Implementing a rural revitalization strategy requires exploring a sustainable rural development path. Promoting sustainable rural construction has become an important issue that urgently needs to be solved. Sustainable countryside is a rural system that can continuously provide high-quality employment, housing, travel, medical care, education, pensions, communication, and other services for local rural residents. It can also continuously provide healthy agricultural products, good ecological products, and cultural tourism experiences for surrounding residents, including sustainable rural industry, sustainable rural environment, and sustainable farmers' lives. Sustainable rural construction is the goal and vision of the implementation for the rural revitalization strategy. This is conducive to solving the issues related to agriculture, rural areas, and rural people, narrowing the gap between urban and rural areas, and promoting the integration of urban and rural development. In recent years, rural revitalization work in Changsha (the capital city of Hunan Province) has been at the forefront of Hunan Province. In 2020, the total output value of agriculture, forestry, animal husbandry, and fishery in the city was 72,219.25 million yuan; the per capita disposable income of rural areas was 34,754.3 yuan, which is 18,169.7 yuan higher than the average level of the whole province; and the income ratio of urban and rural residents was 1.7, which is 0.8 lower than the average level of Hunan Province. Rural infrastructure and public services have been significantly improved, but at the same time, there are also many problems. Based on this, guided by the theory of sustainable development and the theory of the hierarchy of needs, this paper explains the connotation and system composition of sustainable villages in detail. Beginning with the elements of a sustainable rural system, this paper analyzes the common problems and individual characteristics faced by the sustainable development of rural areas in Changsha by means of statistical analysis, questionnaire surveys, and interview surveys. Finally, this paper presents a differentiated sustainable rural optimization model and implementation path based on the problem-solving orientation and the three core elements of a sustainable rural system. These are the lives of farmers, rural industries, and the rural environment. The objective is to provide a theoretical basis for the implementation of a rural revitalization strategy in Changsha City. The results show that there are common problems in the rural areas of Changsha City, such as the loss of the young and middle-aged labor force, weakening of the main body, lack of rural attraction, low quality of public service supply, lack of resilience, lack of endogenous motivation, and low general satisfaction of residents. In addition, individual problems are also prominent. For example, the tourism attraction of tourism-oriented villages is not strong, the agricultural machinery in agricultural villages is insufficient, the traditional cultural function of traditional villages has declined, and the industrial development foundation of general villages is weak. Therefore, this study proposes four targeted sustainable rural optimization models: ecological leisure tourism, efficient ecological agriculture, characteristic protection, and integrated development. The ecological leisure tourism model designs diversified rural tourism activities such as leisure, entertainment, vacation, experience, and education through the development concepts of ecology, low carbonization, and localization to continuously enhance the attractiveness of rural ecotourism. The efficient ecological agriculture model continuously improves the supply capacity of agricultural products and the function of the agricultural ecological landscape by using ecological and intelligent technology, promoting an organic combination of specialization, large-scale production, and small farmers' production. The characteristic protection model encourages the development of cultural tourism and related industries by relying on the countryside's unique historical and cultural heritage, combined with the unique resources of the countryside, such as rural pastoral scenery, agricultural experience activities, and an ecological environment. The integrated development model relies mainly on the resources of cities and surrounding villages and towns to play the leading role of cities and realize the joint development of villages and towns.