are extracted from MCD12Q2 and include the start of the growing season (SGS), the end of the growing season (EGS), and the length of the growing season (LGS). Based on the rescaled range (R/S) analysis, the future trends of these three phenological indices are predicted. The results show the following: 1) Spatial and temporal distribution characteristics: From 2001 to 2018, the SGS and EGS in the eastern region occurred earlier than those in the western region, and LGS was related to vegetation type, lasting approximately 3-7 months in agricultural areas and around 8-9 months in other areas. Excluding the number of rainstorm days (R50), the spatial distribution characteristics of extreme precipitation index were similar to that of annual total precipitation (PRCPTOT), which was higher in the west and lower in the east; 2) Trend: The SGS and EGS show an advanced trend, while the LGS shows a shortened trend; PRCPTOT and daily precipitation intensity had no obvious changes, maximum daily precipitation, extremely heavy rainfall, and R50 show a downward trend, while moderate rain days, heavy rain days and continuous wet days show an upward trend; these demonstrate that the Indo-China Peninsula has fewer extremely strong precipitation events, increased moderate intensity extreme events, and longer duration of rainfall events; 3) Correlation: By comparing the grey correlation degree between phenological indices and extreme precipitation indices, the distribution of the main extreme precipitation indices were obtained and found to have similar and concentrated spatial distribution; the spatial characteristic shows that there was a close relation between vegetation phenology and regional climate; the Indo-China Peninsula is divided into three zones from north to south, and the main controlling factors are the absolute index, the relative index, and the persistence index, respectively; 4) Sustainability: Based on the coupling analysis of H index of phenological indices calculated by R/S method and the Sen+Mann-Kendall method, we found that the future trend of phenological indicators was delayed and opposite to the previous trend in most parts of the Indo-China Peninsula. It is necessary to further study the index system and refine extreme precipitation events to distinguish the effects of different events on vegetation phenology.

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    Current Conditions and Mode of Sustainable Rural Construction: A Case Study of Changsha
    Xiu Wu, Pei Zhou, Yixuan Zhu, Yulan Gong, Yanhua He
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (2): 268-280.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003632
    Abstract304)   HTML11)    PDF (2649KB)(146)      

    Implementing a rural revitalization strategy requires exploring a sustainable rural development path. Promoting sustainable rural construction has become an important issue that urgently needs to be solved. Sustainable countryside is a rural system that can continuously provide high-quality employment, housing, travel, medical care, education, pensions, communication, and other services for local rural residents. It can also continuously provide healthy agricultural products, good ecological products, and cultural tourism experiences for surrounding residents, including sustainable rural industry, sustainable rural environment, and sustainable farmers' lives. Sustainable rural construction is the goal and vision of the implementation for the rural revitalization strategy. This is conducive to solving the issues related to agriculture, rural areas, and rural people, narrowing the gap between urban and rural areas, and promoting the integration of urban and rural development. In recent years, rural revitalization work in Changsha (the capital city of Hunan Province) has been at the forefront of Hunan Province. In 2020, the total output value of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, and fishery in the city was 72,219.25 million yuan; the per capita disposable income of rural areas was 34,754.3 yuan, which is 18,169.7 yuan higher than the average level of the whole province; and the income ratio of urban and rural residents was 1.7, which is 0.8 lower than the average level of Hunan Province. Rural infrastructure and public services have been significantly improved, but at the same time, there are also many problems. Based on this, guided by the theory of sustainable development and the theory of the hierarchy of needs, this paper explains the connotation and system composition of sustainable villages in detail. Beginning with the elements of a sustainable rural system, this paper analyzes the common problems and individual characteristics faced by the sustainable development of rural areas in Changsha by means of statistical analysis, questionnaire surveys, and interview surveys. Finally, this paper presents a differentiated sustainable rural optimization model and implementation path based on the problem-solving orientation and the three core elements of a sustainable rural system. These are the lives of farmers, rural industries, and the rural environment. The objective is to provide a theoretical basis for the implementation of a rural revitalization strategy in Changsha City. The results show that there are common problems in the rural areas of Changsha City, such as the loss of the young and middle-aged labor force, weakening of the main body, lack of rural attraction, low quality of public service supply, lack of resilience, lack of endogenous motivation, and low general satisfaction of residents. In addition, individual problems are also prominent. For example, the tourism attraction of tourism-oriented villages is not strong, the agricultural machinery in agricultural villages is insufficient, the traditional cultural function of traditional villages has declined, and the industrial development foundation of general villages is weak. Therefore, this study proposes four targeted sustainable rural optimization models: ecological leisure tourism, efficient ecological agriculture, characteristic protection, and integrated development. The ecological leisure tourism model designs diversified rural tourism activities such as leisure, entertainment, vacation, experience, and education through the development concepts of ecology, low carbonization, and localization to continuously enhance the attractiveness of rural ecotourism. The efficient ecological agriculture model continuously improves the supply capacity of agricultural products and the function of the agricultural ecological landscape by using ecological and intelligent technology, promoting an organic combination of specialization, large-scale production, and small farmers' production. The characteristic protection model encourages the development of cultural tourism and related industries by relying on the countryside's unique historical and cultural heritage, combined with the unique resources of the countryside, such as rural pastoral scenery, agricultural experience activities, and an ecological environment. The integrated development model relies mainly on the resources of cities and surrounding villages and towns to play the leading role of cities and realize the joint development of villages and towns.

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    Intelligent Recognition and 3D Modeling of Rural Buildings Based on Multi-Source Data Fusion
    Biao Chen, Xinyue Peng, Suhong Zhou, Jialiang Chen, Xianjuan Kong, Mingyue Bian, Gaoyuan Lin
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (2): 190-201.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003633
    Abstract301)   HTML14)    PDF (3830KB)(303)      

    China's rural areas are vast, and housing construction is the primary organization of farmers' living spaces and an essential focus of the national implementation of rural revitalization. However, there is a lack of rural housing census data and methods that quickly and accurately establish a rural three-dimensional (3D)-building model. The existing 3D-building modeling techniques, including manual modeling and oblique photography modeling, are encountering the problem of high cost and do not meet the construction requirements of low cost and comprehensive coverage. With the development of satellite remote sensing technology in China, building recognition based on high-resolution remote sensing images has become a convenient and rapid technical tool. At the same time, with the widespread use of smartphones and their potent computing power, people can easily and quickly access the Internet and receive a three-dimensional display. Compared with two-dimensional products, three-dimensional products can show rural buildings, terrain, and landscape more clearly, enhance the refined management of rural areas, and improve enthusiasm to participate in rural construction. Therefore, this study proposes a simple rural 3D building modeling method based on multi-source data fusion, namely intelligent identification and 3D modeling for rural buildings. This method consists of two stages: rough model generation and deepening. In the rough model generation stage, the building is identified based on high-resolution remote sensing images and Mask R_CNN technology, the location of the building is determined, and the basic white model is obtained by stretching. In the deepening stage, field collectors replace the basic white model with a more refined and parameterized model based on the rural building model library, according to the actual situation. Subsequently, they supplement the building facade texture through smartphone photography and texture processing. Finally, a physical, storable, and exchangeable 3D-building model is obtained through coordinate matching, image terrain fusion, 3D-lightweight technology, and other technologies. This study adopts the modeling strategy of gradual deepening to reduce the modeling cost. The associated high-resolution remote sensing image recognition technology and mobile phone-based 3D modeling and display technologies are relatively advanced. Based on the characteristics of architectural styles in rural areas, a set of rural building-model libraries based on CSG technology was constructed. Model replacement, model size adjustment, texture mapping, and other operations were quickly used to build a refined 3D model. Finally, the 3D models were lightly processed and fused with the image topography and other data, which meets the demand for smooth browsing from various aspects. The 3D model of Hecun Village in Xinxing County was experimentally reconstructed, illustrating that the method can support applications such as rural surveys, rural planning, rural construction, and co-production. The modeling results show that the method is simple, easy to use, and reduces the high requirements of conventional modeling in terms of data acquisition and processing. It can provide a low-cost, highly efficient, and prevalent 3D-reconstruction method for rural regions, which is suitable for widespread promotion.

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    Climatic Changes in the Middle and Late Period of the Last Glacial Period in Liaohua Section of Jiujiang, Jiangxi Province Recorded by End-Member Grain Size
    Shiqian Li, Zhiwen Li, Wanpeng Zhou, Dingding Du, Wubiao Li
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (1): 135-143.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003605
    Abstract299)   HTML3)    PDF (1622KB)(113)      

    Late Quaternary aeolian sediment sequences are widely distributed in the Poyang Lake area and are good subjects for climate evolution research. However, previous studies have focused mainly on aeolian sediments and less on lacustrine facies and their overlapping accumulation with aeolian sands. Therefore, after field investigations in Shaling Mountain, Xingzi County, the Liaohua section was selected as the study area where we tested the geological age and grain size, analyzed the grain size results by end-member analysis model, and compared the end-member component content with the average grain size and standard deviation. Oxygen isotopes of stalagmites in YZ Cave, Chongqing, and Greenland ice core records were analyzed. We also discussed the climate change law in the middle and late periods of the last glacial period in this area to source basic data for the response of the last glacial deposits in the Poyang Lake area to the East Asian monsoon and even the whole world. The results show the following: 1) This section is composed of lake facies, ancient soil, dune sand, and other sedimentary facies. Combined with the dating results and deep-sea oxygen isotope records, a chronological-depth framework based on the piecewise sedimentation rate interpolation method was constructed. The dating results show that this profile was formed in the middle and late glacial stage (48.8-17.1 ka) and the grain size was mainly silt, medium sand, and fine sand. Clay was higher in the paleosol or lacustrine layer, and coarse sand had the highest volume fraction in the dune sand layer. 2) The end-member analysis model separates the granularity data into three different granularity end-members ( EM1, EM2, and EM3). The contents of different end-member components in different strata are obviously different. EM1 represents the end-member components of silt, and the peak values correspond to the development period of lacustrine facies and paleosol. EM2 and EM3 represent the end-member components of medium sand and coarse sand, respectively, and the peak values correspond to the dune sand development period. 3) The end volume fraction and average particle size sorting coefficient show obvious peak-valley alternations on the profile, and the alternation of these peak-valley cycles represents monsoon evolution and climate fluctuation in the last glacial period. On the scale of 10,000 years, the strong winter monsoon periods are LH10 (48.8-39.9 ka) and LH3-LH5 (28.1-17.1 ka), which correspond to the peak areas of EM2 and EM3. Dune sand has a high coarse grain content, small standard deviation, and good sorting, corresponding to the MIS3b and MIS2 stages of deep-sea oxygen isotopes, respectively. LH6-LH9 (39.9-28.1 ka) is a warm summer monsoon period, corresponding to the peak area of EM1, lacustrine deposition and paleosol development, many fine particle components, large standard deviation, and poor sorting, which corresponds to the MIS3a stage of deep-sea oxygen isotopes. These changes correspond with the changes in oxygen isotopes of stalagmites in the YZ cave and Greenland ice cores, which is consistent with global climate change.

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    Research Progress and Prospects of Chinese Cybergeography Against the Background of the Digital Transition
    Jinliao He, Mingfeng Wang, Guangliang Xi, Huashen Zhu, Juncheng Dai, Xu Zhang
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (4): 567-580.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003667
    Abstract295)   HTML16)    PDF (2007KB)(188)      

    Cybergeography, an emerging subfield of human geography, has received increasing attention over recent decades. In particular, the digital transition of cities and the rapid rise of the digital economy have provided an impetus to the development of Cybergeography in China. This study attempts to provide a literature review of the research progress in Cybergeography in China over the past two decades regarding its disciplinary characteristics, main branches, and evolutionary paths. Through a bibliometric analysis and knowledge graphs based on a large number of Chinese articles (8,735) in geographic journals from the database (CNKI), we concluded that Chinese Cybergeography is mainly encompassed in the fields of urban geography, economic geography, tourism geography, geographical information science, and other disciplines, and the main institutional contributors include the Nanjing University, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Resources of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, East China Normal University, Hebei Normal University. Chinese Cybergeography can be classified into five independent but interconnected sub-areas: (1) urban network analysis based on information flows; (2) online consumption behavior and their spatial impacts on urban space; (3) internet visibility and tourism flow; (4) smart cities and communities; and (5) digital economy and its interactions with spatial organizations. Chinese Cybergeography has experienced four phases: the embryonic stage during the initial 21st century, fast development period (2006-2013), flourishing period (2014-2019), and transition period (since the outbreak of COVID-19). Chinese Cybergeography has evidently become highly diversified and interdisciplinary through this period, with its research focus expanded from the early stages of "informatization level" and "regional differences" to hot topics, such as "flow space," "digital economy," and "smart city." Thereafter, we pointed out that Chinese Cybergeography has achieved fruitful achievements in the past 20 years and even has international leadership in some fields; however, compared with the rich and colorful theoretical establishments in the West, various problems and challenges are still present. For example, a relatively old-fashioned disciplinary thinking based on the absolute space concept currently exists, while limited attention has been paid to research on virtual societies and metaphor space, as well as the critical discourses on cultural and social consequences of digital transition. Furthermore, the big data method also tends to be overused in existing research, whereas the fieldwork-based approach has largely been neglected. Finally, we provide prospects for future research on Chinese Cybergeography by proposing that, in response to the digital and intelligent transformation in today's world, there is an urgent research agenda to establish China-characterized Cybergeography by incorporating Western establishments in theories and Chinese demands in practice. On the one hand, enriching the current research perspective is necessary by incorporating epistemologies from critical and humanistic geography. On the other hand, Chinese Cybergeography needs to keep up with the development and changes in social practices to continuously expand the research scope, such as focusing on the impacts of emerging digital technologies (such as artificial intelligence and metaverse) on urban and regional development. Therefore, Chinese Cybergeography can aid decision makers in promoting urban digital transformation, development of the digital economy, and coordinative development among different regions and cities.

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    Urban Social Vulnerability Assessment and Optimization Strategies from the Perspective of Resilience: A Case Study of the Pearl River Delta Urban Agglomeration
    Jun Wang, Jingye Chen, Qinghua Gong, Shaoxiong Yuan, Jun Chen, Bowen Liu, Hao Li
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (3): 474-483.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003649
    Abstract293)   HTML20)    PDF (1556KB)(325)      

    The Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration is located in the sensitive zone of the Pearl River Delta estuary. Here, natural conditions are complicated, human activities are strong and natural disasters such as typhoons, floods, landslides, debris flow, ground settlements, and ground collapses are frequent that have caused severe damage to urban operations, property, and transportation, and a threat to human safety. Therefore, improving the ability of the Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration to deal with natural disasters and its resilience is one of the important issues that need to be resolved in urban development and construction. This study examined the social vulnerability of the Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration from the perspective of disaster prevention and mitigation and proposed several optimization strategies to reduce social vulnerability. Firstly, an urban disaster social vulnerability evaluation index system was established based on four aspects: population, economy, infrastructure, and social organization guarantee. Secondly, based on the information entropy method of objective empowerment, a quantitative evaluation model of social vulnerability was established, the vulnerability index of the Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration was calculated, and the law of vulnerability and its influence on the evolution of social vulnerability in various cities were analyzed. Finally, optimization suggestions were proposed to reduce social vulnerability, based on a demanding perspective. The results showed that the average social vulnerability index of nine cities from 2010 to 2020 showed a trend, which initially increased and then decreased. The social vulnerability index changed significantly for each city and no significant rule was evident. Guangzhou had the lowest social vulnerability, whereas Zhaoqing had the highest. Moreover, in 2010, the level of social vulnerability in Shenzhen was low; Guangzhou, Zhuhai, and Foshan were relatively low; Foshan, Dongguan, and Zhongshan were medium, and Huizhou, Jiangmen, and Zhaoqing were high. In 2015, the level of social vulnerability in Guangzhou and Zhuhai were low; Shenzhen was relatively low; Foshan, Huizhou, and Zhongshan were medium, and Jiangmen, Dongguan, and Zhaoqing were high. In 2020, the level in Guangzhou and Zhuhai were low; Foshan was relatively low; Jiangmen, Shenzhen, and Huizhou were medium; and Zhongshan, Dongguan, and Zhaoqing were high. In addition, the factors affecting the social vulnerability of each city were significantly different; however, economic vulnerability and social organization security vulnerability were the main factors. By scientifically formulating urban spatial planning five perspectives were proposed: conducting scientific assessments of urban resilience level, promoting the construction of urban resilience systems, promoting the integration of blue, green, and grey disaster prevention infrastructure, establishing urban agglomeration disaster prevention and resilience management systems, and optimization strategies for promoting resilience of the Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration. The selection of a natural disaster social vulnerability evaluation index system for urban agglomeration is subjective and uncertain; this aspect was also realized during the selection of the index system for this study's Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration. Therefore, the next step is to further improve the evaluation index system. In addition, a comparison of supplementary verification data or multi-data evaluation methods will be used to further improve the results of the social vulnerability assessment of the Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration. The results of this study can provide a scientific basis for improving the comprehensive disaster prevention and mitigation capacity and resilience of the Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration.

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    Spatial Distribution of Digital Economy Model in Zhejiang Province, China
    Renfeng Ma, Min'er Zhu, Jingyi Sun, Xuliang Zhang
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (4): 745-757.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003662
    Abstract284)   HTML13)    PDF (1862KB)(154)      

    Taking Zhejiang province as an example, based on county-level economic and social statistics, we established an index system for main factors driving the development of the digital economy. We used entropy, spatial autocorrelation, a Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) model, and cluster analysis to explore the spatial differences between the development level and driving factors of the digital economy in Zhejiang. First, we observed spatial differences in the development of the digital economy in Zhejiang, with the level being high in the northeast and low in the southwest. Second, the influence of each driving factor represents strong spatial characteristics, and industrial innovation was the most important factor, with a distribution pattern of high in the east and low in the west. As a secondary driving factor, government input is consistent with the spatial layout of the economic factors. Commercial culture is strong in the south and weak in the north. Third, we observed multiple combinations of characteristics in the spatial differences of the four driving factors to establish the mechanism that drives the development of the digital economy in Zhejiang: the local digital economy/new business type is driven by the coupling of industrial innovation atmosphere and consumer demand, formed by developed market advantages. The three main bodies of consumers, government, and enterprises have formed a virtuous circle, promoting each other through the digitization of traditional industries and emerging digital industries, leading the development in the surrounding counties. Fourth, under the action of the four factors, three types of regional development types and 13 subcategories have generally been formed in Zhejiang: enterprise-consumer-led, business-government-led, government-consumer-led. Certain places, such as Hangzhou and Ningbo, are leading the implementation of the concept of digital development, creating the core of the digital economy in Zhejiang; Jiaxing and Jinhua are relying on transportation hub cities or global wholesale centers to rapidly develop intelligent logistics and transportation. In addition, with the support of the government, the later-developing areas are improving their infrastructure and developing the digital industry represented by ecology and tourism. For this reason, in the process of empowering digital economy development, complete attention should be paid to the development path of ecology, tourism, and other suitable digital industries in underdeveloped areas under the leadership of the government. We observed that enterprises and consumers create emerging digital industries in the leading areas of the digital economy in Zhejiang and then promote the digital transformation and upgrading of industries and governments. However, in the later-developing areas dominated by policy investment, the development of the digital economy is mostly oriented toward meeting the needs of industries and consumers, and the force driving emerging digital industries is weak.

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    Intertemporal Dynamics of Birds and Their Response to Habitat Change in Nansha Wetland Park, Guangzhou from 2014 to 2018
    Yuanxin Huang, Mengting Li, Huijian Hu, Qianmin Yuan, Jianchao Liang, Mei Li, Baowen Liao
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (1): 71-87.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003613
    Abstract280)   HTML10)    PDF (1693KB)(350)      

    As an important land and water transition zone on Earth, wetlands are good places for birds to breed and roost. Bird monitoring has become an important index for assessing the biodiversity and ecological environment of a region. Nansha Wetland Park in Guangzhou is rich in biological resources and provides an important resting and wintering ground for global migratory birds as it is located on their migration route from East Asia to Australasia. To understand the migration patterns and annual dynamic changes of birds in the Nansha Wetland Park, line- and point-transect surveys were conducted to collect bird species and abundance data from January 2014 to December 2018. First, our results showed that 139 birds were recorded during the study period, of which migrant species were dominant. Combined with the available literature, a total of 186 bird species were recorded, belonging to 17 orders and 49 families. Of these bird species, 165 are under various levels of protection. Second, while the interannual changes in bird abundance were substantial, those of bird species richness were not, indicating that bird species tended to reach maximum abundance in bird communities. When compared to bird abundance in 2015, the number of individuals was relatively stable in other years of investigation, and the number of investigated species was the highest in 2017. Finally, monthly changes in bird species were in accordance with the annual rhythms of migration. Specifically, bird species richness increased rapidly during the wintering period, but remained constant during the breeding period. In addition, the migration time of waterbirds tended to increase over time. This may be related to a warming climate that prompts birds to migrate earlier. Differences in habitat patches are important influencers of bird feeding habits, and thus bird distribution and habitat. Among the habitat patches investigated, birds were primarily distributed in shallow tidal flats with rich food sources and in tall and lush mangrove communities, such as those containing the species Sonneratia apetala. Notably, the number of Platalea minor, a key indicator bird species, has increased steadily, with an increase of 346.15% from 26 in 2014 to 116 in 2018. The annual and monthly dynamic changes of birds in different areas showed subtle changes in individual numbers but generally showed a stable trend, which may be related to the environmental capacity of the habitat. The number of species and individuals that can be sustained by the environment tended to be saturated; that is, the maximum number of species that can be accommodated by the Nansha Wetland Park. Taken together, these findings suggest that bird species diversity could be promoted by expanding the area of tidal flats, increasing the planting area of mangroves, reasonably reclaiming wetlands, and maintaining the proportion of shallow water tidal flats and mangroves.

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