• 2018 Volume 38 Issue 1
    Published: 05 January 2018

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  • CHEN Hanghang,HE Canfei,MAO Xiyan
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    As one of the most dynamic economic phenomena nowadays, regional integration is considered to be a multi-dimensional spatial phenomenon and a multidisciplinary scientific issue. With the increase in the difficulty of multilateral free trade negotiations, the global free trade system has come to a deadlock. At the same time, many bilateral or limited multilateral regional integration organizations have been triumphantly aroused, which make regional integration become one of the most valuable research issues. The rapidly increasing number of integrated organizations and the deepening cooperation inside the organizations both show that a new round of regional integration tide is emerging. In this context, geography’s unique scale, link and border perspective are important for understanding how regional integration can change the world economic pattern and its impact on national and regional development. This paper reviews the theory and development of regional integration, reexamines the rapid development of regional integration process from the perspective of scale, link and border, and expounds the network characteristics, multi-dimensional connection and multiple borders in regional integration processes. In order to better understand regional and local development, some recent researches are discussed from the perspective of “global-local” links. Some basic understandings are expounded in this paper. The practice of regional integration is showing more and more characteristics of the network, forming a network space driven by state power and based on relationships. The multi-dimensional proximity within the regional integration is the driving force for the rapid development and diversified forms. With the emergence of a large number of regional integration organizations, the construction of global scales also requires more consideration of the roles of regions and the links of multiple dimensions. Regional integration builds a new border, which is essentially based on the relationship between members, relying on the state forces to intervene and regulate trade and other relationships. It is a selective, directional and dynamic network, showing a characteristic of “re-territorialization”. At the same time, the traditional territorial border is still important. Regional integration reshapes the local development model and economic geography patterns of member countries, and its institutional arrangements deeply influence the border region development and industrial geography patterns. This paper summarizes the theoretical and practical characteristics of regional integration from the perspective of economic geography, points out some related problems and some future research trends from the perspective of scale construction, internal links, border effect and multi-dimension analysis for better understanding and practicing regional integration.

  • YU Gouxiong,DAI Guangquan
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    Under the background of the space shift of contemporary academic trends, many disciplines have a new understanding of space, and the research on space production and tourism space production has gradually attracted the attention of domestic scholars. Based on the journal perspective, using bibliometric method and content analysis method, through the high frequency keywords, the paper constructed a space production research knowledge system, which consisted of the evolution of space production theory, main research backgrounds, main research perspectives, main space types, main space scales, main research objectives, main research epistemology, and research representative figures, to discuss the research hotspots of space production in China. Overall, China has experienced the following stages of space production: introduction of pure space production theory/interpretation of introducing-space production theory/demonstration of analysis - space production theory/ Chinese reflection of application-space production theory/Chinese theory. It should be noted that the above stages had more or less difference in the literature accumulation, the related research literature was more in the early stages, while the literature on Chinese reflection of the space production theory, especially the relevant research literature about Chinese theory was very little and weak. However, it does not mean that the future domestic research of space production would pay less attention to early stages and more attention to later stages, it would be more reasonable to yield brilliant results in each stage for a long time in the future. On the basis of review of domestic research on tourism space production, we found that the journals and authors of tourism space production research were relatively concentrated, qualitative research methods were mainly used, the research was mainly for ancient town tourism and community tourism space, the main analytical contents included concept definition, the production subject research, production frame construction, and production power anatomy. Finally, the paper looked into the research on tourism space production from four aspects. First, to encourage interdisciplinary academic exchanges, draw multidisciplinary academic spillovers, and strengthen the research of the uneven development of tourism space, the separation of tourism space, the alienation of tourism space and the injustice of tourism space. Second, to pay attention to theoretical research, lay a solid foundation for research, explore how to apply the theories of the space production in tourism research, and think about if the tourism space production is different from the research of other disciplines/fields, what is the analytic paradigm of tourism space production, and how to make the tourism space production theory get into Chinese reflection/Chinese theory. Third, to further strengthen the empirical research from the perspective of spatial production, and different types of tourism space, such as festival tourism, ethnic tourism, rural tourism, heritage tourism, industrial tourism and historical district tourism. Fourth, to conduct the empirical research of tourism space production by using multi-discourse analysis, text sentiment analysis, bibliometrics and social network analysis.

  • HUANG Qunfang,LU Yuqi,CHEN Xiaoyan
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    Tourism market research including tourism consumer behavior and preference etc is the core content of tourism theory development and operation practice. Generational analysis is one of the most useful segmentation methods, because of the relative homogeneity within generations and obvious heterogeneity across generations. Therefore, generational analysis and generation theory can be used to forecast the needs of different generations and can explain the tourists' consumer behavior well. This paper reviews the newly study progresses of the application of generation theory in tourism research from the following three aspects: connotation and extension of generation theory, generation division around the world and China, and the specific application practices in tourism research through analyzing the related studies and references. Internationally, from the perspective of tourists’ travel consumer behavior, many studies not only focused on the cross-sectional comparisons among the different generations but also paid attention to longitudinal comparison of the same generation and the effects of age, generation cohort and common important affairs on tourist travel consumer behavior. The breadth and depth of the research were constantly expanding, and the scientific empirical study provided the theoretical guidance for the development of tourism management. In contrast, almost no study using generation theory to discuss the tourism consume market was carried out in China. Therefore, the future emphases to study tourism consumer behavior using generation theory should be focused on the following four aspects: 1) clarifying Chinese generation division and characterizing the different generations from the collective memory (significant political, economic, cultural and technological events or environmental resources) rather than their ages; 2) differentiating tourism consumer behavior such as motivations, information sources, destination choices, travel activity preferences and destination evaluation criteria etc; 3) studying the coupling relationship between generation theory and regional differences in geographical location, cultural background, economic level, living conditions, ethnic and religious beliefs, degree of openness to the outside world and other aspects; 4) expanding the spatial and temporal scales of generation theory in tourism research including the comparisons of tourism consumer behavior from different generations and the same generation of different countries.

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    According to the analysis and research of karst landscape characteristics and regional geological background, the Du’an karst and the formation of Disu Underground River system, Du’an karst window group, peak cluster and peak forest, etc. have been studied and discussed systematically. The research has found out the following results: 1) the development of Du’an karst is in such a special period: the surface and subsurface karst constricted each other but coordinated with each other and developed together with each other; 2) the temporary surface streams and subsurface rivers have experienced different developing periods: independence, capturing, diversion, and connection, therefore, the evolution series have been formed correspondingly as: individual and dispersed landscape→network landscape→uniform network landscape. The surface karst process changed from being intense to less intense, from leading role to supporting role, and evolved and differentiated gradually. At last, five kinds of surface karst landscapes, including high peak cluster-deep depression→middle peak cluster- depression→low peak cluster-depression→high peak forest-valley→low peak forest-valley, have been formed and transmitted gradually from northwest to southeast. Meanwhile, the subsurface karst process changed from being less intense to more intense, from supporting role to leading role, and formed grand and complicated underground karst landscape-Disu Underground System. From surface to subsurface, the landscapes changed from individual landscape to mutual constricted but coexisting whole, and formed a karst window group with over 500 karst windows. In a word, this geopark is not only one of the outstanding representatives of underground river karst landscape, but also an outstanding representative of the evolution of underground river karst landscape across the world. Moreover, this geopark could also be considered as a typical reference place to show the mutual constriction and coexistence of surface and subsurface karst.
  • KONG Feng,WANG Yifei,FANG Jian,LYU Lili,ZHANG Lili,WANG Zhuoni
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    Climatic condition is the important foundation for human subsistence and development and the key factor in sustainable development of economy and society. As one of the climatic elements, different intensity precipitation’s long-term trend change has been a global issue attracting great attentions of politicians, scientists, governments, and the public alike throughout the world. Here we use RCP6.0 emission scenarios WRF 30 km × 30 km daily precipitation data from 2006 to 2100, according to the rainfall intensity grading standards issue by China Meteorological Administration to diagnose different intensity rainfall and its contribution rate to the total rainfall around the overall and seven regions’ trend in China. The results show that: different intensity rainfall would show a different pattern of spatial differentiation under RCP6.0 emission scenarios from 2006 to 2100 in China. Light rainfall and moderate rainfall would have the distribution characteristics of “High - Low - High” from the northeast to the southwest in China. Heavy rainfall, storm rainfall, heavy storm rainfall and total storm rainfall would present the spatial pattern of “High in the Southeast - Low in the Northwest”. Super heavy storm rainfall would be only distributed in the southeast coastal areas. Total rainfall would present a spatial differentiation pattern of “High in the South - Moderate in the North - Low in the Northwest”. The contribution rate of heavy intensity rainfall to the total rainfall would show the characteristic of “High in the Southeast - Low in the Northwest”, while the contribution rate of light intensity rainfall to the total rainfall would be just the opposite. The contribution rate of different intensity storm rainfall to the total storm rainfall would present similar distribution characteristics. As for the change trend of rainfall, the trend of different intensity rainfall in China would show different spatial patterns, but the area of heavy intensity rainfall with increasing trend would be significantly more than that of decreasing trend. As for the change trend of rainfall contribution rate of heavy (light) intensity rainfall to total rainfall, the contribution rate with increasing (decreasing) trend would be dominated. The contribution rate of heavy intensity rainfall to the total rainfall with increasing trend would be more obviously than that of light intensity rainfall with increasing trend. As for the change trend of the contribution rate of different intensity storm rainfall to total storm rainfall, the contribution rate of heavy intensity storm rainfall with increasing trend to total storm rainfall would be more obvious than that of light intensity storm rainfall with increasing trend. Prediction results show that the precipitation in Eastern China would develop in the direction of extremalization.
  • LIU Wei,WANG Chongyang,LI Dan,JIANG Hao,CHEN Shuisen
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    Under the background of climate warming, the frequency and intensity of cold wave that invaded Guangdong Province in South China were gradually decreasing in recent years. However, in late January of 2016, a named “super cold wave” invaded Guangdong and caused serious influence on agriculture production. Compared to traditional observation and investigation approaches, remote sensing has the feature of “large area, total coverage, high efficiency” in earth observation. In this paper, by the advantage of microwave at penetrating cloud, the data of multi-channel brightness temperature (TB) from the GCOM-W1/AMSR2 (Global Change Observation Mission-Water/Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2) were used to inverse satellite-derived land surface temperature (LST). Based on the satellite-derived LST, Guangdong Province’s ground temperature spatio-temporal characteristic was analyzed. Results showed that ground temperature in Guangdong Province apparently decreased and then increased during the whole “super cold wave” process: the minimum LST reached low value under 277 K(4℃) in most of northern province, 280~282 K(7~9℃) in most of southwest and 278~279 K(5~6℃) in rest of the province; the temperature drop range reached 8~12 K(8~12℃) in most of southern Guangdong and 5~7 K(5~7℃) in most northern areas. Moreover, by using NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index)’s capability of indicating plant growth condition, based on multi-channel’s reflectance from HJ-1 A/B satellite’s CCD sensors, potato leaves’ NDVI in typical planted area of Guangdong in recent 3 years was calculated. Results showed that obvious declination of potato leaves’ NDVI after the “super cold wave” could be seen: NDVI decreased by 0.1~0.2 in most study areas (55.4% of planted area); NDVI decreased by 0.2~0.3 in most central areas (17.2% of planted area). NDVI value at the same period of the past two year was further analyzed; the result showed that NDVI after the “super cold wave” was lower than that of the “normal” year, indicating that the declination of potato leaves’ NDVI was mainly caused by low temperature of the cold wave, not only the result of aging phenomenon. The declination of NDVI indicated that the growth of the potato was restricted, that was confirmed by in situ investigation. In general, the capability of passive microwave remote sensing in retrieving continuous daily LST in frequent-cloudy area, such as South China, was shown in this study, indicating its potential value in monitoring cold disasters. On the other hand, based on optical remote sensing, NDVI’s potential in indicating plant growing condition was also further confirmed in this study. Combining both, this study realized the cold wave low temperature monitoring and plants’ cold injury evaluation. This study was a case firstly combining microwave and optical remote sensing on cold process monitoring and crop disaster assessment in recent years. It may have important reference value to related studies. In future work, early warning of cold disaster will also be realized by remote sensing if near-surface air temperature is retrieved and cold disaster modeling introduced.
  • LI Jiaqi,BAI Aijuan,CAI Qinbo
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    In this paper, the features of climate change and the difference between the islands and the coastal land are analyzed based on the basic meteorological data from the Xisha station and Weizhou Island station and their adjacent land stations from 1959 to 2014. The results show that: 1) in recent 56 years, the temperature changes in the Xisha Islands and Weizhou Island have shown an upward trend, the heating rate in the Xisha (0.19℃/10a) is greater than that in Weizhou Island (0.104℃/10a). Significant differences occurred in the last 10 years, the Xisha continued warming significantly (0.38 ℃/10a), while the temperature of Weizhou Island had a downward trend (-0.48℃/10a). As for the seasonal changes in the analysis, the spring of the islands was getting warmer while the winter getting colder. As compared with the surrounding land, the temperature of the islands was higher than that of the coastal land, but the warming rate less than that of the coastal land. 2) From analyzing the change of precipitation in recent 56 years, it is found that the precipitation, precipitation intensity and precipitation days of the islands were less than those of the coastal land. Controlled by the winter and summer monsoon conversion, Weizhou Island and the Xisha Islands showed a distinct dry season and a rainy season. Precipitation fluctuated greatly and its trend was insignificant in the last half century. With the decrease of precipitation days, precipitation intensity showed a significant growth trend. Contrasting the precipitation variation characteristics of the islands in nearly 10 years, we found that the Xisha station trended to be drier and drier in the dry season, and the precipitation in Weizhou Island and coastal land was increasing in both dry season and rainy season. 3) The average annual precipitation, the average precipitation in the rainy season and the average precipitation in the dry season in the islands were smaller than those in coastal land, but situation in the Xisha was opposite in November, December and January, that in Weizhou Island was opposite in January, July and August. The reason for this difference is that the land area in the Xisha is smaller and is more affected by oceanic air mass. Under the influence of South Asian monsoon, the seasonal characteristics were significant, it was humid and rainy in summer while dry and less rain in winter in Weizhou Island. The annual average precipitation and rainy season precipitation both in the Xisha and in coastal land were higher than those in Weizhou Island and its near shore area. During the dry season, the precipitation of the Xisha and the near shore area was lower than that of Weizhou Island and its near shore.
  • TANG Wanzhen,CHEN Kunlun,ZHENG Hongyang,LI Tao
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    Rural transformation and development is an important topic for regional urbanization. In order to speed up the construction of rural ecological civilization and promote the process of new urbanization, it is important to understand the driving factors of multi-dimensional spatial transformation of the human-land system and pay attention to the interaction between human and environment in the villages. Based on this system, this study takes Tianxing township of Wuhan city as the object, combines the study with methods such as field research, mapping through observation, GIS spatial analysis and text analysis, and selects the period from early 1950s to 2016 as the study period. The paper deeply discusses the changes of the natural environment in the Yangtze River Basin and the relationship between Wuhan urbanization and evolution of rural settlements in Tianxing Township so as to reveal the characteristics of spatial changes in the rural settlements. The results show that: first, Tianxing Township has witnessed three stages including primary development, reform and development, and transformation and reconstruction, which is driven by the combination of the factors such as natural environment, social-economic conditions, policy and system. Second, the land-use pattern of Tianxing Township has transformed from single pattern to compound one, and the spatial structure of rural settlements transformed from that with three types of independent elements such as traditional life, production and ecology to that with multiple elements such as production-life and production-ecology. Therefore, the traditional rural functions are reconstructed. Third, the succession of the rural settlements in Tianxing Township is the result of the interaction between environmental change and urbanization. During the study period, the floods of the Yangtze River played a long-term stable role in the succession of the settlements space of Tianxing Township. In the process of rapid urbanization, the urban expansion and people’s demand for ecological environment have made a complex, multiple and far-reaching impact on the space of settlements in Tianxing township. Firstly, the basic pattern of spatial form of Tianxing Township is decided by its unique hydrological environment and ecological resources. Secondly, in order to control the frequent floods, related projects constructed have promoted the changes of the spatial pattern of the rural settlements in Tianxing Township. Thirdly, the gradually enhanced government regulation and power intervention are powerful driving factors for the evolution of the rural settlements of Tianxing Township. Forthly, the social and economic evolution of Tianxing township, accompanied by the progress of Wuhan urbanization, shows dual characteristics of “suppression and promotion”. According to the study, on the one hand, the syphonage effect on population and the continuously gathering of the resources in the city, have accelerated the decline of Tianxing township. On the other hand, they have promoted the tourism development of Tianxing Township. Tianxing Township has entered the stage of rural tourism-oriented transformation and upgradation, providing opportunity for the development of the rural settlements. This study holds the view that, at present, Tianxing Township is being in the early stage of the transition period. To promote the sustainable development of Tianxing Township, it is necessary to fully grasp the evolution rule of the rural spatial system and improve the internal and external mechanism of the reorganization, so as to explore the approaches which can promote sound transformation and development of the rural settlements in Tianxing township and establish a development model with regional characteristics for the township.
  • LUO Weijie,LI Wenling
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    With the increasing traffic congestion in metropolitan areas, the decision-makers of some cities have paid much attention to the congestion characteristics of different passageways in cities. Based on the important passageways' traffic index of Guangzhou City in November-December, 2016, this paper set up the traffic pattern clustering evaluation model through the following 4 aspects: classified the important passageways congestion and non-congestion state, calculated the central trend value of the congestion state passageways, set up the traffic cluster analysis model, and used the coefficient of variation to evaluate the model, then got the traffic pattern clustering optimization model .Traffic pattern clustering optimization model analysis showed that the early peak of Guangzhou’s important passageways showed a heart shaped traffic congestion model. In the mode of heart passageways traffic congestion state could be divided into six kinds of traffic patterns and a total of three kinds of geometric patterns, which were backward type, symmetric type and incremental type. The traffic congestion passageways were widely distributed in the late peak hours, there was no obvious centrifugal or centripetal traffic congestion trend. The main road traffic congestion in the inter-regional main roads and Tianhe commercial district was more serious. The passageways in the traffic congestion state could be divided into nine traffic modes, which made total four geometric types, including forward type, lagging type, gentle type and symmetrical type. From the spatial distribution of traffic patterns at early peak hours and late peak hours, we knew that the traffic patterns of different driving directions of the same passageways were different, and the traffic patterns of the same driving directions in different passageways were similar. Through the interpretation of the spatial distribution of traffic patterns, we can grasp the spatial and temporal distribution characteristics of urban traffic congestion from a global perspective and provide a reference for the decision-making of traffic congestion control in urban areas.
  • LIU Ying1,ZHAO Rongqin2,ZHANG Zhanping2,DING Minglei2,JIAO Shixing3
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    Urban industrial activities are the core of human economic activities and one of the important sources of urban carbon emissions. Research on urban industrial carbon emission efficiency not omly helps to improve the indicators and statistical methods of industrial carbon emission verification and provide new theretical perspectives for carbon emission quota allocation in the future cap-and-trade system, but also has great practical significance for proposing targeted low carbon industrial strategies and urban carbon emission reduction measures. Taking Jiangning Economic and Technological Development Zone of Nanjing city as the case, by adopting some indicators of carbon emission intensity, water efficiency of per unit carbon emissions, comprehensive index of waste emission intensity of per unit carbon emissions, virtual water and embodied carbon of product, this paper compared and discussed the carbon emission efficiency of 27 types of industrial companies based on the data of 199 companies. The main conclusions are as follows: 1) There were obvious differnces among different types of companies. The average carbon emission intensity of 27 types of indistries was 0.35 t/104 Yuan, in which carbon emission intensity of Production and Supply of Electric Power and Heat Power was the highest (5.56 t/104 Yuan), while that of Manufacture of Measuring Instruments was the lowest (0.002 t/104 Yuan). 2) Although there was some relation between carbon emission efficiency and water resource utilization efficiency, industrial carbon emission efficiency was mainly determined by ecomonic output, manufacturing process and the type of raw materials and energies. 3) There was relatively large difference on embodied carbon and virtual water of per unit products of different companies, which is related to the technology level, specification, volume and production complexity of productions from different companies. The results showed that the embodied carbon and virtual water of automobile, ironstone, metal castings and motorcycle were much higher than those of other products. 4) There has certain relativity between carbon emission and the corresponding Three Wastes, in which the relativity between carbon emission intensity and the waste gas emission intensity was the highest. According to the integrated evaluation results, the Comprehensive Index of Waste Emission Intensity of Mining and Processing of Ferrous Metal Ores was the highest, that of Mining and Processing of Non-Ferrous Metal Ores and Manufacture of Metal Products the next, and that of Manufacture of Paper and Paper Products was the lowest. 5) In the future industrial carbon emission efficiency evaluation, carbon verification and carbon quota allocation, the carbon emission efficiency of companies, as well as the resources consumption and waste emissions, should be both considered. Based on this study, the indicators such as energy resources input and wastes discharge should be considered to establish the method of integrated carbon emission performance according to multi-factors during the whole life cycle of enterprises such as industrial carbon emission, economic output, resources consumption, wastes discharge, land use and exploitation efficiency and industrial carbon metabolism efficiency. Also, the allocation scheme based on integrated carbon emission performance evaluation should be established, which has great significance for the multi-objectives of carbon emission reduction, promoting resource-saving, changing production mode and strengthening environmental management and restoration.
  • LI Fangyi,CHENG Ying,BAI Yu
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    Since entering the WTO, China’s growing export has led to a large number of domestic value-added in different regions, close to 70% of which has been created in coastal provinces. With the improvement of the central and western regions’ economy and openness, a question arises: has China’s export induced value-added from inland regions become more important? The answer to this question can serve as a reference for regions to participate in the global value chain and informs trade policy decisions. In this paper, China’s export induced value-added from eight regions were calculated by using China's noncompetitive interregional input-output tables for 2002, 2007 and 2010. A regional pattern evolution of export induced value-added and its contribution to regional economics was analyzed. The results show that with the growth of export trade volume, the scale of export induced value-added was also growing rapidly, which in 2010 reached 2.7 times in 2002, and the contribution rate to GDP reached 19.4%. The difference of absolute scales in different regions was very significant. Coastal regions, especially the eastern and southern coastal regions, produced the highest value-added by export, the sum of the two in 2010 accounted for 53.0% of the country’s total. A trend in the evolution revealed that the export induced value-added grew more rapidly in the central and western regions, where its proportion increased from 14.6% in 2002 to 23.2% in 2010. Under the influence of regional development policy and the change in factor costs, growth in the labor and technology intensive industries was rapid in the central and southwestern regions, while resources and labor intensive industries were minimal in the eastern and southern coastal regions. In the trend that the labor costs continue to rise, increasing resource constraints, China must turn to a new mode of development, characterized by low resource consumption and low waste emission. All regions need to improve the export induced value-added structure, to achieve quality and efficiency improvement in export trade and regional economy. First, regions should improve the proportion of products and service of high-quality and high value-added, and promote industry chain export with products, technology and service. Second, regions need to reduce export costs, develop new markets, and expand trade scale through construction of new international trade channel. Third, regions have to continue to promote regional economic integration by strengthening and expanding regional cooperation. It will introduce technology and capital to the central and western regions from coastal regions, and lead the central and western regions to participate deeply in the global value chain.
  • (School of Geography and Planning,Guangdong Key Laboratory for Urbanization and Geo-Simulation,Sun Yat-Sen University,Guangzhou 510275,China)
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    As a fast-growing industry in recent years, commercial fitness clubs have become significant parts of consumer services industries. However, relatively few studies on the spatial distribution of commercial fitness clubs in a city have been conducted at the street and town level. In addition, there are few studies on factors influencing the spatial distribution of commercial fitness clubs by quantitative analysis methods. To make up for this deficiency, this paper analyzed the spatial distribution of commercial fitness clubs utilizing the methods of GIS spatial analysis and spatial auto-correlation on the basis of POI data of 743 commercial fitness clubs, 136 subway stations and 6 013 residential neighborhoods in Guangzhou City collected from online map. Furthermore, spatial lag model (SLM) has been adopted to explore the influential factors of the spatial distribution of commercial fitness clubs in Guangzhou based on the latest demographic and housing-related data from the 6th population census in 2010 in Guangzhou. The results show: 1) The spatial distribution of commercial fitness clubs in Guangzhou is unbalanced and its quantity decreases generally from the central urban area to surrounding regions where small clusters exist as well, which shows a “center circle + peripheral group” structure. Specifically, 70.52% of the commercial fitness clubs are located in the central urban area, and the rest 29.48% which are located in the surrounding regions mostly gather in central towns. There is significant spatial agglomeration and correlation of commercial fitness clubs in Guangzhou. 2) Only a few commercial fitness clubs are located along main roads or near subway stations, while most of the commercial fitness clubs, accounting for 94.21%, are located near residential neighborhoods. That is to say, the distribution along city roads and subway stations is not obvious, but obvious near residential neighborhoods. 3) With regard to the influential factors on the spatial distribution of commercial fitness clubs, population scale and educational level play more important roles than location factors and community features. Both of these two demographic characteristics have positive impact on the quantity of commercial fitness clubs in townships. This result proves that market is a significant factor influencing the spatial distribution of consumer services industries. In this paper, it is found that the location factor is not a key factor affecting the spatial distribution of commercial fitness clubs in Guangzhou, which is different from previous views that location factors, especially traffic location, have essential effects on the spatial distribution of consumer services industries. The findings in this paper would enrich the research on spatial distribution of consumer services industries.

  • CAO Shuaiqiang,DENG Yunyuan
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    According to the concept of landscape gene and its map theory, the concept of landscape gene and its map and tourism planning with picture scroll style are discussed, and the “picture scroll” tourism planning technology of ancient town based on the inner relationship among them is established. Following the theoretical structure of “one goal, two meanings, three functions, four characteristics, five elements”, the paper explores the “picture scroll style tourism planning model”, which takes genetic route of information and cultural stories of expression as the genetic map pattern. On the basis of that, taking the town of Jinggang as an example, this paper explores the main landscape genetic map of the ancient town with the method of field visit and the analysis of historical and cultural characteristics. Then the “picture scroll style tourism planning model” is constructed and applied. The results show that: 1) The ecological civilization of Jinggang town is suitable for the expression of the main gene map (the livable picture of Merchants Street culture, the picture of the culture of the piers along the river); 2) Experience of military science and education activities is the internal unique gene map expression of the picture mode (the live 4S activity experience picture scroll of the war culture of the navy division of Xiangjun in ancient time, the science and education picture scroll of the red culture); 3) The local folk activity is the external unique gene map expression of the picture scroll (the picture of living folk culture of the merchants’ buildings, the picture of production skills of folk culture, the leisure picture of the folk food culture, the cinema picture of ancient folk entertainment culture, and the ecological picture of modern folk entertainment culture); 4) Religious cultural activities are the only locality gene map expression of the picture mode (the sacrifice picture of Buddhist and Taoist culture, the pilgrimage picture of Western religious culture, the morality picture of Confucianist culture). The causal analysis method of natural science is used to refine the planning of humanities. The combination of the gene theory in Biology and tourism science derives the ancient town “picture scroll style” tourism planning model based on the landscape gene map. Such interaction between natural and humanity sciences would be of great practical significance to provide a new theoretical method and perspective for the practice of ancient town tourism planning, and to explore, activate, inherit and carry forward the local culture of the tourism destination.
  • ZOU Jinhui,XU Feixiong,ZOU Bin,LI Shenxin,YANG Zhonglin
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    Based on the discrete in situ PM2.5 observed data, AOD data, as well as the meteorological data, in this study the temporal-spatial distribution of PM2.5 concentration at monthly scale in fifteen key tourism cities of China for years 2013, 2014, 2015 was firstly simulated by using the land use regression (LUR) method. Then, the seasonal and annual PM2.5 concentrations across the entire study period were consequently produced based on these monthly PM2.5 distribution maps with the aid of spatial overlay and raster calculation techniques in ArcGIS tool. Finally, the spatial-temporal heterogeneity of PM2.5 concentrations at scales of monthly, seasonal and annual in each key tourism city were statistically analyzed. Generally, the annual average PM2.5 concentrations of the fifteen key tourism cities showed a gradually declining trend from 2013 to 2015 with significantly higher values in winter and lower values in summer. Spring and autumn were usually with annual average PM2.5 concentrations between those of winter and summer. Meanwhile, the declining trend of PM2.5 concentrations could also be clearly observed at seasonal and monthly scale except a little abnormal increase in the summer of 2014. Moreover, comparisons of the PM2.5 concentrations at the three time scales among the fifteen key tourism cities in this study revealed that the deputy provincial cities were usually with higher PM2.5 concentrations, while the prefecture level cities were with the lowest values, and the values for municipalities were in the middle. Additionally, as for the suitable time for traveling in terms of air quality , the months from April to November were the good time window for travel for the fifteen tourism cities, especially during the period from July to September. However, the suitable travel time window obviously increased in spring and winter of 2015 with the air quality improvement. Spatially, the deputy provincial cities and prefecture-level cities located in southeast coastal areas and high forest coverage rate areas usually had longer suitable travel time, such as Kunming, Sanya, Xiamen and Guangzhou. Inversely, the suitable travel time was relatively short in the central and western regions as well as the Yangtze River Delta region such as Wuhan, Chengdu and Shanghai. In sum, as the first quantitative analysis of the suitable travel time of tourism city in China with spatial mapping method, this study would provide helpful suggestions for tourist decision in choosing the suitable travel time for specific tourism city. And this would be a significant extension of current research fields of urban tourism, and would consequently promote researches on the influences of inner driving mechanism of haze pollution on urban tourism, as well as on the tourism product structure and tourism operation.