• 2017 Volume 37 Issue 1
    Published: 05 January 2017

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  • FU Jingyan,SI Xiumei
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    “One Belt & One Road” (B&R) strategy which was firstly proposed by China, can be considered as the provision of public goods to the world. What is more, green and environmental protection requirements have been one of the most important content. Recent studies about this strategy have tended to focus on the strategic and institutional frame design by qualitative discussion, and almost no discussion about carbon emission and environmental issues. Based on the differences of low-carbon economy in B&R countries, how to choose the investment projects and countries will be very important to make “B&R” strategy green. Thus, this paper constructs a carbon emission driving factor decomposition model by extending the classic Kaya model. Then, we analyze the drivers of the carbon emission in 50 countries along the Belt and Road from 1992 to 2011 by adopting the approaches of the ordinary regression analysis and quantile regression. At last, we evaluate the historical contribution and potential of those countries to carbon emission reduction by constructing indicators. The results of mean regression analysis show that the effects of population, the urbanization level, the proportion of industrial output, the rate of non-renewable energy and the per capita GDP on the increase of the carbon emission successively weaken. From the quantile regression analysis, we find that the increase of population and industrialization degree has the greatest effect on the carbon emission for medium-emission countries; GDP per capita has the minimal impact on high emission countries. Emission contribution analysis shows that the carbon emission output effects, carbon emission reduction effects and decoupling index in those countries are all less than 1, the carbon emission reduction effect is less than the output effect index and decoupling indicators in most years are even less than 0. This indicates that the relation between economics and carbon emission in those countries do not have any decoupling effect. Judging from the carbon emission reduction potential analysis, we find that 28% of those countries have not reached the world average reduction level, and most countries would have great potential for emission reduction in the future. Thus, more investment in those countries will be helpful for a green “B&R” strategy.
  • WANG Changjian,ZHANG Hong’ou,YE Yuyao,SU Yongxian,CHEN Weilian
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    Carbon emissions are the main contributor to anthropogenic climate change. The awareness of policy makers and government managers of Greenhouse Gases (GHG) reduction has been raised globally. China, the world’s largest primary energy consumer and carbon emitter, has felt more international pressure on carbon emissions mitigation. Analysis of the driving factors of energy consumption related to carbon emissions from the regional perspective is necessary and helpful for China to achieve its reduction targets. Presently, how to curb carbon emissions while not come at the expense of slowering down social-economic development is a big dilemma faced by the local governments. Aims of this case study are to analyze the energy-related carbon emissions and to find out the most important driving factors to the carbon emissions increments in Guangdong, a low-carbon pilot province in eastern China. Our estimates were based on the national and provincial statistics, three time-series monetary input-output tables (MIOTs) in 2002, 2007 and 2010 were constructed. The energy consumption, economic and population data were collected from the regional energy balance table in the Guangdong Statistical Yearbook. Energy-related carbon emissions were calculated according to the method of the IPCC Guidelines for National Greenhouse Gas Inventories. It was observed that the total carbon emissions in Guangdong increased from 58.205 5×106 t in 2002 to 120.979 1×106 t in 2010. An environmental input–output structural decomposition analysis (IO-SDA) has been conducted in order to uncover the driving forces for the increment in energy-related carbon emissions in Guangdong from both production and final demands perspectives from 2002 to 2010. According to our research outcomes, emissions increase can be illustrated as a competition between consumption growth (per capita GDP) and efficiency improvement (carbon emission intensity). Per capita GDP is the most important driver for the rapid emission growth, while carbon emission intensity is the significant contributor to offset these increments. From the viewpoint of final demands, international exports & imports and inter-provincial exports & imports contribute to the highest carbon dioxide emission, followed by fixed capital formation and urban residential consumption. Furthermore, carbon dioxide emission changes caused by final demands are analyzed in this paper by different final demand categories and 27 aggregated economic sectors.
  • SUN Ting,DENG Feiyan,JIAO Shulin
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    In order to study the atmospheric carbon sink effects of human activities such as land use of Karst catchments, the land use data of the two adjacent typical Karst basins were carried out by using a combination method of field surveys and remote sensing image analyses. The flux of atmospheric carbon sequestration and its intensity were calculated by the runoff coefficient method with the in situ data on physico-chemical parameters of the spring water of Chenqi and Dengzhanhe in Puding County, Guizhou. According to the comparative analysis of watershed land use types and Karst carbon sequestered intensity differences, we have gotten the following ideas: 1) The two spring watersheds had striking spatial variability of the land-use types with relatively consistent land use scale ratio, in which the land of the forest and bushwood were found in upper mountains, bared rock and grass on hill slope, dry land and paddy fields in highland or at foot of the hills, the paddy fields were distributed in highland of the upper discharging area of the Dengzhanhe spring watershed and at the hill foot of the lower discharging area of the Chenqi spring watershed, respectively. 2) the carbon sequestered intensity of the Chenqi and Dengzhanhe spring catchments were 1.24×106 mol/(km2•a)and 1.44×106 mol/(km2•a)respectively with significant seasonal variation,the rate of the atmospheric carbon sequestration in the larger area (Dengzhanhe spring catchment) was lower than that in the smaller area (Chenqi spring catchment); 3) Watershed land use types and their configuration relation, especially the paddy field configuration differences between the upper and lower reaches, resulted in the differences of carbon sequestration flux between the two adjacent small Karst spring watersheds (Chenqi Karst spring and Dengzhanhe Karst spring). The weathering process and its Karst dissolving intensity had important impact on the atmospheric carbon sequestration during the Karst processes. Human activity would be one of the effective ways to regulate the role of atmospheric carbon sinks during the rock weathering process of the basin.

  • WANG Yang,ZHANG Hong’ou,YE Yuyao,WU Qitao,JIN Lixia
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    The urban social spatial structure is the core issue of urban social geography. Most traditional studies on this issue tend to divide the social space structure into miscellaneous social factors, while the researches of social space quality (SSQ) focus on integration of the diversified indexes, and possess the feature of consistency and evaluation. So it is necessary to establish a scientific and efficient system for evaluating SSQ. Based on that, we provided an alternative mentality and approach to evaluate social spatial quality. The study process are as follows: based on demographic data from the newly available 6th census in 2010 in Guangzhou metropolitan areas, we established a comprehensive system of evaluating SSQ composed of population stability, educational level, occupational hierarchy, and income level. Then we analyzed differentiation pattern of SSQ by using the computing method on the quadrangle areas. Furthermore, we compared the differentiation features among 4 evaluation subsystem of SSQ, and analyzed their differentiation rules. Finally, we summarized spatial structure and mode of SSQ. The results are shown as follows: 1) the SSQ of Guangzhou, from periphery to city center, shows a significant spatial imbalance. The ‘ring-layer’ spatial differentiation structure and ‘fan-shaped’ extending structure are coexisting. The core area has the best social spatial quality. Whereas, Tianyuan Subdistrict and Liede Subdistrict surrounding Zhujiang New Town have the highest scores of social spatial quality. In addition, the scores of the subdistricts such as Linhe, Tianhenan, Huale, Huanghuagang, Nonglin, Dongshan, Meihuacun, Xingang, Chita, Baiyun, Wushan are comparatively high. 2) The ‘fan-shaped’ extending zones outside the core area have different advantages in population stability, educational level, occupational hierarchy, and income level. Whereas, the subdistricts with higher income level are located in northern fan-shaped extension region, those with higher occupational hierarchy and educational level are in eastern fan-shaped extension region, and those with better population stability are in western fan-shaped extension region. The reasons are that the differentiation of population stability is determined by urban development history and location inequality. Furthermore, the spatial cluster of universities generates the differentiation of educational level. Finally, the imbalance of industry structure and value added determine the differentiation of income level. 3) The structure of circle layers with fan-shaped extending areas is the spatial features of SSQ in Guangzhou. The regions of high level SSQ expand from center to periphery along the specific sector, and cause the formation of complicated social spatial structure. In addition, the middle-high level regions of SSQ are distributed in suburb with the feature of enclave. That directly embodies location direction of building specific functional regions. The historical process of urban development, the evolution of urban function structure, and differentiation of housing prices are the core driving factors for the formation of urban structure of SSQ.
  • WANG Meng,KUANG Yaoqiu,HUANG Ningsheng
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    This study analyzed the spatio-temporal evolution of intercity population flow propensity paths and the spatial difference in the population flow propensity intensity in the Pearl River Delta region. Internet search engine data were selected, and they were calculated by relevant evaluation models and analyzed with social network analysis method. With the rapid development of the information and communication technologies, information flow has been playing a crucial role in influencing the intercity population flow propensity. This study selected “recruitment in city j”, “map of city j” and “real estate in city j” (in Chinese) as three keywords to inquire the search index data which could reflect common demands people had before they made decisions to move to a new place. Mental propensities of people who would move could be uncovered well by these search indexes online. Thus, the intercity population flow propensity model based on Internet attention degree data was built up to evaluate the dynamic trends of population flow propensity among cities in urban agglomeration of the Pearl River Delta. The social network analysis method was used. It was found that the centrality degree ranking kept stable, Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Foshan and Dongguan ranked from the first to the fourth place in the region, that was in line with the realistic population flow features in 2011 and 2015. Therefore, the analysis method used in this study could reflect well the potential population flow trends. The total relative intensity of population inflow propensity had been introduced to the radiation model and the modified population flow radiation model was used to analyze the dynamic features of intercity population flow intensity, and the intercity population attraction index was established to evaluate the ranking of the capability of attracting population to move in. Results showed that Guangzhou and Shenzhen ranked the first two places and Dongguan and Foshan took the third and the fourth places followed by Huizhou, Zhongshan and Jiangmen, and Zhaoqing and Zhuhai ranked the last two places in the Pearl River Delta urban agglomeration. As for the spatial distribution of the intercity population flow propensity, people in the west bank cities of the Pearl River estuary had been attracted to move to Shenzhen in the east bank as the population flow propensity paths were strengthened gradually. The relative population flow propensity intensity results of Guangzhou-Foshan and Shenzhen-Dongguan were at a high level. Furthermore, Guangzhou and Shenzhen were in the first grade followed by Dongguan and Foshan in the second grade with respect to the total relative population flow propensity intensity. As the distributional difference of the total relative population flow propensity intensity showed, cities along the bank of the Pearl River estuary attracted more population flow propensity, and the spatial distribution showed an “n” form along the estuary. Moreover, the equalization of basic public employment service and more job opportunities should be created in the Pearl River Delta region.
  • YE Yuyao,LI Shengfa,ZHANG Hong’ou,SU Yongxian,WU Qitao,WU Kangmin,LIU Kai
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    This paper was aimed at developing a three-dimensional approach to evaluate development density using multi-source remote sensing data. The three-dimensional evaluation model of development density is composed of development intensity, development compactness, and development level evaluation. Development intensity is the proportion of built-up areas. Development compactness describes the pattern (fragmented or centralized) of built-up areas. Development level describes the density of economic activities, population and building, and we used economic intensity as its proxy in this paper. We applied this three-dimensional evaluation model to the Pearl River Delta Megalopolis (PRDM), which is one of the most rapidly developing regions in China, and found the following. 1) Rapid urban expansion with the decrease of development compactness was the leading feature of development in PRDM. From 1998 to 2012, the development intensity of the PRDM increased from 8.08% to 16.93%, and the economic intensity increased from 191 million Yuan/km2 to 594 million Yuan/km2, but the development compactness declined from 0.008 2 to 0.006 5, indicating that the spatial form of PRDM tended to be more fragmented. Among the nine cities in PRDM, Shenzhen was the only city whose development compactness increased. Despite PRDM saw a significant increase in economic intensity since 1998, most of the increase should be attributed to the promotion of high land use efficiency of the already existing construction land in 1998. 2) The regional differences in development density were very remarkable. Both evaluation results at town scale as well as 1-km spatial resolution showed that the gaps in development intensity and economic intensity between the inner and outer circles of PRDM were obvious and had been enlarging from 1998 to 2012. In the central area of PRDM, the development intensity exceeded 40% in 2012, while most fringe areas’ development intensities were still less than 10%. The cities were different in economic intensity by a maximum of nearly four times in 2012. 3) The relationship between development intensity and compactness showed a “U” shaped curve at town scale; when the development intensity was less than 40%, the development compactness gradually decreased with the increase of development intensity; when the development intensity passed 40%, it increased fast with the development intensity. Meanwhile the relationship between development intensity and economic density of the towns was not so clear, but showed a roughly rising trend of economic density with the increase of the development intensity. Compared with the traditional method of development evaluation, this three-dimensional approach could synthetically and timely reflect the regional development mode in multi-dimensions using Landsat TM imageries and night-time light data, and could be applied in research at regional scale, city scale, township scale and 1-km spatial resolution. This approach contributes to a more comprehensive analysis of the essential characteristics and temporal-spatial pattern of the regional development mode.
  • DIAO Beidi,CHEN Kunlun,DING Lei,ZENG Kefeng
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    Based on 2013-2014 data of Taobao village from Ali Research, we choose three analysis methods, which are nearest point distance and nearest point index, kernel density analysis and the radius of gyration method, respectively, to explore spatial distribution pattern and influencing factors of Taobao village. The results show: 1) The distribution of Taobao villages shows significant regional imbalance. Mainly they gather in the eastern coastal cities, accounting for 98% of the total number of Taobao villages. And in the coastal areas they are distributed in continuous bands. Taobao villages concentrated in four high-density core areas, namely the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei core area, the Yangtze River Delta core area, the core area of western coastal China and the Pearl River Delta core area. A few are distributed in Midwestern cities, but there is a trend of expansion to the Midwest. At the same time, the distribution of Taobao villages is consistent with that of the large and medium-sized cities. 2) The distribution of Taobao villages is mainly affected by natural resources, geographical location, industry concentration and internet penetration, Many Taobao villages are distributed at the places which have good natural resources, convenient traffic conditions, high industry concentration and Internet penetration. 3) There are two Taobao village development patterns: one is urban-relying pattern and the other is rural endogenous pattern. The former relies on large and medium-sized cities’ hardware and software facilities, such as the rapid development of e-commerce, convenient traffic environment, developed economy, close consumer market, and being located in the outskirts of cities. The rural endogenous pattern is based on the already formed Specialized Villages, conducting e-commerce. In future Taobao villages in central and western regions should be mainly distributed around the periphery of large and medium-sized cities and industrial clusters of specialized villages. Therefore, for development of Taobao village, urban-relying pattern should improve the corresponding supporting facilities, develop the local warehousing facilities and improve the transportation capacity, and rural endogenous pattern should improve the mechanization level of the specialized villages, extend the industrial chain, increase the added value, while constantly promoting the development of the intermediate industry and the gathering of end-enterprises, so as to enhance the popularity of electronic science, forming Taobao villages with perfect configuration.
  • WEI Yuelong,WANG Guozhi,CHEN Weihai,LUO Shuwen,LUO Qukan
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    Wuhuangshan Geopark which has been developed in the Pubei pluton is the typical observation point of the Darongshan-Shiwandashan granitoid belt and S-type granite. The granite landscapes in the Geopark are generally classified into five categories: spheroidal stone, mountains, platform, gorge, and hydrological heritage. All of them have been distributed orderly and intensively in the different zones of the granite mountains that are relative independent, and showed obvious vertical differentiation features. These granite landscapes constitute a typical, majestic, beautiful and precious south subtropical granite landscape group and spheroidal stone group with spheroidal stone landscape at the core and mountains, platform, pools group and waterfall group as the important complement. Based on the analysis and investigation about the regional geologic background of the geopark and the characteristics of the granite pluton, this paper systematically studies and discusses the formation and evolution of the granite pluton and the granite landscapes in the geopark. Some main conclusions held by the authors are as follows: 1) During Middle Triassic, there was large-scale magmatic activity in this region, then a giant granite batholith with the continuous time and the integrity of formation, namely, Pubei pluton was gradually formed after a series of processes, i.e. magma emplacement, differentiation, cooling crystallization; and then this pluton was uplifted, denuded and exposed to the earth’s surface to form mountains. 2) Since Quaternary, controlled jointly by humid-warm climate, surface water and granite pluton in which primary and epigenetic joints developed well, the ability to converge all forms of surface water has been gradually increased from mountaintop→mountainside→foothill, the corresponding erosion has been gradually increased but weathering has been gradually weaken from mountaintop→mountainside→foothill. After going through the process of horizontally–vertically differently erosion, washout and weathering during the long geological period, the typical south subtropical granite landscape group in the geopark has been gradually formed.

  • WANG Hongping,JI Yinuo,FU Xiaonuo,ZHAO Zhizhong
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    The rare earth elements (REE) of 65 samples have been analyzed, which were taken from mangrove wetland sediments in Dongzhai Harbor, Hainan Island. The results showed that the total amount of ΣREE ranged from 141.28~269.20 mg/kg, with an average value of 221.88 mg/kg. We found that the lowest value appeared in the S1 region, and the highest value in the S3 region. The mean values of ∑REE in S2, S3 and S5 were all higher than that of the whole study area, but the mean values of ∑REE in S1, S4 and S6 were lower than that of the whole study area. The distribution regularity was as follows: S3 >S5 >S2 >S4 >S6 >S1. In general, in the study area, the mean value of the LREE was 205.88 mg/kg, which was relatively enriched, accounting for 93% of the ∑REE content. The mean value of HREE was 16.00 mg/kg, accounting for 7% of the REE content, which was significantly lower than that of LREE, showing that LREE was the major contribution of ∑REE. The chondrite-normalized pattern of rare earth elements in the sediments of the study area showed that LREE was rich and HREE had relatively loss. LREE/HREE varied from 7.96 to 15.20, with an average value of 12.87, and the (La/Yb)CN varied from 7.99 to 13.11, with an average value of 10.12, fractionation between light and heavy REEs was obvious, indicating that REE in the sediments obviously had a differentiation and the main material sources of sediments were of matter coming from the mainland, as compared to the chondrite-normalized pattern . In addition, δEu ranged from 0.44 to 0.77, with an average of 0.58, showing an obviously negative anomaly. The distribution regularity was: barren shoal (0.56) > edge of forest (0.59)> inside of forest (0.65); but it showed a moderate positive Ce anomalies, δCe ranged from 1.48 to 2.46, with an average of 1.98. The sediments of different wetland showed that: inside of forest (225.38 mg/kg) >edge of forest (218.23 mg/kg)>barren shoal (212.91 mg/kg), ∑REE decreased gradually with the increase of the distance from the shore. The correlation showed that for the barren shoal R2=0.168, the edge forest R2=0.246 and inside of forest R2=0.295. There was no obvious correlation between ΣREE and grain size, the distribution of ΣREE was not controlled by grain size in the study area. As the forest, forest edge and barren shoal were in the same study area with the same material source, the material sources didn’t have influences on the REE differentiation among them. Regional chemical weathering, the scouring effect of seawater and the salinity of ocean waters resulted in the difference of REE composition among barren shoal, forest edge and inside of forest.
  • YU Xiaochen,TAO Wei
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    Geographers of religion have developed ‘new’ geographies of religion that emphasizes different sites for religious practice beyond the ‘official sacred’ ones (churches, temples, mosques and the like) in recent years. Many studies acknowledge that ‘unofficial sacred sites’ are also full of politics, poetics and identity like the ‘official sacred sites’ are. Under the context of modern transformation, China is going through a rapid development in Christianity in cities, especially ‘unofficial sacred sites’-house churches. Although many sociologists and anthropologists have taken interest in this issue many years ago, geographers in China still know little about the interaction between house church members and private micro religious spaces. It is especially urgent to carry out studies on private micro religious spaces. The geographic meanings and religious contexts of house churches need to be fully understood. In reviewing of studies on religious geography, house church, and place attachment, we conducted a survey of the members in the MT house church by in-depth interview based on the dimension of place attachment. On the one hand, the MT youth house church creates a warm and gentle “family-style” atmosphere, and on the other hand, official religious images are introduced into the house church with indoor decorations, making it an ‘unofficial sacred site’. We argue that, through everyday practice, the members in the MT house church construct emotional space and social network beyond the physical space. The seekers and the Christians in the MT house church have perceiving differences in two dimensions of place attachment. In terms of place dependency, both of them show functional dependence. The Christians attend the MT house church because of a need of a place for worship, while the functional dependence of the seekers is based on social network and religious interest. In terms of place identity, the Christians have deepened the identity of religious and religious groups through religious activities into place identity. Additionally, immigrant Christians have re-confirmed their belief and identity in the house church. Some Christians have a strong place identity to the house church because it witnesses their religious experience. Based on the relaxing and warm atmosphere in the MT house church, the seekers have a perfect perception of place. However, they do not hold a strong place identity to the house church like the Christians. This shows that the construction of place identity in religious places needs a certain degree of belief support. This research is expected to contribute towards studies of micro religious space in geography.

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    Big data such as transportation card data, cell phone data provide data support for studies on trip characteristics analysis and city spatial structure. These studies require efficient methods to deal with the large volume, high dimension and information redundancy problems with big data. With the increase of data dimension, the complexity of data increases dramatically, making it impossible for human to understand the data and extract features based on expert knowledge. In this paper, principal component analysis (PCA) was used for dimensionality reduction of and feature extraction from passenger flow data of Guangzhou metro stations. The PCA process calculates the scoring coefficients for each component automatically without prior knowledge and eliminates the disturbance of subjective factors. Six principal components, extracted out of 36 variables, in this research kept 91.41% information of the original data. The first two components represented the passenger flow characteristics of residence-oriented stations and employment-oriented stations, respectively. K-means clustering of metro stations was performed based on the features extracted and 7 types of metro stations were recognized: residence-oriented, employment-oriented, spatially mismatched, mixed but more of residence-oriented, mixed but more of employment-oriented, comprehensive and traffic hub and entertainment stations. Among the 137 stations of Guangzhou Metro, over 85% were commuting-related, 46 stations were residence-oriented, 14 were employment-oriented, and 59 were of mixed nature of the two, with more of one or another. Further research on the spatial distribution of different clusters of the metro stations revealed a ring structure of Guangzhou City. The diversity and types of metro stations varied as the distance to city center increased, reflecting the spatial distribution of urban functions. Distribution of multi-types of metro stations such as employment-oriented, comprehensive and mixed but more of employment-oriented ones in the central city area such as Yuexiu District and Liwan District implied the high degree of development and the diversity of urban functions of these areas. Employment-oriented and comprehensive stations were intensely distributed in Tianhe District, making it the core administrative area and business area and the new city center of Guangzhou City. The main types of metro stations in Haizhu District were spatially mismatched stations and mixed but more of residence-oriented stations. In suburban areas such as Baiyun District and Panyu District, the main type of metro station was spatially mismatched stations, suggesting the decrease in the diversity of urban function. And only residence-oriented stations were found in the periphery areas of the city. Far away from the center of Guangzhou City, Nansha District and Foshan City developed into regional centers with some spatially mismatched stations distributed. The results of this study demonstrate that metro passenger flow data can not only reflect the spatial and temporal patterns of residents’ travel behavior, but also provide new data and a new perspective for urban spatial structure research.

  • ZHAO Saishuai,SUN Chao,WANG Haijiang,CHENG Wangyu
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    The monitoring of the development of offshore oil and gas platforms has great economic and military significance. According to the characteristics of remote sensing image data, a method for extracting and monitoring offshore oil and gas platforms was proposed based on the Landsat series optical images with medium resolution. Firstly, series pretreatments including geometric correction, radiometric correction, image enhancement, and area mask were performed on the TM/ETM+/OLI images. Secondly, images were traversed using multiple sliding windows with dynamic thresholds to recognize suspected oil and gas platforms. Finally, oil and gas platforms were screened by laminating 3 pixel-level images of consecutive periods to get rid of false alarm interference of thin clouds and the ships. In this work, the South China Sea at the junction of Malaysia and Brunei was studied with a total of 21 Landsat images from 1991 to 2016. The historical development process of the oil and gas platforms in the area in recent 25 years was dynamically monitored, and a total of 66 oil and gas platforms were detected using the proposed method. To evaluate the accuracy of the results, the oil and gas platforms in ALOS and PALSAR images were manually identified. The results showed that the platform extraction rate was 82.67% and the correction rate was 86.11%. Based on the features of highlight and invariant position of targets, the method was able to detect oil and gas platforms from complex backgrounds. It was found that distribution of oil and gas platforms could be determined by superimposing 3 images of good quality and of consecutive time series. As Landsat satellite images of a high time resolution for a long time span are available in the archives, it is possible to conduct dynamic monitoring of the historical development process of the oil and gas platforms. This effectively compensates for that SAR images cannot be used in long-term dynamic monitoring. However, as in this method, false alarm caused by clouds is mainly removed by image overlaying, when there are many clouds in the optical images, not much area can be used for monitoring, making image utilization rate low and the correction rate of oil and gas platform recognition reduced. Therefore, there are some deficiencies with the monitoring method as it is influenced by the image cloud. Images with fewer clouds should be chosen as far as possible to monitor oil and gas platforms. Monitoring results in the South China Sea at the junction of Malaysia and Brunei showed that: offshore oil and gas platforms were mainly developed in 1990s; after that, not many offshore oil and gas platforms were developed, but the deep sea far away from the land was focused on for oil and gas platform development.
  • CHEN Pinyu
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    The regional difference of human civilization makes uneven geographical landscape become a common phenomenon in development process of society. However, under the background of capital globalization era, the capital with its dual attribute of value proliferation and creating civilization may mould the geographic space in the capital movement, which is increasingly obvious about the uneven geographical development. This article reviews and summarizes the framework of uneven geographical development theory about the Western New Marxism Geography and clears up relevant empirical researches at home and abroad, which indicates that the uneven geographical development is associated with Neoliberalism, and the capital, power and space play a key role in the formation of uneven geographical development theory. But, the empirical research findings are different between at home and abroad. It’s distinctly dominated by the accumulation of capital in the Western countries. Through territorial organization, the capital realizes the goal of capital accumulation. In the process of value proliferation and creating civilization, it is the spatial structure of uneven geographical that makes capital flow perpetually. Naturally, uneven geographical development becomes the direct result of capital accumulation. Capitalist space is submitted to the capital logic and the production of space becomes by-product of capital accumulation. In order to solve the problem of over-accumulation of capital, it is a fact that the Neoliberalism ideology dominated by class power service to capital accumulation, it helps to eliminate space barriers so as to prompt production factors to flow freely in a worldwide geographical range. While in China it is formed by the capital logic and state power logic out of the variegated interplay. On the one hand, Chinese market economy system is underdeveloped but deepening. On the other hand, there exists a strong state government with a power intervention, even penetrating to the rules of market operation. In the context of China, development strategies are formulated from top to bottom due to its strong government model. The market-oriented reform, including the way of taking advantage of external capital to start the Chinese economy, bringing in global capital to embed into globalization and starting the internal demand for economic transformation, are carried out within the control scope of the central government. However, capital with its inherent attribute interplays complexly with central government and local government, reflected in the ideology, which actually is the interaction between the Socialism with Chinese Characteristics and Neoliberalism. At the national scale, central government not only creates free markets but also regulates regional development harmoniously. Capital was used to overcome actually existing uneven development by strategically reproducing uneven development. At the city scale, it is evident that local government has a strong feature of marketization and entrepreneurship and form a growth machine with developers to cater to capital, whose aim is for production accumulation by interregional economic difference and social division of labor inequality. This social and economic phenomenon that local uneven development scales up to the regional will return to central government, resulting in rescaling and reterritorialization. Finally, combined with the latest theoretical trend, this article puts forward the orientation about empirical research. It may provide a new perspective and thought about this theory both in theory and practice so as to deal with Chinese increasingly apparent uneven geographical development.

  • LIU Jia,ZHANG Yumiao
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    This paper is a review of non-use values of tourism resources evaluation at home and abroad. According to the time sequence, we discuss the progress in tourism resources non-use value studies from research process and phase characteristics, research area and research object. The results show that: foreign research has experienced three stages, namely, starting, exploring in depth, and enhancing; research objects mainly are national (forest) parks, marine protected areas, nature reserves, cultural heritage areas, islands and etc.; the research contents cover those from admission fees to the willingness to pay for non-use value of tourism resources and assessment correction; the research methods include hypothetical market approach, economic model test metrology and others. There exist significant gaps between the research in China and that in foreign countries. In China, the study objects mainly are natural resources; the research field is narrow relatively; the research method is mainly contingent valuation, which is relatively single, and whose applicability is inadequate. We put forward three suggestions for future research in China: expanding research area and field, improving the reliability of the research methods and enhancing the applied and practical research, so as to coordinate the development and protection of tourism resource, and realize tourism sustainable development.