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    Hotspots and Trends of Foreign Spatial Justice Research: Visual Analysis Based on Knowledge Map
    Lin Lin, Heng Chao, Guicai Li
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (5): 808-820.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003296
    Abstract993)   HTML20)    PDF (2326KB)(330)      

    The issue of "spatial justice" has become a hot topic among urban research and planning scholars in China. An analysis of 1516 English-language documents in the Web of Science (WOS) from 2000-2021 was conducted through CiteSpace. Knowledge maps of keyword clustering, core author groups, and research institutions were mapped to reveal the hotspots and trends of foreign spatial justice research. The results reveal the following: (1) Foreign literature issuance exhibits a phased upward trend, divided into three stages of exploration (S1), stabilization (S2), and explosion (S3). The publication volume increased steadily in S1, contending and flourishing around the theme of space deprivation, exclusion and poverty. The publication volume has increased significantly in S2 compared with S1, the connotation of spatial justice is gradually clear and complete, environmental justice has received significant attention, and the influence of process and procedural justice is increasing. The spatial justice research has explosively grown in S3, focusing on the value effect and practical significance of spatial justice in the post-globalization era and stock development period. (2) A total of three hotspots emerged in foreign spatial justice research: The rise of research targeting youth and children, who have become one of the main actors and are motivated by awareness and environmental change to actively participate in the fight for justice on a global scale. Environmental justice research is booming with divergent and extended content, focusing on waste trade and climate change. The public and green spaces of the city have become research hotspots as the pursuit of spatial justice value turns to high quality and sustainability. (3) Trends in spatial justice research abroad include integration of environmental justice and urban space, as well as scale synthesis and thematic expansion driven by technological progress. In general, the maturation of foreign spatial justice research provides an important reference for the theoretical construction and practical application of spatial justice in China. How to connect with the international frontier, form research results with local characteristics, and effectively implement them in current spatial practice in the context of new urbanization is an urgent issue to be solved.

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    Geopolitical Risk Assessment and Influencing Factors of Countries Participating in the Belt and Road Initiative
    Fang Hu, Yubo Li
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (6): 1160-1171.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003686
    Abstract492)   HTML7)    PDF (1342KB)(610)      

    The Belt and Road Initiative aims to achieve common development and prosperity for all countries. Building a scientific and reasonable geopolitical risk assessment system is an important prerequisite for participating countries to prevent and resolve geopolitical risk. Taking 64 countries in the six economic corridors of the Belt and Road Initiative as the assessment object, this study builds a geopolitical risk assessment system based on post-transaction costs. It analyzes the geopolitical risk level, spatial and temporal distribution characteristics, and influencing factors using the full array polygon graphical indicator method, Global Moran's I, and the spatial Durbin model. The research results show that: 1) From the time dimension, the geopolitical risks of participating countries show a trend of first rising and then falling, reaching a peak in 2015. 2) From the perspective of spatial distribution, high-risk areas are mainly concentrated in the Middle East and South Asia, while medium to high risk areas are concentrated in Indochina and the Arabian Peninsula. Most of the low to medium risk countries are Western Pacific island countries, while low-risk countries are mainly in Central Europe. The clustering characteristics of geopolitical risks are obvious. The results of Global Moran's I show that from 2011-2020, the geopolitical risk concentration area was initially located in the Middle East and South Asia, and then in 2015, Europe and East Asia also experienced high geopolitical risks. By 2020, it was still mainly concentrated in the Middle East and Eastern Europe, however, generally, the regions with high geopolitical risk will still be mainly concentrated in the Middle East and Eastern Europe. 3) The research results on the factors influencing geopolitical risks indicate that political stability, economic freedom, economic growth, increased education expenditure, and better natural resources have a significant inhibitory effect on geopolitical risk, while increases in the unemployment rate, population size, and oil resources, will to some extent, promote the generation of geopolitical risks. The indirect effect results show that political stability, economic freedom, and the unemployment rate of the host country have a significant impact on surrounding countries. Based on this, we believe that countries participating in the Belt and Road Initiative need to improve their government governance capabilities, accelerate their modernization transformation, effectively utilize the resources, funds, and technologies brought about by the Belt and Road Initiative. Furthermore, actively integrate into the regional economic cooperation framework of the Belt and Road Initiative and improve their ability to manage geopolitical risks. This study enriched the evaluation system of geopolitical risks. During the construction of the evaluation indicators, the results emphasized the sudden and violent characteristics of geopolitical risks, further explained the violent confrontation and economic game existing in geopolitical risks, and effectively enriched the literature on the spatial characteristics and influencing factors of geopolitical risks of countries participating in the Belt and Road Initiative. It should be pointed out that there are still some limitations in this study. This study is based on countries participating in the Belt and Road Initiative and there are deficiencies in the discussion of geopolitical risk for countries not in the region. Future research can be based on a global perspective, further enriching the evaluation index system of geopolitical risk, and conducting more in-depth research on the spatial transmission path and geopolitical risk avoidance measures.

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    Spatial Pattern and Influencing Factors of Urban Invisible Consumption: A Case Study of Changsha
    Yixin Liang, Qiang Ye, Yao Zhao, Zhuoyang Du, Yuxuan Wan
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (4): 707-719.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003665
    Abstract469)   HTML10)    PDF (3573KB)(222)      

    Urban invisible consumption space is a physical consumption space with weak visibility in urban public space, which has become a new channel for urban business and consumption development. It is progressively becoming an important part of the urban business. Analyzing the spatial pattern and influencing factors of urban invisible consumption is an important basis for promoting online and offline commercial development in cities. Taking Changsha City as an example, the invisible consumption space of the city was identified using POI and business information data of Gaode open platform. Using the Gatiss-Ord index and the geographically weighted regression model, we analyzed the spatial distribution of the urban invisible consumption with different levels of Internet participation. The results show that: 1) the main consumption type of invisible consumption space in Changsha is experiential service consumption; 2) the invisible consumption space infiltrated by the Internet, with Wuyi Square and Red Star Business Circle as the main core areas, presents a structural form of "a main core area, an auxiliary core area, strip distribution, and a point-like mixture"; 3) compared with the traditional invisible consumption space, which is less influenced by the Internet, the invisible consumption space infiltrated by the Internet has clear spatial heterogeneity and less spatial autocorrelation. The results show that the urban invisible consumption space tends to cluster in areas with a mature business atmosphere, convenient transportation, high cost-effective rent, and close to residential areas. The spatial distribution of invisible consumption in Changsha presents a basic spatial structure in line with the central place theory, showing a polycentric form of agglomeration and diffusion. Urban invisible consumption space clusters in the local industrial and commercial center. Moreover, the evolution of places shows a trend of infiltration and aggregation to blocks and the location influence is weak, but it is not "no location influence at all". Its distribution characteristics are in line with the theory of flowing space on the scale of urban internal block. However, invisible consumption space use is positively influenced by the Internet, and its potential commercial value lies in promoting and making full use of the existing urban space resources. In addition, for an "online famous city", the offline consumption activities in the network platform are increasing in abundance, and invisible consumption space will become a more important place to perceive the hidden vitality of the city.

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    Spatial-Temporal Characteristics and Relations with Economy of Suicide Phenomenon in China from 2000 to 2018
    Shengsheng Gong, Chunming Li, Kemei Xiao
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (9): 1760-1776.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003743
    Abstract407)   HTML10)    PDF (3948KB)(211)      

    Suicide is a serious negative social phenomenon. In this study, we used Python technology to obtain suicide death data from a network and applied mathematical statistical and geographic spatial analyses to study the spatial-temporal characteristics of suicide deaths and the relationship between suicide rate and economic development in China from 2000 to 2018. Following conclusions were drawn from the results. (1) The number of suicide deaths in China is on the rise. Within a year, the high-incidence period of suicide deaths is from May to June, whereas the low-incidence period is from February to March. Within a month, the 1st, 10th, and 20th days have the highest incidences of suicide deaths. Within a day, 77.2% of the suicide deaths occur from 06:00 to 19:00, and 09:00 and 15:00 were the peak times in which suicide deaths take place. (2) A total of 90.98% of the suicide deaths occur in southeast China. The suicide rate is higher in the southeast than in the northwest, higher in the south than in the north, and decreases gradually from east to west. At county level, a relatively high suicide rate is seen in regions spanning from Great Khingan Mountains to Yunnan Guizhou Plateau, from Qinling-Dabashan Mountains to Dabie Mountains, and from the coast of northern Jiangsu to Hainan Island. (3) Most areas in China present a low-grade suicide rate. However, low-grade areas appeared to change to high-grade areas during the period 2000–2018. The hotspots of suicide deaths spread from east to west, except for the Beijing–Tianjin–Tangshan area, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta, which have always been suicide hotspots. (4) The spatial and temporal characteristics of suicide deaths in China are closely related to economic development, and on a city scale, the suicide rate has a significant positive correlation with the per capita GDP and urbanization rate. The impact of economic factors on suicide rate is greater on the southeast coast than on the northwest inland. An important conclusion from this study is that the gap between the rich and poor is a key factor, leading to psychological imbalance and suicidal behavior in the poor; therefore, only the new development path based on common prosperity is the road for people to reach happiness and health. In addition, in this study, we prove that network suicide data, obtained using the web-crawler technology (Python), not only have the same consistency and credibility as sampling statistics but also have a better spatiotemporal resolution, with a temporal resolution of one hour and spatial resolution of a county. Therefore, by analyzing this spatiotemporal dataset, we can scientifically extract the time differences in suicide deaths at quarterly, monthly, daily, and hourly scales and the spatial differences in suicide deaths at regional, provincial, and county scales. In the future, network suicide data may become an important data source for suicide research, and the use of the Internet to monitor suicidal behavior may become an important method of suicide intervention.

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    Spatial Effects of Digital Economy on Tourism Development: Empirical Research Based on 284 Cities at the Prefecture and Higher Levels in China
    Chaoyue Cai, Jianxiong Tang, Yujing Liu
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (4): 720-733.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003666
    Abstract383)   HTML8)    PDF (2292KB)(351)      

    The digital economy, an essential engine for the high-quality development of China's economy, has the potential to become a breakthrough in promoting the rapid recovery of tourism. From a spatial perspective, this study used panel data from 284 prefecture-level and higher cities in China from 2011 to 2019 and constructed a spatial Durbin model (SDM) to empirically test the spatial effect and mechanism of the digital economy on tourism development. (1) Digital economy and tourism development showed significant positive global spatial autocorrelation during the study period. Hotspots of the digital economy have long been located in southeastern coastal areas, and cold spots in central and western China have shrunk significantly. Tourism development hotspots are mainly distributed in the Yangtze River Delta urban agglomerations and in Yunnan, Guangxi, Guizhou, and Chongqing. Cold spots were distributed in the central and western cities of the Shandong Peninsula and gradually expanded southward. (2) In China, the digital economy has a significant direct effect and positive spatial spillover effect, which was confirmed by a series of robustness tests were conducted. From the perspective of different regions, although the direct effect was significantly positive in all regions, the influence coefficient in the eastern region was significantly larger than that in the central, western, and northeastern regions. The spatial spillover effect is entirely significant in the eastern region, partly significant in the central and northeastern regions, and not significant in the western region, indicating that "digital segregation" exists in the western region. (3) The positive spatial spillover effect of the digital economy on tourism development is optimal at 300 km. Subsequently, the spatial spillover effect followed the law of geographical distance attenuation. The spatial spillover effect reaches the critical point of the practical effect at 800 km and almost disappears at 1500 km. (4) Among the digital economy components, digital infrastructure, digital industry development, and digital inclusive finance can significantly promote local tourism development. However, only digitally inclusive finance has a significant positive spatial spillover effect, and the effects of the remaining components are insignificant. This study constructs an analytical framework for the spatial effects of the digital economy on tourism development and conducts rigorous empirical research to compensate for the limitations of current research from a local perspective. This study also examined the spatial effects of various components of the digital economy, which helped identify the source of the impact of the digital economy on tourism development more accurately. In addition, the regional heterogeneity and distance attenuation law of the spatial effect of the digital economy on tourism development were analyzed, and customized policy implications were proposed based on the research conclusions. Overall, this study has essential reference value for achieving high-quality tourism development and expanding the scope of digital economy application.

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    Research Progress and Prospects of Chinese Cybergeography Against the Background of the Digital Transition
    Jinliao He, Mingfeng Wang, Guangliang Xi, Huashen Zhu, Juncheng Dai, Xu Zhang
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (4): 567-580.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003667
    Abstract363)   HTML18)    PDF (2007KB)(309)      

    Cybergeography, an emerging subfield of human geography, has received increasing attention over recent decades. In particular, the digital transition of cities and the rapid rise of the digital economy have provided an impetus to the development of Cybergeography in China. This study attempts to provide a literature review of the research progress in Cybergeography in China over the past two decades regarding its disciplinary characteristics, main branches, and evolutionary paths. Through a bibliometric analysis and knowledge graphs based on a large number of Chinese articles (8,735) in geographic journals from the database (CNKI), we concluded that Chinese Cybergeography is mainly encompassed in the fields of urban geography, economic geography, tourism geography, geographical information science, and other disciplines, and the main institutional contributors include the Nanjing University, Institute of Geographic Sciences and Resources of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, East China Normal University, Hebei Normal University. Chinese Cybergeography can be classified into five independent but interconnected sub-areas: (1) urban network analysis based on information flows; (2) online consumption behavior and their spatial impacts on urban space; (3) internet visibility and tourism flow; (4) smart cities and communities; and (5) digital economy and its interactions with spatial organizations. Chinese Cybergeography has experienced four phases: the embryonic stage during the initial 21st century, fast development period (2006-2013), flourishing period (2014-2019), and transition period (since the outbreak of COVID-19). Chinese Cybergeography has evidently become highly diversified and interdisciplinary through this period, with its research focus expanded from the early stages of "informatization level" and "regional differences" to hot topics, such as "flow space," "digital economy," and "smart city." Thereafter, we pointed out that Chinese Cybergeography has achieved fruitful achievements in the past 20 years and even has international leadership in some fields; however, compared with the rich and colorful theoretical establishments in the West, various problems and challenges are still present. For example, a relatively old-fashioned disciplinary thinking based on the absolute space concept currently exists, while limited attention has been paid to research on virtual societies and metaphor space, as well as the critical discourses on cultural and social consequences of digital transition. Furthermore, the big data method also tends to be overused in existing research, whereas the fieldwork-based approach has largely been neglected. Finally, we provide prospects for future research on Chinese Cybergeography by proposing that, in response to the digital and intelligent transformation in today's world, there is an urgent research agenda to establish China-characterized Cybergeography by incorporating Western establishments in theories and Chinese demands in practice. On the one hand, enriching the current research perspective is necessary by incorporating epistemologies from critical and humanistic geography. On the other hand, Chinese Cybergeography needs to keep up with the development and changes in social practices to continuously expand the research scope, such as focusing on the impacts of emerging digital technologies (such as artificial intelligence and metaverse) on urban and regional development. Therefore, Chinese Cybergeography can aid decision makers in promoting urban digital transformation, development of the digital economy, and coordinative development among different regions and cities.

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    Spatial Distribution of Digital Economy Model in Zhejiang Province, China
    Renfeng Ma, Min'er Zhu, Jingyi Sun, Xuliang Zhang
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (4): 745-757.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003662
    Abstract362)   HTML13)    PDF (1862KB)(247)      

    Taking Zhejiang province as an example, based on county-level economic and social statistics, we established an index system for main factors driving the development of the digital economy. We used entropy, spatial autocorrelation, a Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR) model, and cluster analysis to explore the spatial differences between the development level and driving factors of the digital economy in Zhejiang. First, we observed spatial differences in the development of the digital economy in Zhejiang, with the level being high in the northeast and low in the southwest. Second, the influence of each driving factor represents strong spatial characteristics, and industrial innovation was the most important factor, with a distribution pattern of high in the east and low in the west. As a secondary driving factor, government input is consistent with the spatial layout of the economic factors. Commercial culture is strong in the south and weak in the north. Third, we observed multiple combinations of characteristics in the spatial differences of the four driving factors to establish the mechanism that drives the development of the digital economy in Zhejiang: the local digital economy/new business type is driven by the coupling of industrial innovation atmosphere and consumer demand, formed by developed market advantages. The three main bodies of consumers, government, and enterprises have formed a virtuous circle, promoting each other through the digitization of traditional industries and emerging digital industries, leading the development in the surrounding counties. Fourth, under the action of the four factors, three types of regional development types and 13 subcategories have generally been formed in Zhejiang: enterprise-consumer-led, business-government-led, government-consumer-led. Certain places, such as Hangzhou and Ningbo, are leading the implementation of the concept of digital development, creating the core of the digital economy in Zhejiang; Jiaxing and Jinhua are relying on transportation hub cities or global wholesale centers to rapidly develop intelligent logistics and transportation. In addition, with the support of the government, the later-developing areas are improving their infrastructure and developing the digital industry represented by ecology and tourism. For this reason, in the process of empowering digital economy development, complete attention should be paid to the development path of ecology, tourism, and other suitable digital industries in underdeveloped areas under the leadership of the government. We observed that enterprises and consumers create emerging digital industries in the leading areas of the digital economy in Zhejiang and then promote the digital transformation and upgrading of industries and governments. However, in the later-developing areas dominated by policy investment, the development of the digital economy is mostly oriented toward meeting the needs of industries and consumers, and the force driving emerging digital industries is weak.

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    Exploring the Structure and Mechanism of China's E-Commerce Express Logistics Network: Based on Space of Flows
    Yuanjun Li, Qitao Wu, Yuanting Li, Muxin Liang, Junqiang Wu, Shuangquan Jin
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (4): 657-668.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003671
    Abstract360)   HTML16)    PDF (2177KB)(215)      

    Based on the space of flows theory, this study adopts China Smart Logistics Network big data to build China's e-commerce express logistics network, and explores the spatial structure characteristics of the e-commerce express logistics network, summarizes the regularity of the express logistics flows, finally reveals the formation mechanism of the network through complex network analysis, machine learning algorithms and other methods. The results are as follows: From the node dimension,the spatial inequality characteristics of the importance of e-commerce express logistics in Chinese cities are significant. Taking Heihe-Tengchong Line(Hu Line) as the boundary, the most important cities in the network are distributed within the four major urban agglomerations east of the boundary. The results based on random forest method show that express logistics export-oriented cities form the "e-commerce express logistics export belt" in the southeast coast. Macau and Taiwan receive express logistics input from Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei Urban Agglomeration and Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration respectively on a small scale while Hong Kong plays an important role in logistics distribution function in the network as a high-equilibrium express logistics area. Additionally, from the dimensions of edges and overall network, the network density value is 0.927 0, and the average least connections value is 1.1375, indicating a wide network coverage and relatively complete express logistics routes between cities. Besides, China's e-commerce express logistics network has a small-world effect and high efficiency of the factor flows. A diamond-structured network is also formed with Shanghai, Guangzhou, Chongqing, and Beijing as the four core nodes. In comparison, the Yangtze River Delta Urban Agglomeration is more balanced in the development of e-commerce express logistics; Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei and Chengdu-Chongqing Urban Agglomerations are more dependent on the internal core cities; Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area has the lowest network cohesion, and the express logistics links among Hong Kong, Macao and the other nine cities in the Pearl River Delta are weak. Overall, the network formation is influenced by the development of urban agglomerations. Driven by information technology, traditional and new infrastructure construction, etc., the network is less dependent on the distance factor. Express logistics elements mainly follow the hierarchical diffusion mechanism. This research expands the application of logistics big data in the field of urban network research, reveals the structural characteristics and formation mechanism of China's e-commerce express logistics network, helps enrich the theory of "space of flows", and is also of great significance for understanding the city correlation under the digital economy and the shaping of urban space by modern logistics elements, and promoting the digital transformation and high-quality development of express logistics.

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    The Formation, Development, and Transformation of E-Commerce Villages from the Perspective of Actor-Networks Theory: A Case Study of Dayuan Village in Guangzhou
    Dixiang Xie, Ke Yu, Yutian Zhuang, Huimin Jian, Xuhao Xu, Han Chu
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (4): 758-768.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003660
    Abstract336)   HTML17)    PDF (1204KB)(152)      

    In recent years, the rapid rise of the e-commerce industry has promoted the rapid development of e-commerce villages. Dayuan Village, which is located on the urban-rural fringe of Guangzhou, has developed into one of the largest and most influential e-commerce villages in China. Studying the mechanism of the formation, development, and transformation of Dayuan Village's e-commerce industry is necessary to explore the evolution mechanism of the digital industry, especially in the urban-rural fringe. Based on the theoretical perspective of "Actor-network Theory", the paper analyzes the network evolution and dissidence elimination process gradually by using in-depth interviews and participant observation to analyze this evolving process. The results show that the development of Dayuan e-commerce village has experienced three evolutionary stages: e-commerce agglomeration, e-commerce industry regularization, and e-commerce upgrading. The different OPPs in the three stages are anchored by traditional e-commerce, local government, and emerging e-commerce. With the formation of key actors, other heterogeneous actors, such as land, housing, express delivery, logistics, and emerging e-commerce platforms were enrolled based on the consensus of goals. Dayuan Village developed from a traditional urban village to a traditional e-commerce village and then transformed into a new e-commerce village, a process that reflects the simultaneous upgrading of local-network mobilization and global-network attachment in village development, increasing the resilience of the village's development. With the joint efforts of heterogeneous actors, the talent pool of Dayuan E-Commerce Village has grown from lack to abundance, social communication from isolation to integration, and business management from deficiency to enhancement. In addition, this study also emphasized, innovatively, the upgrading mechanism in the transformation process of the e-commerce village through the "local-global" framework in the Actor-Network Theory. New short video and live streaming platforms that are enrolled in the network not only further mobilize the activation of local actor networks but also further connect the village and its various assets to the external network and then participate in the global network. Thus, the transition from a traditional e-commerce village to an emerging one is a comprehensive upgrading process for both global and local networks. By analyzing the evolution of the actor network of Dayuan Village from a traditional e-commerce village to an emerging e-commerce village, this paper fills a gap in the study of the upgrading process of e-commerce villages to some extent and firstly uses the "global-local" framework in the actor network to analyze this upgrading process. The case of the development and transformation of the Dayuan e-commerce village illustrates the importance of different key actors for local development in different stages. Market forces and entrepreneurs play an important role in the formative stages of e-commerce villages, whereas the government and associations can regulate and mediate them in the later stages of explosive and rough growth to make e-commerce villages more sustainable. Therefore, the identification of development stages, stage OPPs, and key actors at different stages in the local planning and development process can help in completely exploiting the agency of different actors at different stages.

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    Spatial Structure and Influencing Factors of Urban Network in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area from the Financial Relationships Perspective
    Fei Wang, Hao Luo, Changjian Wang, Yuyao Ye, Hong'ou Zhang, Xiaojie Lin, Jing Chen
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (4): 581-595.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003661
    Abstract335)   HTML27)    PDF (4030KB)(174)      

    As a typical representative of advanced producer services, banks can be used to characterize the spatial structure of urban networks through the headquarters-branch connections and the implied capital flow process, which can guide the exploration of financial market connectivity and coordinated regional development. In this paper, the financial linkages of 26 representative banks in the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA) were transformed from city scale to county scale urban network using the interlocking network model, and the structural characteristics and influencing mechanism of urban network are discussed using the Social Network Analysis and Geographically Weighted Regression model. The results show that: 1) The Pearl River Estuary in the GBA is a dense area of financial linkages. The level of financial linkages on the east bank of the Pearl River is generally higher than that on the west bank of the Pearl River, and the hierarchical expansion to the peripheral space is continuous or progressive. 2) The clustering and accessibility of the overall network perform well. The whole network presents a typical "small world" effect. Guangzhou Tianhe, Guangzhou Yuexiu, Foshan Nanhai, Foshan Shunde, and other nodes are of high gradability and proximity, and they are also important intermediaries for financial connections in the GBA. 3) Most of the nodes with high gradability have higher effective scale and efficiency, and have the advantage of structural holes. The peripheral spatial nodes have a high restriction degree. The network mainly relies on some nodes in the core or sub-core subgroups to generate financial linkages, while the financial linkages among most nodes of the edge subgroup are weak. 4) The variables negatively correlated with the total number of linkages are population density, economic development level, and government control behavior. The variables that are positively correlated with the total number of linkages are the degree of transportation convenience and social consumption ability. The relationship between the demand for financial services and the level of openness to the outside world and the total linkages is complex and has bidirectional effects. An additional contribution of this paper is as follows: 1) The preference for location choice of APS enterprises represented by banks is higher for geographical agglomeration in local markets, and the financial relationship at the county scale is more important for the location choice of bank branches within cities. 2) The differentiated urban network structure characteristics revealed by the heterogeneity of bank branches provide a reference value for the appeal of different types of bank branches.

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    The Dynamic Mechanism of Digitization of County Agriculture in the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau: Analysis of Institutional Approach of Zhuo-Sang Mode in Litang County, Sichuan Province
    Huasheng Zhu, Jiaxin Dai
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (4): 734-744.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003655
    Abstract330)   HTML16)    PDF (1641KB)(204)      

    Agriculture has been making a new turn toward digitization in developed areas. However, in the underdeveloped ethnic regions of western China, does digitization represent a valuable opportunity or a serious challenge? In this article, Litang County, Sichuan Province, located in the western high plateau region, was taken as an example, and text analysis of multi-source data was performed, including of policy documents, planning texts, website information of agricultural companies and government departments, and materials based on semi-structured interviews with local authorities and leading agricultural companies, with the purpose of discussing the dynamic mechanism of agricultural digitization in underdeveloped western counties. It was found that agricultural digitization in Litang has the following three typical characteristics: 1) full-chain digitization, that is, a closed-loop structure of data is formed through enterprise data centers, local data management platforms, and e-commerce platforms from various links such as vegetable and fruit breeding, planting, condensation logistics, and product sales; 2) multi-agent promotion, that is, agricultural companies, retailers, government departments and their agents, as well as social organizations, cooperate and promote each other in agricultural digital infrastructure construction, data technology application and data management, and agricultural resources integration; 3) coordination within and outside the county, namely timely response to the national rural revitalization strategy, corresponding poverty alleviation policies and local planning goals and action plans, coordination between the matching aid units and local departments and institutions in terms of the dual goals of economic benefits and poverty alleviation, and coordination between agricultural companies, social organizations, platform institutions and farmers, and other stakeholders within and outside the county. This study contributes to the establishment of a four-dimensional analysis framework of natural environment-market-institution-technology based on the institutional analysis of economic geography and enriches the research on economic geography in the field of agricultural digitalization. The main conclusions are as follows. First, the special natural environment in the high plateau area has shaped the constraint conditions and advantages of agricultural development in Litang, which encourages local companies to adopt a differentiation strategy, enter outside segment markets, and create a new evolutionary path using biological and digital technology. Second, the application of digital technology is not only beneficial to meet the needs of remote consumers for production information but also to provide feedback on timely changes in market demand for local agricultural companies, which is conducive to the adjustment and optimization of the decisions of agricultural producers. Technology investment increases production costs, which can be achieved by entering middle- and high-end markets to increase revenue. Third, the digital transformation of leader companies is not only the result of responding to or embedding national and local agricultural digitization strategies, but also puts forward potential requirements for the adjustment and optimization of local institutions and production organizations. Government and leadership companies jointly promote agricultural digitalization. In addition, the national matching poverty alleviation policy enables local governments to obtain scarce resources such as technology, capital, and market opportunities through external support, effectively reducing the risks and costs of digital transformation for leader companies, farmers, and other local production actors and promoting the spatial agglomeration of digital elements and resources through the external economies of the production network. However, it is crucial to take advantage of external support to cultivate local entrepreneurial talent and increase human capital for sustainable local development.

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    Impact of Establishment of National New Area on Carbon Reduction
    Chengkun Liu, Tingying Peng, Bing Zeng, Yu Zeng
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (11): 2049-2059.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003771
    Abstract297)   HTML39)    PDF (1003KB)(186)      

    In response to global climate change, China has incorporated carbon peaking and carbon neutrality into its overall economic and social development. National-level new areas are critical strategic carriers for high-quality regional economic development in China, playing an essential role in promoting carbon reduction. Objectively evaluating the carbon-emission-reduction effect of national-level new areas can help accumulate and promote China's low-carbon construction experience, and thus, comprehensively facilitate greening and ecological civilization construction. In this study, the impact of the establishment of national-level new areas on carbon emissions in their respective cities were investigated using the difference-in-difference method. The findings show that: 1) the establishment of a national-level new area can significantly minimize the carbon emissions in the city in which it is located, and after three years of establishment, it will have a significant long-term inhibitory effect on the carbon emissions of the city. This conclusion is still valid after a series of robustness tests, such as propensity score matching + difference-in-difference; 2) The national-level new area policy mainly reduces carbon emissions in a city through technological and energy-saving effects but cannot yet reduce them by adjusting the industrial structure. 3) The impact of the establishment of national-level new areas on the carbon emissions of surrounding cities shows an "∽" trend of increasing first, then decreasing, and subsequently increasing. It has a significant carbon-reduction effect on cities within the range of 200-250 km, indicating that national-level new areas can help promote carbon-emission reduction in surrounding cities. 4) The national-level new area policy has a higher carbon-emission-reduction effect on northern cities than on southern cities. The single-city layout model of the national-level new area has a significant carbon-emission-reduction effect on the host city, whereas the dual-city layout model does not significantly reduce the carbon emissions in the host city. This study investigated the carbon-emission-reduction effect of national-level new area policies and examined carbon-emission reduction in the national-level new areas of pilot cities through technological and energy-saving effects. This study helps to improve the theoretical understanding of national-level new area policies and carbon-emission impact mechanisms and provides a policy reference for China's promotion of the "dual-carbon" strategy.

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    Spatial Pattern Characteristics of Urban Virtual-Real Vitality in the Digitization Context: A Case Study of Guangzhou
    Haiyan Jiang, Tianhao Song, Shijie Li, Zhiping Deng
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (4): 695-706.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003669
    Abstract294)   HTML9)    PDF (2391KB)(221)      

    With the rapid development of information technology and social media platforms, digitization has not only given rise to new types of urban vitality spaces but also profoundly changed traditional spatial forms and constructions through online and offline interactions. This study aims to analyze the characteristics and impacts of the changing virtual and physical vitality space forms in Guangzhou and adduce theoretical references and practical insights for urban development and vitality enhancement. Using POI data and TikTok check-in data, this study conducts a spatial analysis of the spatial characteristics and changes of virtual and physical vitality in Guangzhou. The results show that: (1) The spatial patterns of urban virtual and physical vitality generally show a cyclic structure of decreasing vitality from the central urban area to the peripheral areas, indicating that physical space is the basis for the operation of virtual space. (2) Online and offline digital interactions form three types of vitality spaces: a traditional vitality-enhancing space, traditional vitality-declining space, and new Internet celebrity space, whose spatial distribution characteristics differ, with the new Internet celebrity space showing a scattered and discrete distribution. (3) The impact of mobile short video digital platform on the vitality of different types of spaces is heterogeneous, with a boosting effect for scenic spots, leisure and entertainment spots, and sports and fitness spaces, while the impact on food and beverage spaces is smaller. Scenic spots, leisure and recreation spots, and sports and fitness spaces have less impact on spatial vitality, while commercial shopping has a significant heterogeneous impact on spatial vitality. This study seeks to demonstrate the validity of combining POI data and TikTok check-in data to explore the relationship between digitalization and urban vitality space along the digital and social media dimensions and to enrich the research method of urban vitality space. In addition, this study shows that: First, the impact of digitalization on urban spatial form should be emphasized and the role of digitalization in shaping urban vitality space should be fully recognized. Second, urban planning and construction should focus on the development trend of online and offline interaction and promote the integration and complementation of physical and virtual spaces by introducing digital technologies and means. In addition, different types of vitality spaces afford different development opportunities and challenges in the digital context, so corresponding development strategies should be formulated according to local conditions. Finally, exploring the relationship between digitalization and urban vitality spaces can help to clarify the new urban logic and further enhance urban vitality.

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    Structural Characteristics, Evolution Trend, and Influence Mechanism of Urban Creative Networks in China: A Case Study of Chinese Digital Music
    Wei Li, Jinliao He, Weidong Guo
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (4): 596-607.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003659
    Abstract288)   HTML15)    PDF (1517KB)(171)      

    Urban creative networks, as distinct forms of production networks, differ from inter-firm-based urban networks. It is featured by flexible production, "temporary cooperation" and being "people-centered." This study attempts to address the concept of the urban creative network in theory, and based on the basic database of Chinese digital music, it integrates the social network, Geographical Information System (GIS) spatial analysis, and econometric model to empirically analyze the structural evolution characteristics and influencing factors of the creative cooperation network of Chinese singers in the past 40 years, which enriches the theoretical and empirical study of urban networks from the perspective of creative individual connections. The results suggest the following: (1) The scale of Chinese urban digital music collaborative networks grows rapidly and shows the characteristics of low density and a "small world", and network density is negatively correlated with network scale, with obvious social network properties. (2) The collaborative network as a whole presents a "core-periphery" structure and the development trend of polycentricity and high-centricity cities are mainly located in the eastern region, with relatively low centrality in the central and western cities, and gradually forms a triad structure of Beijing-Hong Kong-Taipei. (3) The evolution of the digital music cooperation network is characterized by both path dependence and path creation, and the main form of network extension is hierarchical diffusion, with the early high-intensity links between Hong Kong and Taiwanese cities gradually being replaced by mainland cities. (4) The coverage of city ties in the cooperative network expands with an uneven spatial distribution, and high-intensity ties are mainly concentrated in the eastern cities. Over time, the core cities' control over network resources through inter-high-intensity ties weakened. (5) The cooperative network has an obvious community structure, and the communities of this coproduction network appear to be expanding, grouping, and hierarchical, with dual-core and multi-core models as its main spatial organization modes. (6) A negative binomial regression model analysis shows that the scale of the urban economy, industrial structure, and the level of the network economy have significant impacts on the network structure, while the roles of human capital, opening up, urban administrative level, and traffic accessibility are not evident, indicating that the Chinese music cooperation network has obvious endogenous mechanisms and local embeddedness. The findings of this study provide in-depth theoretical and policy insights for understanding intercity interactions and promoting the development of creative industries under the influence of the creative (digital) economy. First, a study on city networks based on the production networks of digital creative industries should focus on the characteristics of creative production networks and the role of creative actors (people). Second, policymakers should fully understand the characteristics of digital creative production sector actors and production modes when formulating policies for the development of digital creative industries and choose development paths that fit the advantages of local resources to realize industrial development. Finally, we propose a future research agenda for urban creative networks.

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    Structure and Influencing Factors of the Global Cooperation Network of E-Sports Teams
    Huali Qu, Yuan Zhang, Jinliao He, Xu Zhang
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (4): 636-645.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003656
    Abstract286)   HTML18)    PDF (1043KB)(230)      

    With the progress of information technology and the transformation of the global economy, the digital economy is increasingly showing rapid growth and is becoming a key force in restructuring global factor resources, the global economic structure, and the global competitive landscape. E-sports, which is an emerging cultural industry and sport, has great significance in promoting cultural exchanges among countries and enhancing their respective national soft power. Presently, owing to its professionalization, internationalization, and ecologization, e-sports enables broader and multidimensional connections between game participants. However, e-sports cooperation networks based on virtual communities have not yet received widespread attention. Therefore, this study uses the information database of the participating teams of three international e-sports events, namely, the League Of Legends World Championship, The International DOTA2 Championships, and the CS: GO Major, to explore the structure of transnational e-sports team networks and their evolution from a theoretical perspective of virtual communities. This study uses the social network analysis and the gravitational model methods to reveal the multidimensional proximity and national attributes that influence the e-sports cooperative network patterns. The results show that first, the spatial evolution of the global e-sports cooperation network shows rapid expansion and low density, weak association, and strong dynamic network characteristics. The number of nodes increases rapidly while the network density shows a fluctuating decrease. This indicates that the development of Internet technology and the increasing popularity of e-sports have drawn increasingly more countries to participate in international e-sports activities, and the node connection of the e-sports cooperation network tends to be decentralized as a whole. Second, the global e-sports cooperation network has evolved into five associations representing geographical regions: the European associations with Denmark, Sweden, Finland, and Germany as the core, the Asia-Pacific associations with China and South Korea as the main partners, the Commonwealth of Independent States associations with Russia and Ukraine as the main partners, the Latin American associations with Peru and Argentina, as the main partners, and the Intercontinental associations with the United States and Canada as the main partners. Third, the spatial structure of the global e-sports cooperation network is influenced by the interrelationship between countries and their respective industrial bases. Social and organizational proximities drive the formation of e-sports cooperation networks, whereas geographical and cultural proximities do not significantly affect e-sports team cooperation. The interaction between geographical proximity and social proximity on the intensity of e-sports cooperation reflects a substitution effect; scientific research expenditure, e-sports revenue, and e-sports strength are the key elements affecting countries' importance in e-sports cooperation networks. Conversely, economic scale and general factors such as economic size and education level do not have significant effects on global e-sports team cooperation. This reflects the uniqueness of the e-sports industry in a digital economy. This study contributes to the research on the reconfiguration of industrial organization networks driven by the digital economy. Furthermore, this study provides a reference for making China's e-sports industry internationally competitive by improving its e-sports training system.

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    Spatial Characteristics and Existing Problems of China's Prefecture-Level Cities Since Reform and Opening-Up
    Biao Zhao, Liang Zhuang, Kaiyong Wang
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (5): 795-807.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003676
    Abstract286)   HTML13)    PDF (2070KB)(177)      

    The establishment of prefecture-level cities is a major spatial achievement of the social structure transformation in the process of modernization in China. The optimization of the layout structure of such cities is an inherent requirement for deepening supply-side structural reform and is of great significance to the construction of a scientific and reasonable urbanization pattern. Using the district similarity coefficient and standard deviation ellipse model, this study discusses the spatial characteristics and existing problems of prefecture-level city setting. The results reveal the following: 1) In terms of spatial characteristics, since the reform and opening-up, the setting of prefecture-level cities in China has been greatly affected by policy factors, exhibiting a gradual trend of advancing from east to west and from coastal to inland. 2) After reform and opening-up, the addition of prefecture-level cities is an adjustment on the basis of the original regional system, including the establishment of a city, the merger of a city, promotion of a county or county-level city to a city, and so on. 3) With the development of economy and society, the "space" problem of the prefecture-level city setting has become increasingly prominent, which is closely related to the difference in the mode of city setting, resulting in the administrative centers above prefecture-level setting too close, "small horse and big cart" and other problems to varying degrees. 4) The spatial distribution of prefecture-level cities in China is generated in regional administrative districts against the background of industrialization and urbanization, developed in the strategic transformation of urban-rural differences and cross-border cooperation, and faced with the innovative challenge of regionalization adjustment in the process of regional restructuring and scale restructuring. 5) The "space" problem leads to the increase of the system cost of economic and social development to varying degrees. Therefore, the layout of productivity should be comprehensively considered in a wider scope, and the adjustment of prefecture-level administrative divisions can be carried out when necessary. The possible contribution of this study to the literature is reflected in the application of the similarity coefficient of administrative districts to reveal that "the prefecture-level city is highly similar to the original region." Moreover, the problems existing in the current setting are related to this, such as too close distance and call for great importance to the significance of the adjustment of administrative divisions of the prefecture-level city. The possible shortcomings are that the logic of such city administrative division adjustment needs to be further explored, and the analysis of the thinking path of this adjustment is insufficient. In the future, the research on relevant issues in prefecture-level cities should be strengthened. Additionally, it is necessary to change the thinking of the adjustment of the overall construction system and the internal adjustment of prefecture-level government districts, consider the layout of productive forces from a broader perspective, consider the level of administration, the scale of government districts and the spatial structure as a whole, and take comprehensive measures to meet the actual needs of national and local development.

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    Planning Systems of Tokyo Bay Area and Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area: Perspectives of Development and Space
    Yuxing Zhang, Pei Li, Guicai Li
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (5): 837-858.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003685
    Abstract284)   HTML6)    PDF (1477KB)(413)      

    Domestic research on the planning of the Tokyo metropolitan area of Japan mainly includes evaluation and comparative research. The former involves the perspectives of planning interpretation, experience summarization, and history evolution; the latter compares and analyzes the three major urban agglomerations in China against the Tokyo metropolitan area. On the whole, most evaluation studies focus on the metropolitan area planning itself, and rarely focus on that of each prefecture and county under the metropolitan area. The relationship between these lower-level and metropolitan area planning has received relatively little attention. Comparative studies mostly cover various fields such as economy, industry, environmental protection, and so on, but the discussion paradigm is generally based on "introduction to the current situation → inspiration and reference," with rare objective comparison made under a reasonable benchmark and appropriate framework. At the same time, comparative research on urban agglomeration planning itself is also uncommon. As important spatial representations of the economic development in China and Japan, with what important planning has the Tokyo Bay Area (TBA) and the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area (GBA) developed to date? How do these plans relate to each other? What are the characteristics and differences? What results did these similarities and differences ultimately lead to? Answering these questions is not only related to the construction effectiveness of the GBA itself, but also has certain significance for other urban agglomerations in China. In this context, we adopt "development" and "space" as the two perspectives to analyze the planning system of the two major bay areas from the aspects of planning property, background, target area, goal, regional positioning, and main measures. On this basis, the similarities and differences between the two are summarized in six aspects: historical background and relevant system, departmental and institutional system, vertical transmission mechanism, horizontal coordination mechanism, planning system characteristics and public participation. This study argues that the following: (1) The two bay areas have played leading roles in industrialization, urban system construction, and urban agglomeration planning system construction in each country, but there are differences in the historical backgrounds and relevant social systems. (2) Under the decentralization of powers, the setting and naming of departments and institutions of TBA are relatively flexible, and they participate in the preparation process of comprehensive planning in the form of "Council." Except for Hong Kong and Macao, the departmental settings of GBA are orderly, clear, and consistent in form. (3) In terms of vertical transmission system, the central-level planning of TBA is self-contained and continuous but that at the county-level is relatively free, and the upper-level planning is not absolutely mandatory; the relationship between the upper and lower levels of GBA-related planning is relatively clear but that at the regional-level has some flexibility in execution. (4) In the horizontal coordination system, the TBA has established two major joint meeting systems to coordinate regional governance and planning formulation, while planning has weakened the positioning to each city's functions. Furthermore, GBA has also established cooperation mechanisms with different levels of cooperation for various issues, and the characteristics of planning for the positioning of urban functions are still obvious. (5) In terms of planning nature, the developmental and spatial planning of TBA have been combined into comprehensive planning, and the spatial aspect has obvious characteristics of stock planning. GBA still formulates planning from three aspects of development, space, and urban and rural areas and is in the transition from incremental to stock planning. (6) In terms of public participation, TBA has broken through the traditional planning paradigm and has begun to involve micro-fields such as personal value, with a high degree of public participation. In recent years, GBA has continuously enriched the planning content and has also made progress in the construction of public participation mechanisms and awareness training, but there is still room for improvement.

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    The Impact of Urban Green Space on Mental Wellbeing: Research Progress and Recommendations
    Ye Liu, Jiarui He, Ruoyu Wang, Zhigang Li
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (9): 1747-1759.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003733
    Abstract282)   HTML14)    PDF (918KB)(304)      

    The provision of a high-quality ecological environment is essential for the quality of life of residents. As an important component of the urban ecological environment, the relationship between urban green spaces and public health requires further investigation. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the Chinese and international literature on how urban green spaces affect mental well-being. First, it introduces different approaches of measuring the use of and exposure to urban green spaces. The most commonly used indicators for measuring the use and exposure to urban green spaces include Surrounding Greenness, Access to Green Spaces, Green Viewing Rate and Green Space Quality and Usage Satisfaction. The main advantages of Surrounding Greenness are wide spatial coverage, long timespan, and low cost; however, the accuracy of measuring exposure is relatively low. Researchers have extensively used access to green spaces. Because the bird's-eye perspective cannot fully reflect resident perceptions of park green spaces, scholars have used the green view ratio, which has the advantages of wide coverage, low cost, easy access, and small data deviation. Greenspace quality and usage satisfaction are also important measurement indicators, and their main advantages are low operational difficulty and the ability to reflect residents' subjective evaluations more accurately. It then elucidates the "environmental stress reduction-restoration-instoration" mechanisms underlying the effect of urban green spaces on mental well-being. Specifically, urban green spaces can affect the mental health of residents by reducing the harm arising from heat and pollution, restoring capacity, and building capacity. Green spaces alleviate environmental pressure by purifying air, reducing noise, and alleviating the heat island effect, thereby promoting residents' mental well-being. People can alleviate their psychological stress and restore their ability to control attention by viewing green spaces, thereby protecting their mental health and providing a favorable and convenient venue for residents to conduct physical activities and socialize with their neighbors, which is beneficial to their mental wellbeing. Subsequently, it illustrates the moderating effect of opportunities to use urban green spaces, motivation to use urban green spaces, and ease of using urban green spaces on mental wellbeing from a "socio-ecological" perspective. Finally, it indicates that the current body of literature has several limitations and that future research agendas should be centered on research content, data, perspectives, and methods. Specifically, (1) for research content, the effect of green spaces on the mental well-being of different social and cultural groups is poorly understood. Therefore, it is necessary to strengthen the analysis of the sociocultural mechanism of the effect of urban green spaces to enrich the existing research framework. (2) Most previous studies used one method to measure the level of greenspace exposure or usage. It is advisable to use a variety of methods to measure the level of greenspace exposure or usage both subjectively and objectively. (3) From a research perspective, most previous studies have used a research paradigm based on local and static analysis, failing to solve the Uncertain Geographic Context Problem (UGCoP). Therefore, it is necessary to adopt a human-centered perspective and accurately measure the impact of green space exposure on residents' mental well-being in their residential neighborhoods, workplaces, and other activity spaces. (4) Researchers need to solve the problem of residential self-selection when investigating the effect of urban green spaces on mental well-being and explore nonlinear complex relationships using advanced methods such as machine learning.

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    Urban Network and Location Influencing Factors of Internet Venture Capital in China
    Shichen Yuan, Aiping Kuang, Mingyu Wu, Mingfeng Wang
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (4): 608-619.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003657
    Abstract280)   HTML13)    PDF (2400KB)(177)      

    The rapid development of the Internet industry and the emergence of new business models have reshaped the spatial structure and spatial relationships of cities.The development of Internet enterprises has profoundly reshaped the established venture capital network by establishing investment departments and expanding the ecosystem in the form of venture capital.As venture capital and the Internet industry are mutually attractive and highly geographically coupled, the analysis of the structure and location of the venture capital network of Internet enterprises has become an important foundation for the development of the regional "new economy".This paper examined the spatial dynamics and location selection mechanism of venture capital activities of Chinese Internet companies by constructing a factor flow network, using spatial analysis, network analysis, and negative binomial regression models.The study demonstrated that venture capital investment in Chinese Internet enterprises has developed rapidly over the past 20 years in three phases: initial development from 2001 to 2012, rapid development from 2013 to 2016, and adjustment development from 2017 to 2019, with Internet venture capital showing the characteristics of cumulative development.Compared with traditional venture capital activities, the location choice of Internet venture capital is more concentrated, with a high concentration in a few major cities in the eastern region of China.The three major regions of Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta are the main places of occurrence and association of Internet venture capital activities in China, with a significant tendency of localization of venture capital.The cumulative development of corporate venture capital and the spatial evolution of both investors and financiers have contributed to the formation of a 'core-periphery' structure of the venture capital network.In addition, an assessment of the network density of the cities where the investment and financing occurs showed that the current Internet investment and financing network is still in its developmental stage, and most of the cities are not directly connected, showing a sparse matrix.Three time windows (2012, 2015, and 2017) were selected to analyze the location selection factors of Chinese Internet venture capital in different development periods in terms of enterprise growth environment, investment proximity, and transportation accessibility.The results showed that marketization, policy guidance, investment proximity, and spatial proximity were the main forces shaping the spatial pattern of Internet venture capital activities and had different degrees of influence on the various stages of Internet industry development.This study facilitates an in-depth examination of the spatial distribution characteristics of venture capital activities in the Internet economy and provides a detailed empirical basis for understanding the changes in venture capital investments in Internet enterprises and their locational influences.

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    Tacit Knowledge on Maps: A Discussion Centered on the Location of the Wailuo on the Zhongguo gu hang hai tu in the Beinecke Library
    Yannan Ding
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (5): 783-794.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003647
    Abstract278)   HTML18)    PDF (1231KB)(154)      

    The Beinecke Library of Yale University owns an ancient Chinese sea atlas, Zhongguo gu hang hai tu, which has attracted considerable scholarly interest over the last three decades. In 2018, Wing-Sheung Cheng published his research monograph focusing on this atlas. However, his identification of certain geographical features is problematic; in particular, the Wailuo (外罗), depicted several times in the pages of the Zhongguo gu hang hai tu, is identified as either Robert Island or Money Island in the Paracel Islands. Based on comparison with other sources, which invariably place the Wailuo near the coast of modern Vietnam (Cù Lao Ré), it is concluded that Cheng misread the cartographic representations of the atlas. In order to better elucidate the causes of this misreading, this paper introduces the epistemological concept of "tacit knowledge," coined by the philosopher Michael Polanyi (1891-1976), into the study on the history of cartography. Tacit knowledge as a notion has developed different meanings since Polanyi, and is construed as the opposite of explicit knowledge. Matthew H. Edney has championed the investigation of the mapping process rather than simply the mapping practice in the history of cartography. It is argued that the mapping process of ancient nautical charts involved tacit knowledge, which was not fully inscribed into or depicted on the charts. Acknowledging and revitalizing such tacit knowledge is of paramount importance to the study of the history of cartography. Because modern and scientific cartography has transcended and obfuscated the mapping process of ancient sea charts, tacit knowledge is sometimes ignored or misinterpreted, which eventually results in ancient maps and charts becoming seemingly unintelligible. Therefore, the underlying cause for Cheng's misreading of the Wailuo can be attributed to his over-reliance on the explicit knowledge drawn on the pages of the atlas, and ignorance of the rich tacit knowledge that was passed down through generations of Chinese seafarers, until it was overtaken by modern sea charts. This case study also echoes recent debates regarding the progress and setbacks in the history of cartographic studies in China. It shows that theoretical exploration is capable of facilitating the improvement and long-term viability of the history of cartography in the Chinese language world.

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    Spatial and Temporal Evolution of Park Accessibility in Downtown Guangzhou
    Zhanqiang Zhu, Yuechan Wu, Richeng Qin
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (5): 945-958.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003652
    Abstract268)   HTML12)    PDF (3140KB)(143)      

    The rationality of the spatial distribution of parks plays an important role in measuring cities' livability levels, promoting residents' physical and mental health, and promoting social interaction. However, with the continuous progress of urbanization and the rapid growth of the population, the contradiction between the supply of parks and the demand of people has become increasingly prominent. Moreover, the balance of the park layout did not receive enough attention when the urban population and residential spaces underwent dynamic transformations. This study analyzed the spatial and temporal evolution pattern of park accessibility in downtown Guangzhou in 2010 and 2020 using the Gaussian-based two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA) and hot-spot analysis methods. The results show that:1) From 2010 to 2020, the average accessibility of parks in downtown Guangzhou increased. The communities with reduced park accessibility are areas with significant population increases, such as central Tianhe, eastern Haizhu, parts of Baiyun, and southern Liwan. The communities with improved park accessibility are mainly key urban development areas, such as Huangpu and Baiyun. Park accessibility has also improved in the depopulated old town within the Ring Highway. With the expansion of the travel range, the blind area of park supply is significantly reduced, and "seeing the park in 15 minutes" is realized under the bus travel mode. 2) Between 2010 and 2020, there was a spatial clustering phenomenon in the accessibility of parks under three travel modes. The impact of travel modes on the spatial clustering degree of park accessibility is obvious, and the change of spatial autocorrelation caused by time evolution is weak. With the improvement of travel range, the hot-spot and the cold-spot areas gradually expand, and the spatial agglomeration characteristics become more obvious. The hot-spot areas are mainly located in the old urban areas along the Pearl River and the Ring Highway, while the cold-spot areas are mainly located in Liwan and the outer urban areas outside the Ring Highway. 3) Under the guidance of the urban planning policy and the government, the orderly construction of parks and population flow comprehensively form the fair and unfair areas of the park's spatial distribution. The park's spatial distribution unfair area is the key area of the park's future planning, construction, and quality optimization. From the spatial and temporal dimensions, the research results complement the impact of the travel mode and urbanization process on the accessibility of parks. It makes up for the deficiency of the previous studies, which are mostly horizontal to some extent. It also helps to provide guidance and suggestions for the planning and layout of parks and policymaking in cities with the same type of high-density population.

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    Research Progress on Wave-Beach-Dune Interactions
    Wei Tian, Yuxiang Dong
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (9): 1665-1677.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003729
    Abstract264)   HTML19)    PDF (763KB)(226)      

    Searching the key words' wave-beach-dune interactions' in Web of Science, nearly 100 domestical and overseas publications since the 1980s have been analyzed and reviewed. This stuyd summarizes major advances at different temporal-spatial scales. The issues of integration between them are clarified by sorting the conceptual models and categorizing development stages. Additionally, research opportunities and challenges are identified. Studies on wave-beach-dune interactions have been initiated since 1980s and developed through the following three stages: theory proposed and improved, expansion of study areas, and in-depth exploration. The conceptual models have been developed from simple to reliable models across a range of micro-, meso-, and macro-scales. Studies were initially conducted by taking advantage of only field survey and bathymetry maps. Nowadays, collaborated technology and methods have been applied in studying coastal landforms through in-situ field monitoring, wind tunnel trial, 3S technologies, and numerical simulation. Study areas extended and expanded from southeast Australian coasts to Europe, South and North America, and Asian coasts. Although plenty of relevant reports have been published, some issues exist. Owing to their highly temporal-spatial heterogeneity, it is difficult to find a universal conceptual model for the worldwide coastal dune systems. At the micro-scale, as the complex process of wave-tide hydrological and aeolian dynamic imposed on surfzone-beach-dune and limitation of monitoring data utility, the existing theoretical model cannot completely reveal the mechanism of the terrestrial-marine interface and beach-dune landform response and feedback to wind dynamics. At the mesoscale, many mechanisms of dune response to storm surges have been proposed, but few are from the perspective of the surfzone-beach-dune as a whole system. More case studies based on observation are needed, which will benefit in-depth exploration. Furthermore, more long-term monitoring and refined models are required to build the bridge between fundamental process-response dynamics (events scale) and medium-long-term landforms topography changes and evolution. At the macroscale, given the alongshore sediment transport and supply, sea level rise rate, and landward and seaward sediment transport, prediction models of coastal geomorphological changes induced by sea level rise should be tested and supported by multi-temporal-spatial observation and monitoring data. Future studies will continue collaborating the historical reports and site monitoring techniques with high-resolution images interpretation to comprehensively understand the relationships between dynamic-response process and landforms geomorphology evolution by integration of environmental variables and surfzone, beach, and dune landforms investigation. The numerical simulation will reveal the mechanisms of wave-beach-dune interactions across micro-, meso-, and macro-scales and redefine theoretical concepts.

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    The Characteristics and Driving Factors of the Coastline Changes of Zhuhai Island Since 1986
    Jiangbo Wang, Yufan Wu, Aiping Gou
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (5): 971-985.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003684
    Abstract255)   HTML14)    PDF (4256KB)(396)      

    The change of the coastline has an extremely important impact on the safety of the wharf and port, the ecological environment of the island and the development of coastal industries. Therefore, analyzing the temporal and spatial evolution characteristics of island coastlines and its driving factors is of great significance for government to strengthen coastal management, improve the environment quality of islands, and maintain sustainable development of islands. Research selected the Landsat satellite data of Zhuhai City in 7 years from 1986 to 2021, employed the MNDWI and manual visual interpretation to extract the coastal waterline of the island, and analyzes the changes in the length of the coastline and the area of the island in each time period. As a result, the research objects are divided into islands with slight coastline changes and islands with significant coastline changes. DSAS module and multi-source data are employed to explore the driving factors affecting the temporal and spatial changes of island coastlines. The conclusionsare as follows: 1) In the past 35 years, the coastline length of each island in Zhuhai City has changed significantly, and the change trend of each island area is different. 2) The island has undergone large-scale construction activities in the past 35 years, and the coastline has changed significantly. The LCI in each period is in the range of 1.1-2.2, and the ACI is in the range of 1.1-3.3; the island has a slight coastline change due to the development disadvantages and island protection policies determined by the natural conditions of the islands, the degree of island development is low, the coastline changes slightly, and the LCI and ACI in each period are within the range of 0.9-1.1. 3) Human activities are the direct driving factor affecting the change of the island coastline, and the specific manifestations are island-connecting projects, land reclamation, and construction of wharfs. The indirect drivers of shoreline change are macroscopically the development of islands as a key driver of Zhuhai's marine economy and the human activities brought about by industrial development that affect shoreline change. Microscopically, the related island has the potential to develop related industries or contains rare ecological populations that need to be protected, and the resulting construction projects such as reclamation,island linkage or urban planning policies affect the island's shoreline change.Research departs from the micro perspective of existing studies at the research scale and takes a medium to macro perspective by selecting 66 islands in Zhuhai to explore the commonalities and characteristics of shoreline changes in each island.In terms of analysis depth, study combined government planning documents at various stages of Zhuhai City to deeply explore the indirect impact of planning on shoreline changes, which was rarely discussed in existing studies. This research can provide more comprehensive data support and reference materials for Zhuhai and the GBA to formulate island development strategies, and has practical and academic value.

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    Spatial Heterogeneity of the Built Environment Effect on the Use of a Bikeshare-Metro Commute in a Metropolitan Area: A Case Study of Shenzhen
    Yuanyuan Guo, Lei Wu, Peng Zeng
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (5): 872-884.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003682
    Abstract251)   HTML18)    PDF (2647KB)(938)      

    Recently, dockless bikeshare (DBS), a new bikeshare program that does not feature fixed dock stations, has been developed rapidly in China and has also offered a decent solution to the first- and last-mile problem. In addition, the integration of DBS and metro strongly promotes the transit-oriented development, particularly in the metropolitan areas of China. To achieve the seamless connection between DBS and metro transit, the spatial variation of the effects of urban built environment, particularly in high-density metropolitan areas, should be explored to advance the targeted policy interventions in different urban spaces. Using data from one of the largest DBS operators in China (ofo), this study measured the integrated use of DBS and the metro quantitatively, and it employed geographically and semiparametric geographically weighted regression (GWR and SGWR, respectively) to examine the effects of the built environment on the integrated use, using Shenzhen as a case study. The findings show that (1) The SGWR model performs better than GWR and OLS in explaining the relationship between built environment and access integrated use, whereas SGWR is not applicable for the egress integrated use. (2) Three positive determinants of population density, major road length and inbound metro ridership, and three negative determinants of metro density, secondary school, and intersection density have been examined with spatial effects on the access integration. (3) For egress integration, official land use, park, bus stops, and outbound metro ridership have positive and spatial effects, while residential land use, number of secondary school, metro density and distance to CBD (Central Business District) exert negative spatial effects. The results indicate that the built environment elements usually affect the integrated use with spatial variation. Furthermore, the access and egress integration use of DBS metro largely depends on the characteristics of built environment of the origin and destination metro catchment, respectively. This work provides insight into how the DBS-metro integration, which is divided into access and egress patterns, is spatially affected by urban built environment in the Chinese metropolitan context. The results will also provide a reference for the local government to carry out the targeted policies and planning to encourage the connection between DBS and metro transit more successfully. For DBS operators, the results also contribute to allocating the bikes more efficiently, which is adapted to the dynamic demand-supply at different urban spaces.

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    Functional Layout of Railway Station Areas and between Stations Based on Passenger Flow: A Case Study of Xiamen
    Li Wan, Yue'er Gao, Jingjing Shen
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (7): 1247-1258.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003700
    Abstract248)   HTML19)    PDF (4084KB)(165)      

    The comprehensive development of rail stations combining the Transit Oriented Development (TOD) concept with rail transit has been a research and practical hotspot in recent years. The functional layout within the station catchment area and between rail stations is an important basis for implementing TOD to guide the optimization of urban spatial structures, and passenger flow is a direct reflection of its functional layout effectiveness. Studying the adaptability of rail station functions through passenger flow characteristics has important practical significance for the comprehensive development of rail transit as the main body and for promoting the optimization of urban spatial structures. However, in existing research, there has been no unified conclusion on the mixed and differentiated functional layout of the station catchment area, which has often been advocated for the differentiation of functionality between stations, however, it mostly remains at the guiding ideology level. Therefore, this study categorized and assigned weights to the POI in the station catchment area and divided the Xiamen rail stations into three categories: stations with single dominant functions, stations with dual dominant functions, and stations with mixed functions. The relationship between the functional layout of stations and their corresponding spatial passenger flow was analyzed based on the OD volume of passenger flow between different functional types of stations and the distribution of OD in different distance segments. Based on the current functional layout characteristics and corresponding passenger flow characteristics of rail stations, further optimization strategies are proposed. The results show that: 1) Stations with high passenger flow are mostly those with single and dual-dominant functions, and the passenger flow of stations with mixed functions is not prominent; high-passenger flow stations are mostly those with high-level central functions, mainly distributed in urban central areas; and low-passenger flow stations are spatially concentrated, mostly concentrated near the end of the line. 2) The functional complementarities between spatial stations directly affect passenger flow OD volume, and the OD volume between stations of the same type is small. Meanwhile, that between stations of different types is large. 3) The OD ratio of each distance segment of the station is affected by the functional grade of the center and functional complementarity of the surrounding stations. The proportion of short-distance OD at stations in the central urban area is relatively large, whereas the proportion of long-distance OD at stations near the end of the line is relatively large. Finally, the causes of the current rail station functions and corresponding passenger flow characteristics were analyzed based on the internal logic of the occurrence and attraction of passenger trips with urban functions, central place theory, and the market rules of urban functional layout. Based on the requirements of urban spatial structure, the principle of comprehensive development function layout for rail stations is proposed, which includes "mixed basic functions, concentrated dominant functions" in the station influence area and "complementary differences, connecting points and forming axes" between stations.

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    Spatial Agglomeration, Industrial Networks, and Their Effects on Strategic Emerging Industries in China
    Jiaming Li, Peiyuan Zhang, Jiahui Sun, Qiuqiu Li
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (4): 646-656.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003658
    Abstract247)   HTML11)    PDF (2496KB)(193)      

    As an important force to guide future economic and social development, strategic emerging industries are the core of China's modern industrial system that helps in achieving high-quality economic development. The study sample includes 1,109 most representative listed enterprises in strategic emerging industries and their associated 19,540 enterprises. This study has depicted the characteristics of the spatial distribution of China's strategic emerging industries from the perspectives of industrial clustering and industrial networks and provides an in-depth analysis of cluster structure, network centrality, network heterogeneity, and their spatial differentiation. This study has four main findings. First, in the eastern region, the core and supporting enterprises of strategic emerging industries are relatively balanced and the industry clusters are more complete, while in the central and near-western regions, there are relatively few core enterprises and they are mainly concentrated in a few provincial capitals. In the northwest and northeast regions, there are not enough core and supporting enterprises to support the development of strategic emerging industry clusters. Second, China's strategic emerging industry network has a diamond-shaped network pattern with the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, and Chengdu-Chongqing regions at the apex, and several vertically linked industry networks that have been formed by core cities. Third, the core companies' key investments in China's strategic emerging industries are concentrated in three key segments of the industry chain: manufacturing, R&D, and information (20.42%, 19.50%, and 17.56%, respectively). Based on this, two major industrial networks-the R&D and information services network and the manufacturing network and three national hubs-Beijing, Shenzhen, and Shanghai, were formed. Beijing is the core node of the R&D and information services network, whereas Shenzhen and Shanghai are the core nodes of the production and manufacturing networks. In addition, Hangzhou is gradually becoming an information service center city with national influence, while Guangzhou, Chengdu, Wuhan, and Xi'an remain regional information service centers and manufacturing leading centers. Finally, there is a significant positive correlation between the size of industry agglomerations and the centrality of the industry network. When the cluster size is small, cluster size expansion primarily supports the expansion of the breadth of industrial network linkages, whereas when the cluster size is large, it primarily supports the increase in linkage intensity. More importantly, when industry agglomerations reach a certain size, the rapid increase in the strength of industrial network linkages is more often due to small and medium-sized supporting enterprises than due to large core enterprises. This study provides a comprehensive understanding of the characteristics and spatial patterns of China's strategic emerging industries as well as the problems faced by different regions. Moreover, an analysis of the heterogeneity of industrial networks, especially the differences between the core node cities of different networks, also demonstrates the variability of the impact of different types of industrial networks on different cities and regions.

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    Innovative Development Path of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area in the New Period
    Hong'ou Zhang, George C S Lin, Shenjing He, Gengzhi Huang, Yuyao Ye, Chengliang Liu, Yan Luo, Yu Yang, Helin Liu, Fenghua Pan, Shengjun Zhu, Yurui Li, Zhiding Hu, Zhenshan Yang, Xia Zhou, Qitao Wu, Ren Yang, Wei Sun, Haitao Ma, Yutian Liang, Fenglong Wang, Ning An, Zhenjie Yuan, Yan Guo, Guangliang Xi, Xiaohui Hu, Qiang Lin, Yi Liu, Jie Huang
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (8): 1453-1478.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003720
    Abstract247)   HTML21)    PDF (7449KB)(356)      

    Owing to the development issues of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area in the new domestic and international situation, the content, challenges, and paths of innovation and development of the Greater Bay Area are explored from multiple dimensions, including economic, social, cultural, and institutional. The innovation and development of the Greater Bay Area should strengthen technological and industrial innovation capabilities, improve regional resilience to cope with external shocks, increase the mobility of intraregional factors, improve the well-being of the people's livelihood, enhance the capacity of spatial governance, promote integrated urban-rural development, and optimize the regional pattern of ecological security. The conclusion is that considering the innovation and development of the Greater Bay Area from a systemic and interconnected perspective is crucial for seeking innovations in various development fields and promoting coupling and coordination among them. Therefore, the region may acquire the agency that can continuously break through bottlenecks, resolve external shocks, and unlock new paths of development. We call for the strengthening of cross-field and cross-disciplinary collaborative research to contribute the power of geography to the realization of the development goals of the Guangdong-Hong Kong-Macao Greater Bay Area.

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    Evolutionary Characteristics and Influencing Factors of the Digital Economic Network in the Yangtze River Delta
    Shuofeng Leng, Guangliang Xi, Feng Zhen
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (4): 620-635.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003670
    Abstract245)   HTML27)    PDF (6314KB)(248)      

    Against the backdrop of digital technology integration and digital transformation, the digital economy has become an important new economic development in China. The digital economy changes and subverts the traditional production and organization modes of industries, breaks regional and spatial barriers, and realizes a highly interconnected network structure. Therefore, it is critical to study the digital economy from a network analysis perspective. In previous studies, the interlocking network model and the headquarters-branch model have been adopted to construct enterprise networks; however, the networks based on these models have some deficiencies in comprehensiveness and authenticity. An enterprise equity network built based on the investment relationships between enterprises can reflect the actual contact network status of the enterprise. Based on the above background, this study analyzed the evolutionary characteristics of the digital economy network in the Yangtze River Delta area through an enterprise equity network and explored its influencing factors and mechanisms. First, we constructed the digital economy networks of the Yangtze River Delta area for 2010, 2015, and 2020 using equity investment data between enterprises and a directed correlation network model. Second, with the indicators of degree centrality, degree centralization, an investment source, and others, the spatial and temporal evolution characteristics of digital economy networks were described from two aspects: network patterns and investment relationships. Furthermore, this study explored the possible factors affecting digital economy networks in the Yangtze River Delta area through a Quadratic Assignment Procedure. This study has three main findings: 1) From 2010 to 2020, various types of digital economy networks in the Yangtze River Delta area showed the characteristics of hierarchical diffusion and node agglomeration. Each industry forms an expansion of the network framework around the core node in the initial stage and then expands to the surrounding areas through secondary nodes. Shanghai and Hangzhou were the most important network nodes in the digital economy. 2) The number of net inflow areas for digital economy investment in the Yangtze River Delta was increasing, whereas the number of net outflow areas was decreasing. Hangzhou was the main net inflow city, while Shanghai and Ningbo were the main net outflow cities. Simultaneously, the source of investment in research units has changed from inside the province to outside, and there are clear interprovincial differences. 3) Cognitive proximity, the difference in the number of digital economy enterprises, the difference in the proportion of secondary industries, the difference in information facilities, and the early network foundation all have significant positive effects on the establishment of digital economy networks. System proximity, the difference in the proportion of tertiary industries, the time difference in the establishment of digital economy enterprises, and the gap in innovation ability restrict the formation and development of digital economy networks. Geographical distance is no longer the main factor influencing the formation of digital economic networks. Based on the above conclusions, this study proposes some suggestions for promoting the development of the digital economy from the perspectives of industrial agglomeration, facility and policy allocation, and path dependence.

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    Future Urban Expansion Simulation and Flood Mitigation Assessment in the Pearl River Delta under Flood Risk Avoidance
    Renyun Guo, Xiaoping Liu, Xiaocong Xu
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (6): 1083-1097.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003697
    Abstract242)   HTML5)    PDF (3921KB)(307)      

    Combined with flood risk avoidance-oriented urban expansion strategies, future urban expansion spatial patterns were simulated under Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) and Representative Concentration Pathways (RCPs) scenarios. This study compared urban expansion and expected annual damage to evaluate the flood mitigation effects of different strategies. The results show many newly expanded urban lands in the Pearl River Delta are located in floodplains, and the expected annual damage caused by floods is enormous. The most serious economic losses caused by floods were concentrated in southern Guangzhou, eastern Foshan, northern Zhongshan, and northwestern Dongguan. Under the SSP5-RCP8.5-natural expansion scenario, the newly expanded urban lands in floodplains of the Pearl River Delta in 2080 will be 1,633 square kilometers (equivalent to the built-up areas of Guangzhou, Foshan, and Zhongshan combined in 2021), accounting for 31.5% of the total newly expanded urban lands; the expected annual damage will be 2,341.3 billion yuan. If humans manage to reduce emissions in the SSP2-RCP4.5-natural expansion scenario, newly expanded urban lands located in floodplains can decrease to 1,059 square kilometers (-35.1%), accounting for 29.8 % of the total newly expanded urban lands, and the expected annual damage can be reduced to 1,416.5 billion yuan (-39.5%). If flood risk avoidance strategies are included in the urban expansion to optimize and control the spatial pattern of urban expansion, the direction of future urban expansion can change and steer away from areas with high flood risk and toward areas with low or no flood risk. Under the SSP5-RCP8.5-flood risk avoidance scenario, newly expanded urban lands located in floodplains can decrease to 1,358 square kilometers (-16.8%), accounting for 26.2 % of the total newly expanded urban lands, and the expected annual damage can be reduced to 2,001.0 billion yuan (-14.5%). According to the assessment results, emission reduction, and flood risk avoidance strategies can effectively reduce future flood risks. This study improves our understanding of flood risks under different future scenarios, provides a practical reference for developing flood mitigation and urban planning policies in the Pearl River Delta, and motivates decision-makers to formulate corresponding strategies early and e?ectively to mitigate future flood risks.

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    Off-Site Pension, Migrant Families, and the Settlement Intention of Older Migrants in China
    Hengyu Gu, Wei Li, Ye Liu, Rongwei Wu
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (6): 1123-1133.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003690
    Abstract242)   HTML13)    PDF (718KB)(262)      

    Older population migration has become a normal occurrence that requires further systematic attention. The reasons for older migration in contemporary China exhibit a diversified trend. However, existing literature rarely discusses the impact of migration reasons on the settlement intention of the mobile older population. In China, where the aging demographic is increasing, the residence choice of the older floating population with their families presents a significant difference among cities and regions. Therefore, from the perspective of comparative analysis, to address the gap in the literature, there is an urgent need to reveal the influence mechanism of the settlement intention of the floating older population under different categories of reasons for mobility. Such an approach is of great significance for local governments to conduct differentiated management of the floating older population according to local conditions, provide equal health care services for older people, and promote a new wave of urbanization. In addition to continuous aging and urbanization in China, the migration reasons and characteristics of the older migrant population are diversified. While family migration is still the main reason for the mobility of older people in China, there is an increasingly evident demand for off-site pension, which presents new requirements for the government to actively respond to the aging and carry out services for different kinds of migrant older people. This study explores the influence mechanism of two typical mobility reasons (off-site pension and family migration) on the settlement intention of migrant older people. We adopt the multi-level logistic regression model based on the 2017 China Migrant Population Dynamic Survey. This study derives the following main results. First, the settlement intention of off-site older people is significantly promoted, while the intentions of the family accompany-migrated older people are not convincing. The intention of the former is 14.3% higher than the latter. Second, personal and family characteristics (demographic factors, socioeconomic status, social integration status) and inflow characteristics (urban scale, urban public services, urban environment) both affect the settlement intention of migrant older people. Third, there are different mechanisms for the settlement intention of migrant older people with different reasons for migration. The family is the core of the settlement choice for family migration, while the livability of the environment mitigates its effect. Fourth, the settlement choice of the off-site older people depends on the purpose of personal pension. This kind of migrant older people focus more on external conditions such as favorable policies of urban agglomeration and convenient pension facilities. They will be more easily affected by the social network connection of the inflow place. An in-depth understanding of the migration reasons and characteristics of migrant older people can aid in the provision of better public services. The conclusions of this study provide a reference for local governments to carry out differentiated governance of migrant older people, promote new urbanization, and equalize public services.

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    Nexus between Railway Construction and National Territorial Development Strategies in China: A Multi-Level Governance Perspective
    Bingqing Kong, Lei Wang, Xuejun Duan
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (5): 859-871.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003675
    Abstract242)   HTML8)    PDF (1037KB)(168)      

    Based on a literature review and policy analysis, this study investigates the evolution of China's railway investment and financing, planning, and development in the context of its market-oriented reform. The relationship between railway and multi-level spatial development is divided into specific periods. The features of different stages are summarized from the perspective of railway financing structure, route arrangement, station location, and their spatial effects. This study contributes to our understanding of the changing multi-level governance of railway development in China in the long run and the rationale of the pattern of high-speed rail network development in the country. With the establishment of China's market-oriented economy and its integration into economic globalization, the central and local governments have different interests and objectives in railway development, which have affected railway investment and financing structure, route arrangement, and station location, and finally resulted in different spatial effects of railway development. Since the establishment of the People's Republic of China, the relationship could be divided into four periods: i) railway services adapted to national economic and spatial development (1949-1978), ii) railway services lagged behind national economic and spatial development (1978-2004), iii) railway construction followed national economic and spatial development (2004-2013), and iv) railway construction led national economic and spatial development (2013-present). The main body of railway development, construction mode, and spatial effects were significantly varied across different periods. In the planned economy period, railway planning construction adapted to national strategic policies and social and economic needs. As China's institution of the market economy was established and urbanization and industrialization developed rapidly, railway construction was hindered by funding constraints, resulting in a significant gap between railway services supply and the increasing national transportation demand. Consequently, railway construction has gradually fallen behind national economic and spatial development. However, there are differences in the national and local interests between the central and local governments in planning and developing railway networks, which have driven the evolution of railway construction toward a multi-level construction mode. This mode centers around the national backbone network, dominated by the central government, and aims to promote the construction of national development corridors and urban agglomerations. The planning for metropolitan areas has been facilitated via inter-city rail networks, led by provincial and municipal governments. In this process, conventional railways are gradually being replaced by high-speed railways (HSR), which have become the priority of railway development. Subsequently, development has shifted from the construction of conventional railways to meet regional transportation and population flow needs toward the planning and construction of HSR that lead multiscale spatial restructuring. In the context of rapid expansion of high-speed rail development, some spatial problems emerged, such as negative impacts of HSR development on small and middle-sized cities, low land use efficiency in station areas, and weak functional connections between station areas and central cities. Therefore, to promote the coordinated development of urban agglomerations and metropolitan areas, it is necessary to develop station areas based on local and regional conditions and enhance the interaction of high-speed rail effects at different scales.

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    The County Network Structure and Driving Mechanism of China's Cold Chain Logistics Enterprises from a Multi-Scale Perspective
    Xiaomei Li, Jun Huang
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (4): 669-680.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003668
    Abstract234)   HTML11)    PDF (1738KB)(238)      

    To expand micro-scale research on the urban network of cold chain logistics enterprises, enrich cold chain logistics channel theories, guide marginal counties to improve their network status, further promote the rational allocation of cold chain logistics resources at various scales, and promote the coordinated development of regional cold chain logistics, this study constructed three levels of county network respectively from the inside of the cold chain logistics corridors,within and beyond the corridors and at a national scale. Using Social Network Analysis, Motif analysis, geodetectors, and other models, it gradually analyzed the county network structure of cold chain logistics enterprises in 2020 from the overall to the local level and discussed the driving mechanism of the network structure. The results show that: 1) from an overall perspective, the network structure at all scales presents a core-periphery layout, and the core counties with archipelagic distribution are mainly located in Beijing Tianjin Hebei, Yangtze River Delta, and Pearl River Delta. The difference is that network development inside and outside the corridors and at the national scale is not yet mature, and the network status and node relevance of counties at various scales are quite different; 2) from a local perspective, the core counties within the corridors mainly establish a dual relationship with the core counties in the same city, build a ternary closed and mutually beneficial group relationship with other counties, and develop multi-corridor multi-core communities. The outer core counties of the inner and outer scales of the corridors are mostly formed near the hub of the corridor, often occupying the structural hole position of the inner and outer links of the corridors and are closely linked with other marginal counties in the main agricultural production areas. The core counties at the national scale radiate mainly to the outside world. They often choose the eastern coastal open cities or ports as windows to absorb multiple investments, leading to economic circles and economic belt associations; and 3) from the perspective of the core-periphery layout driving mechanism, economic factors, such as consumption level, are the common driving force of all scales; spatial factors, such as geographical location, lead to differences between scales; and aviation facilities do not show an obvious driving force. The theory of urban network driving mechanisms is still applicable to the study of county units. The formation of the county network structure stems from the functional differentiation and locational separation behavior of cold chain logistics enterprises. Driving mechanisms, such as scale preference, endowment preference, and network proximity effect, show heterogeneity in the role of network structures at various scales.

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    Does Smart City Construction Promote New Urbanization and Market Integration: Can We Have Both?
    Hui Zhang, Hanyue Zhang, Renjun Li
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (4): 681-694.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003664
    Abstract234)   HTML7)    PDF (941KB)(191)      

    Smart city construction will have a profound impact on urban development and regional pattern, and it is necessary to explore its impact on new urbanization and regional market integration, so as to provide empirical evidence for accelerating the construction of smart cities. Based on the panel data of 238 prefecture-level cities from 2005 to 2019, this study considers the establishment of the national smart city pilot as a quasi-natural experiment and includes it in the analysis of the factors influencing market integration. The multi-period difference method was used to empirically investigate the influence of smart city pilot construction on market integration at the prefecture-level city level. The conclusions are as follows. According to the calculation results, the degree of inter-city market segmentation in the whole sample period from 2005 to 2019 showed a trend of shock decline, except that the degree of inter-city market segmentation increased in 2008 and 2009. The benchmark regression results show that although smart city pilot construction can promote economic urbanization, social urbanization, and environmental urbanization of the pilot cities, it is not conducive to market integration among cities. The conclusion that smart city construction will intensify market segmentation remains valid even after a series of robustness tests. The influence of smart city construction on inter-city market integration varies according to city level, city size, and city location, which is mainly manifested in the fact that it significantly inhibits the market integration of low-level cities, small and medium-sized cities, and inland cities, and significantly promotes the market integration of big cities and coastal cities. The influence mechanism shows that narrowing the information infrastructure gap not only helps in playing the role of smart city construction in promoting the development of new urbanization but also promotes market integration among cities. Narrowing the gap in public expenditure is conducive to the promotion of smart city construction for social urbanization and alleviates market segmentation among cities. Promoting the development of secondary industries can enhance environmental urbanization and ease market segmentation. Therefore, in the context of building a national unified large market, the pilot construction of smart cities should pay full attention to the negative effects of the "digital divide" between regions, encourage some localities with conditions to strengthen the construction of smart cities independently, and prevent the "digital divide" between regions from widening. This study further enriches the research on the factors influencing market integration at the city level and simultaneously provides some references for urban digital transformation and the development of new urbanization.

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    Research Progress and Implication of Cultural Memory Space from the Perspective of Geography
    Jianwu Qi, Wei Li, Lucang Wang, Kai Zhang
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (5): 913-928.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003559
    Abstract232)   HTML8)    PDF (2695KB)(249)      

    Cultural memory is a spiritual, inner, and middle world composed of self-consciousness, memory, and behavior that expresses the cultural phenomenon, local emotions, and identity generated by human practice in the present world space. Geography pays more attention to the human-land relationship and spatial perception in the formation of cultural memory and constructs a unique cultural memory space. This space is the agglomeration of figurative cultural relics in space, as well as the spiritual representation of non-figurative places, such as art, text, and folklore in space. By systematically analyzing the theory of cultural memory, this study summarizes the process of evolution and development context of cultural memory. Based on 1,527 key domestic and international studies on geography, this study analyzes the main content and progress of global cultural memory space research from the perspective of keyword co-occurrence clustering, theme path evolution, and research trend, with the assistance of CiteSpace—the bibliometrics and visualization tool. By reviewing the frontier hot spots of cultural memory space research at home and abroad, this study aims to construct a research paradigm of cultural memory from the perspective of geography, improve the research methods of cultural memory, and provide a reference for the local application and multidisciplinary integration of cultural memory theory. The analysis results focus the research topics of foreign cultural memory space primarily on: 1) the memory representation of the landscape of daily life; and 2) political and ritual studies in memory. Domestic research topics primarily include: 1) cultural and local studies in collective and social memory; 2) research on urban and rural memory carried by space; and 3) research on heritage memory reproduction, promoted by cultural tourism. The literature on cultural memory space at home and abroad has gradually increased in recent years, as has the attention paid to memorial landscape, heritage buildings, ritual celebrations, war trauma, and national memory; however, the research on cultural memory space has not formed a specific theoretical paradigm. Most of the literature only focuses on the integration of cultural memory and other fields, and relatively few studies address the connotation of cultural memory space, media conversion mechanisms, and spatial identification methods. The perspective of the content and trends in domestic and foreign research indicates that Western scholars pay more attention to the study of migration, rights, free will, women, power politics, and war trauma. The focus on space is mainly on cities, emotions, and rights. Domestic geographers focus on deconstructing regionalized and China-seized cultural memory and local identity from the intangible carrier of memory. Most studies are based on obvious policy orientations. War sites, red tourist sites, traditional villages, characteristic folk customs, and festival ceremonies have become important themes in the study of cultural memory space. In the future, geography research should depict the practical process of text, ritual, and language through non-representational means and re-introduce memory into human research in a materialized way. Simultaneously, the connotation of urban and rural cultural memory should be clearly defined, and heritage, immigration, and tourism should be adopted as the new themes of cultural memory space research through digital images.

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    Spatio-Temporal Variation of the Grain Planting Area and Yield in Yunnan Province in the Last 30 Years
    Zhenyan Wang, Yunling He, Chen Lin
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (7): 1288-1301.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003557
    Abstract232)   HTML9)    PDF (2599KB)(355)      

    As the new crown epidemic ravaged the world, China's grain production has been greatly impacted and challenged. Studying the current situation of grain production in Yunnan Province is of great guiding significance for its future grain production structure adjustment and optimization layout. In this study, the spatiotemporal changes in grain production in This paper mainly uses the logarithmic method to calculate the contribution rate of the influencing factors, the decomposition and calculation method of the contributing factors of the change of grain total output, the gravity shift model and the grain yield volatility coefficient to analyze the spatio-temporal changes of grain production in Yunnan Province.Through the analysis of data, the following results were obtained: (1) In the past 30 years, the grain planting area and yield in Yunnan Province have shown a significant upward trend. In particular, the total output growth rate has reached 97% and the increase in the single yield of each crop and adjustment of the planting structure are the main contributors to the increase in the total grain output of the province. The planting area of rice and wheat has decreased by 16% and 36%, respectively, over 30 years, and the total and single yields have not changed substantially. The growth rate of the planting area, total yield, and single yield of maize is most obvious. The changes in the total yield of potatoes during the study period were all caused by changes in planting area, with contribution rates of 85%, 78%, and 206%, respectively, in the three periods. (2) The grain planting area and output in Yunnan Province generally show the distribution law of more east and less west. The most abundant area is Qujing City and the least is the Diqing Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. The center of gravity of grain production has a tendency to migrate to the northeast. Rice production is decreasing from southeast to northwest, and the high-value areas of wheat yield are gathered from all sides to the middle. Corn production is the fastest, and potato high-yield areas are mainly distributed in northeast Yunnan. (3) In the past 30 years, the per capita grain in Yunnan Province has increased by 111.56 kg/person, and the grain production capacity has improved and is currently of the self-sufficient type. However, the fluctuation coefficient of more than 70% of the years exceeds the national average, grain supply is relatively unstable, and contradiction between grain supply and demand remains prominent. It is concluded that the grain planting area and yield in Yunnan Province have gradually increased, the current situation of grain production is mainly self-sufficient, and the differences between the main grain crop-producing areas are quite large, and it is extremely important to pay attention to the optimization of the grain planting structure and promote the stable increase of grain production. At the same time, according to the analysis results, this study proposes that the main problems of grain production in Yunnan Province are (1) the decline in the amount of cultivated land; (2) the high number of medium and low yield fields; and (3) the phenomenon of "non-grainization" is more serious. In the face of the development status of grain production in Yunnan Province, relevant departments still need to pay attention to the quantity and quality of cultivated land, adjust the agricultural planting structure, and comprehensively improve grain production capacity in the future. It is necessary to (1) increase subsidy policies and adhere to the red line of cultivated land; (2) invest in relevant technologies to increase grain yields; and (3) coordinate the process of urbanization development and adjust the planting structure according to local conditions. This study investigated the spatiotemporal changes in major crop production in Yunnan Province over the past 30 years; obtained corresponding conclusions on timing changes, spatial distribution, and contributing factors; analyzed the current grain production security situation in Yunnan Province; summarized the main problems in its development process; and put forward targeted suggestions, so as to further develop a deeper understanding of the current situation of grain production in Yunnan Province to play a certain guiding and reference role in its future development and planning direction.

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    "Jump in the Mud": The Construction of Preschool Children's Sense of Place in Peppa Pig
    Xinyang Wei, Xu Huang
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (5): 885-896.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003673
    Abstract231)   HTML7)    PDF (1616KB)(110)      

    Research on sense of place in the field of geography is mostly focused on adults, with relatively little research on children's sense of place, ignoring changes in human perceptions, experiences, and attitudes toward the environment from childhood onward. In the field of psychology, child studies tend to focus on the temporal dimension of childhood growth and are relatively inadequate in the spatial dimension, lacking attention to interactions and actual experiences of children with place and space. This study focuses on the human-place relationship of children in daily life against the background of the new turn in cultural geography. Among children, animation, as the main medium through which they perceive the external world, contributes to their cognitive and emotional connections with families, communities, schools, and even cities, and plays an important role in fostering their sense of place. Therefore, based on the perspective of new cultural geography, this study takes Peppa Pig as an example and uses text analysis and other methods to analyze the mechanism through which animation builds children's sense of place by analyzing the scenes and plot elements of the animated series. This study finds that this mechanism contains the following four main dimensions: (1) Aesthetics and familiarity: This dimension includes small-scale and symbolic scene restoration of Peppa Pig; simple, caring, calm, and with the use of warm colors; and childish and awkward drawing styles that meet children's cognition, which can resonate with children and create a sense of familiarity. (2) Sense of belonging: In the social space that the protagonist is exposed to, the animation depicts an ideal family space, including the care of elders and the harmony of family relations; children thus form a sense of "home space" through Paige's "home." Through Paige's "home," children form a sense of belonging to "home." (3) Social bonding and social interaction: In this dimension, the "stress-free" "non-tame" and "low-control" school space implicitly influences children's cognitive and emotional connections to school; in addition, the richness and variety of social scenarios build bridges between children and the real social environment. (4) Nature bonding: The large proportion of nature scenes in the animation effectively compensates for the lack of nature experience of many urban children; the interaction mode between the protagonist and nature panpsychism, embodiment and parent-child interaction enriches their cognition and experience of the natural environment. Overall, through the interactive experience between the protagonist and the place, the animated series "Peppa Pig" shows preschool children the "non-controlled" locality of family space and the "non-regulated" locality of school space, constructing their sense of beauty, familiarity and a sense belonging to the place. In this sense, animation, as a "virtual buffer zone" that expands children's cognitive space, can stimulate their geographical imagination of the real world and is an important medium for developing their sense of place. The interpretation of this mechanism in this study helps to enrich the current research on children's geography and sense of place in China.

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    Gender Differences of Multidimensional Child Poverty in China: Spatial-Temporal Variation and Influencing Factors
    Shaoqi Hai, Xia Wang, Shuyue Shi
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (5): 897-912.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003679
    Abstract226)   HTML4)    PDF (2089KB)(174)      

    Children are the hope of the future, but they are also the most vulnerable to poverty. Gender differences in children have been a major concern in society, and research on gender differences in multidimensional child poverty and their causes has important theoretical value and practical significance for child poverty reduction. Based on spatio-temporal analysis, we selected five dimensions of nutrition, health, education, individual growth, living conditions and 16 corresponding evaluation indicators to construct an evaluation index system of multidimensional poverty among children in China. The multidimensional poverty index of Chinese boys and girls from 2010 to 2018 was measured using the Alkire-Foster (A-F)method. Additionally, the spatio-temporal variations of gender differences in multidimensional child poverty during the period was analyzed using spatial autocorrelation and other methods, and a binary logistic regression model was applied to explore the influencing factors of gender differences. The results reveal the following: 1) The multidimensional poverty index of Chinese children decreased year by year during the study period, and the gender gap tended to narrow, with the poverty level of boys being higher from 2010 to 2012, while that of girls exceeded that of boys after 2014. Moreover, the gender difference in child poverty is mainly reflected in nutrition and living conditions. In terms of the contribution rate of indicators, the gender difference in the contribution rate of weight indicators is the largest, followed by height, family companionship, and enrollment at an appropriate age. 2) The multidimensional poverty index of boys and girls reveals the spatial distribution characteristics of "East-Central-West" stepwise increase. Compared with boys, the spatial clustering effect of multidimensional poverty among girls is more obvious. In 2018, the regions with significant gender differences in multidimensional child poverty are mainly concentrated in the five provinces of Fujian, Hunan, Jilin, Shaanxi, and Hubei. Additionally, the overall situation of multidimensional poverty among girls is more serious. 3) Since 2010, the gender differences in multidimensional poverty among children in China's urban and rural areas have displayed a decreasing trend; the gender gap is generally higher among urban children than rural children. In 2018, the gender gap in poverty among urban children is very significant in the four provinces and cities of Fujian, Chongqing, Hunan, and Guizhou, while that among rural children is more serious in Heilongjiang and Shaanxi provinces. These six provinces exhibit more poverty among girls, indicating that this is a priority for future improvement. 4) Urban-rural attributes, parental marital status, household income, and the highest level of education among parents are important factors influencing the gender differences in multidimensional poverty among children. Among these, household income has a deeper impact on girls, while urban-rural attributes, parental marital status, and the highest level of education among parents have a more significant impact on boys.

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    Growth Rate of Porites Corals from Tanmen, Hainan Island: Climatic Significance during Mid-Holocene
    Yue'er Li, Kefu Yu, Tingli Yan, Leilei Jiang
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (10): 1843-1855.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003748
    Abstract223)   HTML15)    PDF (1655KB)(160)      

    Coral growth rate is a physical index that is particularly closely associated with climatic factors such as Sea Surface Temperature (SST). The growth rate is minimally affected by environmental changes and serves as a high-resolution indicator in the study of climatic and environmental variation, making it a useful tool in paleoclimatic coral research. However, previous research on coral growth rate has primarily focused on the modern period, with limited investigation of the Mid-Holocene, which shares similar climatic characteristics with the current warm period. It is especially important to understand the climate and environmental conditions during the Mid-Holocene to gain insight into contemporary climate change processes and mechanisms. To address this gap, we first collected a modern Porites coral core and 23 Mid-Holocene subfossil coral cores from Tanmen, located on the eastern coast of Hainan Island. Using X-ray radiography and image processing methods, we measured and analyzed the coral growth rates of all cores, resulting in the identification of growth rate patterns during the Mid-Holocene. Additionally, by analyzing the environmental factors that impact modern coral (2005-2021 AD), we established a linear relationship between coral growth rate (L) and SST in Tanmen, expressed as S S T = 2.945 ± 0.237 × L + 22.481 ± 0.301 ( 1 ? s . e . ) . By applying this equation, we reconstructed an annual average SST sequence of 406 years during the Mid-Holocene (6,143-4,356 a BP). The results indicate that the average coral growth rate during the Mid-Holocene was 1.079 cm/a, ranging from 0.607 to 1.670 cm/a, with noticeable fluctuations. The coral growth rate sequence also revealed three consecutive periods of low growth rate, accompanied by a significant increase in interannual variability after 4,515 a BP, resulting in more complex fluctuations. Moreover, the reconstructed SST sequence based on coral growth rate data shows that the mean SST of the Mid-Holocene was 25.7±0.54 ℃, which is comparable to the modern SST in the context of global warming. The average annual SST varied from 24.7 to 26.8℃ in the Mid-Holocene, exhibiting considerable fluctuations between warm and cold periods, and with three distinct periods of low SST at 5,860, 5,660, and 5,160 a BP. This provides detailed insights into the temperature variations during the Mid-Holocene. In addition, a comparison of the spectral cycles of coral growth rates between the modern and Mid-Holocene periods (5,427-5,394, 5,243-5,209, 4,515-4,456, and 4,404-4,356 a BP) revealed significant ENSO cycles of three to seven years, observed in both modern and Mid-Holocene corals. During the Mid-Holocene, the primary ENSO cycle changed: its frequency decreased considerably, indicating that ENSO activity was weaker than that observed in the modern period. However, further statistical analysis utilizing the Probability Density Function (PDF) demonstrated a gradual increase in ENSO variability during this period. The results of this study offer novel insights into tropical climate characteristics of the Mid-Holocene.

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    Urban Knowledge Environment on Entrepreneurship: Influence and Spatial Heterogeneity Analysis: The Empirical Analysis of 275 Cities in China
    Lachang Lyu, Caiyun Zhao
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (8): 1479-1488.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003719
    Abstract220)   HTML11)    PDF (1255KB)(114)      

    In the era of the knowledge economy, with the increasing role of knowledge and entrepreneurship in cities, the impact of the urban knowledge environment on entrepreneurship has become an important research topic. Cities are the primary carriers of knowledge and entrepreneurship. However, few studies examine the impact of an urban knowledge environment on entrepreneurship. The impact of the urban knowledge environment on entrepreneurship in China remains unclear. Therefore, this study constructs an urban knowledge environment index from the two aspects of urban knowledge stock and knowledge infrastructure, measures the spatial distribution characteristics of the knowledge environment index of 275 cities at the prefecture level and above in China, and analyzes its impact using a spatial regression model. The results show that: (1) The urban knowledge environment index in the eastern coastal areas is relatively high, while that in the central and western areas is relatively low. Cities in major urban agglomerations, such as the Beijing Tianjin Hebei, Shandong Peninsula, Yangtze River Delta, Pearl River Delta, and Chengdu Chongqing urban agglomerations, have a high urban knowledge environment. The level of urban knowledge environment in provincial capitals and above is relatively high, whereas it is relatively low in general, prefecture-level cities. (2) Urban knowledge environments promote entrepreneurship. When other factors are controlled, entrepreneurship increases by 0.239% for every 1% increase in the urban knowledge environment index. (3) Spatial heterogeneity exists in the influence of the urban knowledge environment on entrepreneurship, and its marginal effect differs among cities in different regions and levels. Cities in the east had higher values than those in the central and western regions, and cities at or above the provincial capital level in the same region had higher values than ordinary prefecture-level cities. Among these, the increase in entrepreneurship caused by improving the knowledge environment index of cities at the provincial capital level and above is the largest, nearly three times higher than that of the eastern, central, western, and general cities. This study provides a theoretical basis and practical reference for the development of urban entrepreneurship in China in the new era by revealing the internal laws and impact mechanisms of the urban knowledge environment.

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    The Distribution of Surface Pollen in the Vertical Vegetation Zone of the Wuyi Mountains in Subtropical Southern China
    Xiangyue Long, Kangyou Huang, Cong Chen, Dehao Xie, Kunchun Shui, Hongwei Li, Zhuo Zheng
    Tropical Geography    2023, 43 (6): 1005-1020.   DOI: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003699
    Abstract217)   HTML15)    PDF (2762KB)(402)      

    The Wuyi Mountains preserve the most complete central subtropical forest ecosystem in the subtropical zone, where the vegetation and soil have a distinct vertical distribution with elevation. To investigate the relationships between surface pollen assemblages and vegetation in this area, 76 samples of modern surface pollen with minimal human interference were collected from various elevations in the Wuyi Mountains. Based on the results of cluster analysis and redundancy analysis (RDA), this study indicates the connections between the distribution of pollen taxa at different elevations and under different climatic factors. The primary findings are outlined as follows: 1) Pinus, Castanopsis/Lithocarpus, Cyclobalanopsi, Quercus (evergreen), Taxodiaceae, Schima, Rutaceae, Ilex, Rosaceae, Poaceae, and Artemisia were the dominant pollen taxa, generally corresponding to the modern subtropical broadleaved evergreen forest. The pollen assemblages showed clear changes with variation in altitude; the relationships between pollen taxa and elevation were divided into three patterns: The low altitude areas (0-450 m) had a high percentage of Castanopsis/Lithocarpus, Quercus (evergreen), Theaceae, Schima, Ilex, Poaceae, and Dicranopranis. In the middle elevation area (450-1,850 m), Castanopsis/Lithocarpus, Pinus, Taxodiaceae, Tsuga, and Quercus (evergreen) were common. The higher altitude area, at approximately 1,850-2,200 m, was characterized by the dominance of Pinus, Poaceae, and Dicranopteris. 2) The results of RDA and cluster analysis divided surface pollen samples into different communities. RDA results also showed that the mean annual temperature, mean annual relative humidity, mean annual precipitation, mean precipitation of the coldest season, and mean precipitation of the warmest season were the main climatic factors that controlled the distribution of modern pollen. 3) The results of the representative analysis of pollen showed that Castanopsis/Lithocarpus, Pinus, Quercus (evergreen), and Artemisia were over-represented, and the genera Tsuga and Poaceae were represented less; 4) lower elevations had a significant presence of Poaceae, Artemisia, and Pinus. The pollen content of Quercus (evergreen) was low and the pollen type was relatively simple; it was related to the development of artificial pinewood in the foothills and the high spore content in the secondary forest, which indicated heavy human activity in the low altitude area. Therefore, these results revealed that the surface pollen assemblage varied significantly through the vertical vegetation zones in Wuyi Mountains of south subtropical China. The characteristics of surface pollen distribution were mainly affected by vegetation composition, habitat, and human activities, which is a crucial reference for reconstructing the paleovegetation and paleoenvironment in this region and similar areas.

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