Table of Content

    05 March 2019, Volume 39 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Strategic Coupling and Industrial Upgrading in the Pearl River Delta: A Global Production Network Perspective
    Liu Yi and Henry Wai-chung Yeung
    2019, 39 (2):  155-169.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003124
    Abstract ( )   PDF (784KB) ( )   Save
    This paper uses the Global Production Network (GPN) perspective to examine the trajectories of industrial growth and upgrading in the Pearl River Delta (PRD), a typical late-coming but globalizing region in China. By interpreting the theoretical merit and analytical logic of GPN, this paper clarifies four basic mechanisms of strategic coupling, and then explains the industrial dynamics in the PRD through tracing the evolution, progress, and problems of strategic coupling. It finds that the PRD has been moving away from the “front shop back factory” model to become more articulated into global production networks through various modes. Meanwhile, industrial upgrading has been achieved in terms of improving efficiency and deepening regional industrial structures. We argue that such restructuring has resulted from the region’s changing modes of strategic coupling, which are simultaneously reshaped by the changes in global network dynamics and territorial dynamics. Enhancing regional production capability and changing market imperatives are both contributing factors that sustain the upgrading of local firms. We hope this GPN perspective will enable fresh insights for future geographical studies of industrial transformation in China.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Industrial Diversity, Innovation, and Economic Resilience: Empirical Analysis of the Pearl River Delta in the Post-financial Crisis Era
    Du Zhiwei, Jin Lixia and Liu Qiuhua
    2019, 39 (2):  170-179.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003126
    Abstract ( )   PDF (12546KB) ( )   Save
    In the aftermath of the global financial crisis of 2008, some cities in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) effectively responded and adapted to the economic crisis and achieved regrowth, while others were caught in a development dilemma, facing sustained shrinkage problems such as a decline in the industrial economy, reduction in the labor force, and factories and houses lying vacant. In the context of this phenomenon, this paper focuses on the relationship between urban economic structure, industrial innovation, and economic resilience. Through the measurement of economic resilience, industrial diversification, related and non-related diversification, and innovation, we highlight the effects of industrial diversity, related variety, unrelated variety, and innovation on economic resilience for the period 2008–2017. For this purpose, we investigate spatial–temporal characteristics of their differences from the perspectives of nine prefecture-level cities in the PRD. Moreover, this paper uses regression analysis to examine the influencing factors (i.e., degree of economic openness, economic development level, and local financial situation) of economic resilience. We find that, first, industrial diversity and innovation both have a significant positive impact on economic resilience in the PRD. That is, higher the degree of industrial diversity and stronger the innovation ability, higher the level of economic resilience will be when facing the impact of a financial crisis. Second, there is a positive correlation between economic openness, development level, and resilience. However, we find that high domestic demand in Mainland China effectively offsets the impact of the financial crisis on the PRD’s export-oriented economy. After the shock of the financial crisis in 2008, the trajectories of economic resilience and industrial diversity generally tended to decline, while the level of industrial innovation rapidly increased. From a spatial perspective, the distribution of economic resilience in the PRD shows significant heterogeneity before and after the financial crisis. That is, it changed from a “center-periphery” pattern with Guangzhou as the core city in the PRD to a “double-pole” pattern featuring Shenzhen and Zhuhai as the two poles. In addition, the impact of related and unrelated variety on economic resilience is mixed: related variety has a negative influence on economic resilience, while unrelated variety is conducive to improving it. The results can be summarized as follows: regional and local governments should focus on strengthening unrelated diversification in different sectors during the process of industrial transformation and upgrading, to make regional economic systems resilient through diffusing the crisis among different sectors. At the same time, it is necessary to recognize that a region's industrial base will play an important role in shaping its future economic potential through influencing factors such as industry structure, human capital, innovation atmosphere, business culture, government services, and more.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Factors Influencing Residents’ Emotional Well-being in the Affordable Housing Communities of China’s Big City: A Case Study of Guangzhou
    Liu Ye, Pan Zhuolin, Feng Jiaxuan, Chen Hongsheng and Liu Yuqi
    2019, 39 (2):  180-187.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003125
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1150KB) ( )   Save
    In recent years, the scale of China’s affordable housing construction has been increasing, and affordable housing has become an important measure for improving the quality of low-income urban families, being related to the harmony and stability of the society and the realization of a better life for people. Research on affordable housing has gradually focused on the quality of life of residents rather than on the construction of the material space environment, and well-being is an important criterion for measuring the quality of residents’ life in affordable housing communities. Existing studies have found that neighborhood-built environments, neighborhood social environments, and the overall socioeconomic status of the neighborhood have a significant influence on residents’ well-being. However, few studies focus on China’s affordable housing communities and reveal the factors that influence residents’ well-being or explore the social and psychological effects of affordable housing communities. Accordingly, this study takes the emotional well-being of residents in affordable housing communities as a research entry point. Using first-hand data collected from 13 affordable housing communities in Guangzhou, this study applied a multiple linear regression model and method of mediation effect analysis to analyze the factors influencing residents’ emotional well-being in affordable housing communities. The results show that neighborhood built environmental factors, such as housing conditions and community construction, are significantly related to the level of emotional well-being. An excellent neighborhood-built environment is beneficial to the enhancement of residents’ well-being, while in poor circumstances, the neighborhood-built environment may bring negative impacts to residents’ well-being. Neighborhood social environments, like social networks in the community and community cohesion, also exert a positive influence on the emotional well-being of residents. Emotional support from community members and social interaction in the community play an active role in eliminating negative emotions such as anxiety, pressure, and depression. Besides, residents who live in communities with a higher level of cohesion tend to have a higher level of emotional well-being than their counterparts. The positive impact of the neighborhood environment found in this study is consistent with the results of existing foreign studies. Nevertheless, there is no evidence that the proportion of affordable housing in the community is relevant to emotional well-being, which is different from the results of foreign studies. Additionally, demographic characteristics and the socioeconomic status of residents, such as age and per capita living space, are also significantly related to their emotional well-being. The older the individual, the higher his or her emotional well-being. Also, residents with larger living space may have a higher level of well-being. Besides, the level of physical health is significantly associated with emotional well-being. The level of physical health plays a complete mediating role in the relationship between marital status and emotional well-being and acts as a partial mediator in the relationship between housing conditions and emotional well-being. Therefore, in the planning and construction of affordable housing, social environment and physical environment construction should be considered for enhancing the well-being and life experience of residents in affordable housing communities.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Unit Rent Appraisal in Community-scale and Spatial Pattern Mapping in a Metropolitan Area Using Online Real Estate Data: A Case Study of Shenzhen
    Liu Yilun, Chen Yimin, Liu Ying, Wang Jingli and Zhang Hui
    2019, 39 (2):  188-195.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003123
    Abstract ( )   PDF (4388KB) ( )   Save
    Accurate mapping of the fine-scale spatial pattern of urban housing rent is crucial to study the urban residential behavior and to improve the rationality of urban planning. This paper proposed the use of online rental data as a reliable new data source for mapping a housing rent spatial pattern. Utilizing individual rental information from one of the biggest online house trading and renting platforms, Anjuke, we attempted to map the urban housing rent of the community unit, which is the most precise administration unit in China. Due to the online rental data not being evenly distributed throughout the region, we conducted a neural network-based hedonic model to predict the housing rent of unknown community units with six evaluation indicators: environmental conditions, traffic systems, job opportunities, living facilities, education, and health care. The 2015 housing rental market of Shenzhen was chosen as a study case. The prediction error (% RMSE) of the hedonic model-which is trained with online rental data-is 13.87%. The mapping result is consistent with the real spatial pattern of housing rent, and the average rent across the whole study area is 60.56 yuan/m2, 5.69 yuan/m2 less than the official statistical average. The case study results indicated that using online rental data can effectively map the spatial pattern of housing rent on a community scale. There are three significant benefits of using this online data to build the model: First, the proposed online data-based rent mapping method can be applied universally, as all the data as well as the model used in the proposed mapping method are generally open-access. This means that other researchers can easily use this method to map the housing rent or prices of a different study area. Second, there is a much larger volume of online rental data than what can be obtained through survey samples or real rental samples. Furthermore, the data collection cost is much lower than that of traditional data sources. Third, the update cycle of online rental data is more frequent, meaning that the urban rental market can be monitored at a high spatial-temporal resolution if this online data-based method is used. The outcomes of utilizing this method can also supply fundamental data concerning urban social issues studies such as housing burden, urban poverty, and residential segmentation.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Spatial Structure and Evolution of the Three State-owned Airlines’ Networks in China
    Du Delin, Mo Huihui and Wang Jiao’e
    2019, 39 (2):  196-205.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003112
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2351KB) ( )   Save
    With the deregulation of civil aviation, airlines are becoming more important in the air transportation market and have gradually become an important research object in the aeronautical transportation geography. In China, all state-owned airlines were regrouped into three major airline groups: China National Aviation Holding Company (whose core business is Air China), China Eastern Air Holding Company (whose core business is China Eastern Airlines), and China Southern Air Holding Group (whose core business is China Southern Airlines) by 2002. Over more than 10 years, the three major airlines have developed rapidly and the market has expanded. At present, the three airlines have basically dominated the domestic air transport market, and their network structures have very important effects. The network organization and hub selection of the three airlines is not only a research topic of economics and management but is also worth studying from the perspective of geography. Taking the three airlines as examples, this paper analyzes and compares their network structure and characteristics over the last decade using the methods of graph and complex network theories. The results are as follows: 1) the networks of the three airlines are still in the development stage and show the characteristics of “small world” and “scale-free.” The structure of their networks was optimized from 2005 to 2015. Of the three airlines, Air China has the smallest scale and cohesion, China Southern Airlines has the largest segment and the greatest cohesion, and China Eastern Airlines has the fastest expansion of the network scale. 2) The three airlines were significantly correlated with each other in their degree centrality, but the correlations among their betweenness centrality were weak. This means that the same airport may have similar, direct connectivity in different networks, but the transfer capacity is different. 3) The hierarchies of the three airlines are basically formed. The hubs of their global network are obviously different, but the construction of their regional hubs is similar. Beijing-Capital International Airport and Chengdu Shuangliu International Airport are the hubs of the air network of Air China. Shanghai Pudong International Airport, Kunming Changshui International Airport, and Xi’an Xianyang International Airport are the hubs of the air network of China Eastern Airlines. Guangzhou Baiyun International Airport, Shenzhen Bao’an International Airport, and Urumchi Diwopu International Airport are the hubs of the air network of China Southern Airlines. The regional hubs of the three airlines are still changing, but they have a certain similarity with each other.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Spatial-Temporal Changes and Mechanism of Land Use in the Pearl River Delta from the Perspective of Property Rights Alteration: A Case Study of Nanhai District in Foshan City
    Liu Yihua, Chen Qixian and Lin Huarong
    2019, 39 (2):  206-217.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003115
    Abstract ( )   PDF (6328KB) ( )   Save
    This article is a case study of Nanhai District, Foshan City, which examined the district’s spatiotemporal changes in land use and how it has been affected by the land property rights reform since 1987. It analyzed data from a variety of sources, including Remote Sensing, land use survey, and existing land use maps, and employed quantitative as well as qualitative methods, such as human-computer interactive interpretation of RS images, landscape index, field research, and case studies. This study found the following: 1) The changes in land property rights in Nanhai District occurred in three phases: the paid land contracting system (1987-1992), the land joint stock cooperative system (1993-2002), and the government-led system in the face of land scarcity and the “Three Old” re-development policies (2003-2013). These three phases showed a change in the trend of land property rights from “land ownership-oriented” to “land utilization-oriented,” which is the result of market demand and the development of efficient resource utilization, and indicates a process during which land is converted from resources to assets and capital. 2) In Nanhai District, changes in land property rights and the spatiotemporal changes in land use show significant correlation and regularity. The speed, intensity, and structure of change during different periods of land use evidently influenced by the changes in land property rights, and the spatial structure of land use has also featured changes over three phases, from “agricultural land agglomeration,” to “fragmented structure of rural industrialization,” and eventually to the “coexistence of agglomeration and fragmentation.” 3) The changes in land use in Nanhai District are caused by the cumulative effect of several internal and external factors, which are mainly inducement, guidance, engine, and regulation mechanisms. Development of the market economy, rapid urbanization, and the scarcity of land resources have triggered the commodity nature and the pursuit of the capital function of collective land; these goals have been achieved by reforming the land property rights system. The land property rights system is the underlying cause of changes in land use. The extensive expansion and spatial fragmentation of construction land that is common in Nanhai District is the direct consequence of the collective land shareholding system reform and decentralized land property rights management. This feature is common nationwide in other semi-urbanized areas, indicating a similar formation mechanism on the macro level. The behaviors and games among various micro-stakeholders led by changes in the land property rights structure is the internal driving force of land-use changes, and directly influence changes in land use through land income distribution. 4) The case study of LJ Village indicates that the changes in the subject of land use right from singular to plural, the diversification of land income sources, and the increasing complexity and optimization of the land property rights structure together form an integrated property right system and affect the changes in the land use structure. Currently, the source of many land use problems is the fragmentation of rural collective land property rights. In the processes of future economic transition and land redevelopment, the keys to achieving efficient land use and spatial optimization are balancing the demands of various shareholders and constructing a profit-sharing mechanism in the face of new trends in land property rights changes.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Paleoenvironment of Eocene Red Beds in the Nanxiong Basin
    Xie Zhenlong, Liu Xiuming, Mao Xuegang, Le Zhijun and Peng Chao
    2019, 39 (2):  218-228.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003118
    Abstract ( )   PDF (14137KB) ( )   Save

    Continental red beds are widely distributed in mainland China and have long been considered to be formed in inter-mountain river and lake environments, while the red strata are considered to be secondary oxidation formations in the late stage. While this is a kind of scientific explanation and logical reasoning, there is no further concrete argument. In this study, the Eocene red-bed paleogeocline section of the Nanxiong Basin was selected as the research subject, and the paleoenvironment was analyzed in combination with the characteristics of magnetic minerals and geochemistry. The upper and lower parts of the Gucheng section are red, and the middle part is cinerous. All colors and their depth change gradually with the sedimentary strata / layers, indicating that the color was formed simultaneously with the sedimentary strata / layers, and the red of the strata is the primary color. The saturation isothermal remnant magnetic (SIRM) and remnant coercivity (Bcr) results showed a strong positive correlation with redness (a*). The thermomagnetic curves demonstrated that the red layer samples were mainly hematite with incomplete antiferromagnetism. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) confirmed the existence of primary hematite and was the only magnetic mineral detectable. Hematite indicates that the sedimentary environment at that time should be oxidized at high temperature. In the middle of the section, there was a cinerous layer, which was previously interpreted as marine limestone by earlier researchers. However, instead of magnetic mineral signals, paramagnetic minerals were detected in the thermomagnetic measurements. DRS measurements after high temperature treatment also showed the presence of paramagnetic clay minerals. Geochemical element analysis showed that it was quite different from standard limestone, but similar to the typical loess in China. These data indicated that the limestone was not limestone. The upper and lower layers of the profile were red beds dominated by primary hematite, which represent the high temperature and strong oxidation environment on the surface. The formation is continuous and exhibits conformity. The “marine limestone” in the red beds of the two sections is not deemed to be limestone by chemical element analysis. Furthermore there was a high similarity between the cinerous layer and the red layer on both sides, upper crust and loess. The cinerous ash layer was more likely to have been formed by soil-forming processes under conditions of weathering and wetting. The ancient city section reflected the gradual change process of dry-heat oxidation-wetting redox and dry-thermal oxidation during the Eocene, which is of great significance for understanding the paleoenvironment of Nanxiong Basin.

    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Ten-day Distributed Simulation of Average Temperature in Complex Terrain in Fujian Province
    Li Weipeng, Qiu Xinfa, Zeng Yan, Shi Guoping, Xu Jinqin and Wang Dandan
    2019, 39 (2):  229-236.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003117
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2008KB) ( )   Save
    Observation data of 33 conventional meteorological stations in Fujian Province and its surrounding areas, from 1960 to 2010, and digital elevation model (DEM) data, were used to examine the effects of altitude, total solar radiation, and effective long-wave radiation on mean temperature of a 10-day period over complex terrain in Fujian Province, China. The spatial distribution of 100 m resolution temperatures was simulated using a distributed model of 10-day temperature. The results showed that: 1)the results of the conventional station calibration showed that the maximum of mean absolute bias error (MAE) was 2.3℃, the minimum was 0.46℃, and the average for the whole year was 0.87℃. The calibration results of the meteorological stations showed that the maximum of MAE was 2.3℃, the minimum temperature was 0.5℃, and the annual average was 0.96℃. 2)The simulation results can reflect the macroscopic distribution and local details of the 10-day’s average temperature. At a macroscopic scale, average temperature was affected by latitude, and temperature gradually increased from north to south. Average temperature in coastal areas was higher than that on land, and average temperature in the mountainous area was significantly lower. At a local scale, due to the influence of topographic factors such as altitude, slope, and aspect, the temperature difference between different aspects was significant. The higher the altitude, the larger the slope, the larger the difference became. The influence of topographic factors on average temperature of 10-day periods exhibited seasonal differences. Topographic factors had the largest influence on 10-day average temperature in winter, and this was reduced. Topographical factors had the weakest influence on average temperature in the spring and summer.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    The Effects of Green Space on Leisure Time Physical Activities from the Perspective of Community Differentiation: A Case Study of Guangzhou, China
    Dai Yingyi, Zhu Zhanqiang and Zhou Suhong
    2019, 39 (2):  237-246.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003114
    Abstract ( )   PDF (5670KB) ( )   Save

    The continuous development of the social economy has provided us with a modern and intelligent lifestyle, which may also increase citizens’ sedentary behaviors. How to improve citizens’ leisure time physical activities and public health at a country level has become a popular issue in recent years. Previous studies suggested that enhancing individual access to green spaces is a vital strategy to encourage leisure time physical activities. The imbalance between the supply and demand of green spaces may lead to environmental and health injustice problems. However, there is a lack of studies on the different spatial dimensions, when residents are considered, in homogeneous groups as a community, especially regarding various settling modes in China. Thus, it is of great significance to study the relationship between green space and leisure time physical activities from the perspective of community differentiation. This study used 776 effective samples (n=1 029) from 20 selected communities in Guangzhou. A multiple linear regression model was used to analyze the impact factors and underlying mechanisms. The results demonstrate that the residents’ leisure time physical activities have notable differences according to the type of community. That is, the residents’ average values of low-grade, middle-grade and high-grade communities were 782.99 MET-min/w, 871.70 MET-min/w, and 1 227.91 MET-min/w, respectively. Therefore, attention should be paid to these differences. The multiple linear regression model also illustrated that the significant factors that affect the leisure time physical activity levels in green spaces for the sample include “distance to the nearest park or square,” “neighborhood green coverage rate,” and “number of fitness facilities.” However, the significant factors vary at the level of community types. The influential factor of low-grade communities that impact residents’ leisure time physical activities is “distance to the nearest park or square,” for middle-grade communities it is “neighborhood green coverage rate,” while for high-grade communities it is “number of fitness facilities.” From the standpoint of mechanisms, time and monetary costs are the main elements that constrained residents of low-grade communities away from leisure time physical activities, which forced them to choose light-intensity leisure time physical activities such as walking, as their main fitness activity. Neighboring parks or squares undoubtedly are the first choice for these residents. Due to the imbalance between supply and demand in neighborhood greening, a green environment is the main element that affected residents of middle-grade communities, and the fitness opportunities are the main element that affected residents of high-grade communities. The well-equipped fitness facilities around high-grade communities provide these residents with ample opportunities to engage in leisure time physical activities, which makes their leisure time physical activity level far higher than the other two types of communities. To some extent, these findings expose the maladies caused by market-oriented residential space differentiation and the existing problems of green space planning. This study could provide a reference for the optimization of green space distribution and maintenance of social space justice, encouraging residents to participate in leisure time physical activities so as to improve public health.

    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Influence of Built Environment on Urban Greenway Use from the Perspective of Greenway-Neighborhood Relationships: A Case Study of Guangzhou, China
    Zhu Zhanqiang, Huang Cunzhong, Liu Lin and Liu Xuan
    2019, 39 (2):  247-253.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003116
    Abstract ( )   PDF (6444KB) ( )   Save

    In recent years, a large scale of greenways was constructed in China, which provides many new leisure and fitness spaces for citizens. Because residents in cities became the main users of these greenways, the spatial differentiation of greenway usage should be critically evaluated to obtain an optimized use pattern. From the perspective of greenway-neighborhood relationship, built environment surrounding greenways is assumed to serve as a potential source of users as well as a destination that attracts greenway use. To explore the association of greenway usage with properties of built environment surrounding greenways, this paper takes a typical urban waterfront greenway of Guangzhou as a case. Data such as greenway usage, activity type, etc. were collected by using floating bicycle technology. Multiple linear regression analysis was employed to explore the potential association of greenway usage with properties of built environment. Results show that there was a significant correlation between greenway usage and the surrounding built environment. Among the selected properties of the built environment that might influence the users’ travel behavior, population density and characteristics of land uses were the principle factors causing utilization differentiation by segment. The larger the population density or the larger the variation in land use, the higher the rate of utilization for walking and bicycling. In addition, social-economic characteristics, including age and income in the area accessible by walking and bicycling, impacted greenway use significantly, as did the land-use mixture and prevalence of richer or younger groups. Day-of-the-week also had an influence on usage of greenways, i.e., weekdays attracted more neighborhoods onto the urban greenway than weekend during peak hours for walking and bicycling. These findings may help with urban greenway construction and provide insights for greenway route optimization.

    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Identification and Extraction of the Linpan Culture Landscape Gene
    Chen Qiuyu, Yang Junxi, Luo Shixian and Sun Dajiang
    2019, 39 (2):  254-266.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003121
    Abstract ( )   PDF (4793KB) ( )   Save

    Landscape culture is the concentrated embodiment of cultural and geographical characteristics, and the study of cultural landscape gene’s identification and the extraction of the Linpan in western Sichuan is the cognition and interpretation of the essence of Linpan. According to the key features of the cultural landscape, such as regionality, inheritance, and time, through literature review and field investigations, we can obtain the landscape imagery and landscape elements related to Linpan, and comprehensively use questionnaires and semi-structured interviews to reflect regionality. The landscape that can leave a deep memory or impression on people is investigated and analyzed, and SPSS software is used for data statistics and processing to clarify the structural composition of the Linpan culture landscape objectively. Accordingly, the “landscape gene” theory which means the basic unit of Linpan culture landscape.in this paper was introduced, and the Linpan cultural landscape was taken as the research object. We classified the expression of genetic information and the rank, function, and importance of genes. We still explain the process flow of identification and extraction. Simultaneously, with the help of land use data, satellite imagery, and electronic maps of geographic information data, the identification of cultural landscape genes was conducted by taking the Xinjin, Wenjiang, and Chongzhou Linpan group and the Yuzikong, Gonglinpan, and Yujiayuanzi settlement units as examples. We identified their cultural landscape genes and summarized the common genes and individual genes. Furthermore, we extracted 1) genes that occupy the main position among Linpan, playing a major role in their overall layout, and included forest land, dwellings, canals and so on; 2) minor genes that affect the expression of some traits or play an important role in the formation of local landscape effects, including vegetable plots, wells, and bamboo utensils; 3) attached genes that enhance the information expression of main genes and minor genes, including gates, stone cages, and flat bridges; and 4) regulatory genes that inhibit or promote the expression of other genes, including water control engineering, immigration culture, and Taoist philosophy.

    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Activation and Inheritance of Urban Memory and Cultural Performance in Museums: An Analysis of Tourist Comments on a Museum in Guangzhou
    Wen Tong and Liu Lu
    2019, 39 (2):  267-277.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003120
    Abstract ( )   PDF (811KB) ( )   Save

    As a space to record urban culture and history, museum is an important place to inherit urban memory. From the perspective of “cultural performance”, this article conducted a text analysis of tourist comments concerning the Museum of the Western Han Dynasty Mausoleum of the Nanyue King. A total of 1 294 tourist comments (207 offline comments and 1 087 online comments) were considered, and the four dimensions were found to constitute the factor system of cultural performance in museum, including architectural sites, cultural heritage, interpretation system, and tourist participation. In particular, initially, as a space of urban memory, the dimension of “architectural sites” is just like a stage for performance, which not only satisfies tourists' imagination of urban history and culture, but also awakens their perception of historical memory. Secondly, the dimension of “cultural heritage” confirms the unique cultural connotation and historical background in Guangzhou through the way of physical display, which helps tourists enhance their sense of cultural identity and strengthen their urban memory. Thirdly, the dimension of “interpretation system”, including professional commentators and multimedia technology, is just like the actors in performance, presenting the history and culture of the city in a dynamic way, and helping tourists understand the deep meaning of history and culture. Lastly, the dimension of “tourist participation” is the most important role in the process of urban memory. Tourists take the initiative to participate in activities and realize the transformation from “passive participation” to “active participation”, fulfilling the understanding of urban memory. Furthermore, this article emphasizes the important role of the perception of memory subject and the authenticity of culture in the process of urban memory. On the one hand, the form of memory is an interactive process, so that it is necessary to realize the understanding of cultural connotation through communication between memory subject and object. In this case, the content coding about the tourists’ perception accounts for about 51.08%, therefore, the behavior of memory subject determines the effect of cultural performance in museum. On the other hand, 41.4% of the content coding comes from real carriers, such as architectural sites and cultural heritage, which indicates that only by maintaining the original and integrity of traditional culture can tourists achieve the construction of urban memory. In a word, these four dimensions form an urban memory chain for museum and respectively play the roles of awakening, strengthening, activating and inheriting in the process of urban memory construction. In addition, both the behavior of memory subject and the cultural authenticity play indispensable roles in the construction of urban memory.

    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Preference Structure of Tourism Destination Image: Based on the Q-Method
    Lin Yuxia and Lin Bishu
    2019, 39 (2):  278-287.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003111
    Abstract ( )   PDF (767KB) ( )   Save

    There are similarities and differences among different groups in destination image preferences. They can significantly influence the tourism destination marketing. Finding out what kind of tourism destination image people like, and the compatibility in different kinds of destination images makes sense especially to marketers. They can conduct targeted publicity and tourism product development according to the market demand preference, making tourism products more marketable. In addition, the compatibility in destination image preference has a significant meaning in the design of tourism routes. Students and working adults constitute an important part of the tourism market. Thus, it is of great significance to study the preference of these young groups. Knowing and producing what they prefer would be a great incentive to turn potential tourists into actual tourists. The present study uses the Q technique to verify the structure and compatibility of tourism destination image preferences, in order to provide suggestions for the design of tourism destination images and tourism routes. Q skill is a type of research method that can extract and describe subjective points of view. The method is a system with rigorous quantitative and quantitative analysis. It holds the view that subjective point of view possesses a certain structure. Thus, the Q-method can be used to conduct a qualitative and quantitative research on tourism destination image, which can help to break through the bottleneck of destination image research. Taking the students and the working group as the main research participants, the paper classified this young-group’s preferences of tourist destination image based on the Q-method. The P sample of this article included undergraduates, graduates, and working people, so it had a certain universality. A total of 106 questionnaires were distributed, but the effective sample amount was 82. The study results showed that there are five kinds of typical tourist destination image preference structures, and there exists incompatibility between the different kinds of tourism destination images. The five kinds of preference structures were named Natural Ecotourism, City Tourism, Natural and Cultural Tourism, Wandering Tourism, and Adventure Tourism. The classification could explained 55% of the variance. The characteristics of these preference structures are as follows: 1) The Natural Ecotourism people prefer natural resources but didn’t like culture resources and challenging tourism activities; 2) the City Tourism people turned out to be quite different than the first one, they prefer tourism activities in modern cities and other activities related to nature; 3) the Natural and Cultural Tourism people, female dominated, liked both cultural and natural tourism, but didn’t like rural tourism, as well as some extreme tourism activities; 4) the Wandering people preferred quiet places to enjoy; 5) while the Adventure Tourism people pursuit refreshing feelings and stimulating activities. Different kinds of preference structures for tourism destination images have different enlightening meanings to tourism marketing practices, which are provided at the end of this paper. In addition, a consensus statements analysis showed that these groups do not like massive cultural experiences. However, relaxing and interactive cultural experiences can improve the appeal of cultural destinations to the youth market. The five types of preference structures have high degree of differentiation, and the corresponding characteristics are significant. The results of the study have high reference value for both travel destination image marketing and tourism circuit design.

    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Evaluation Utilization State of Marine Fishery Resources of Africa
    Fang Junhan, Ren Hang, Luo Ying and Zhang Zhenke
    2019, 39 (2):  288-297.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003122
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1006KB) ( )   Save

    Evaluation utilization state of marine fishery resources of Africa is of great significance in promoting the sustainable development of fisheries in Africa and the cooperation between China and Africa. Based on the capture production data provided by Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, integrating with trophic level of related fish species collected from Fishbase and trophic level of invertebrate provided by Sea Around Us Project database, in order to estimate fluctuations in the mean trophic level (MTL) of catch and the state of fishery resources of African coastal countries from 1950 to 2015. Results showed that the exploitation of marine fishery resources in African coastal countries has generally experienced the stages of underdevelopment, rapid development and over-exploitation. From 1984 to 1991, the marine fishery resources in North Africa have been damaged to a certain extent, the capture production of high-grade trophic fishery resources decreased by 33.5%, MTL decreased from the peak value 3.44 to 3.25; The catch of East Africa has been relatively low for a long time, nowadays, most of the fish resources are fully exploited. Fisheries in South Africa followed the phenomenon of ‘fishing down marine food webs’ in the early 21st century, MTL first went through a fluctuation growth trend during the period 1950-1996, then a relatively slow decreasing process during the period 1997-2004, and afterwards MTL recovered slight increasing trend, Fishing-in-balance index (FIB) kept steady from 2004 to 2015; MTL and FIB of Middle Africa declined in volatility in recent 3 years,indicated that the rate of increase in production is not sufficient to compensate for the reduction in the trophic level, and the structure and function of the ecosystem begins to be destroyed; The capture production in West Africa continued to increase in the past 66 years, overfishing has become more and more serious since the 1960s and led to a growth trend of the proportion of low trophic level fish. From 2001 to 2012, FIB was almost constant and between 1.2 and 1.4, MTL decreased fluctuatingly. When we compute MTL based on time-series of data that exclude trophic levels lower than 3.25(3.25MTL) so that to eliminate herbivores, detrivores and planktivores whose biomass trends to vary widely in response to environment factors. 3.25MTL showed a rising trend, suggesting that the decline of MTL was offset by the increase of production, overfishing led to an increase in the number of low and middle trophic fish in the sea area. Since the 21st century, some North African, South African and West African coastal countries have strengthened their fishery resources management and protection. The reduction in MTL indicates that the structure and function of the marine ecosystem has been destroyed, as changes in MTL are mainly caused by overfishing. We recommend that each country should establish a monitoring system which based on the capture production data to better assess the dynamic change of resources under fishing activities.

    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    A Review of Foreign Research on Environmental Justice
    Shen Jing and Zhou Chuping
    2019, 39 (2):  298-308.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003113
    Abstract ( )   PDF (11221KB) ( )   Save
    Environmental justice, a focus of foreign human geography research, is defined as the fair treatment and meaningful involvement of all people regardless of race, color, national origin, or income with respect to the development, implementation, and enforcement of environmental laws, regulations, and policies. This paper presents the progress of normative and pragmatic research on environmental justice in foreign countries, in order to introduce the new concept into the environmental research in China. The paper uses Citespace software to examine and summarize the research tendency and hotpots of environmental justice. Moreover, adapting the method of documentary analysis, the paper also elaborates the concept construction, research aspects, and methods of environmental justice, which are the basis of the review of the whole course of development of the issue abroad. The findings are as follows. First, foreign scholars construct the concepts of environmental justice mainly from three aspects, distribution justice, recognition justice, and procedure justice, which clarify the issue from the perspective of objectivity, subjectivity, and practicality, respectively. Second, the environmental justice research content is expanding to various aspects and levels that involve the pluralistic discussion on the link between demographic structure and the spatial pattern of locally unwanted land use and public service facilities, the causes of environmental injustice, the negative impacts of injustice, and the implementations for the sake of realizing environmental justice. Third, research methods are also developed and innovated step by step from qualitative and quantitative levels. Questionnaire analysis, interview, focus group, and other qualitative methods are frequently used to explore environmental conflicts and environmental decision making. Quantitative models and other complex data analysis methods are mainly used for large-scale empirical studies on environmental justice, such as the regional and country scale. In addition, the study of environmental justice covers both macro and micro scales, and the research themes at different scales also have different emphases. Community-scale studies tend to focus on environmental conflicts of interest in the local social and cultural context; regional and national scales focus on the relationship between demographic characteristics and environmental conditions; global-scale studies focus on global environmental injustice caused by climate change, waste transfer, and other issues. Multi-scale research also shows that the realization of environmental justice requires joint efforts of all levels of society. This study expects that the concept of environmental justice can be put into effect in the Chinese context. In academic research, the analytical framework of environmental justice links the objective environmental situation with the subjective local social background and individual value judgment, providing a new perspective for environmental and social analysis. At the same time, the study of environmental justice considers the environmental demands of different interest groups and the cognitive process of environmental justice, providing new guidance for environmental decision making. In practice, fairness and justice are the important elements of the socialist core value system, and environmental justice is regarded as one of the important development goals. To explore the new path of urban and regional development, the concept of environmental justice should be also integrated into the process of regional coordination and the sustainable development planning.
    References | Related Articles | Metrics
    Knowledge Map Analysis of UAV Remote Sensing Research Based on Citespace
    Liang Yuzhe,Zheng Rongbao,Xu Jiayuan and Zheng Zhijian
    2019, 39 (2):  309-317.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003119
    Abstract ( )   PDF (2813KB) ( )   Save
    In recent years, remote sensing using unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) has attracted considerable attention from scholars due to its advantages of low cost, high mobility, and high resolution. Therefore, understanding the research and development status of UAV remote sensing has become indispensable for research in this field. In this study, 1048 UAV remote sensing related publications in core journals of the Web of Science were visualized and analyzed by using Citespace software. Results showed that: first, after 2008, the relevant research literature of UAV remote sensing grew rapidly, mainly focused on remote sensing science, engineering, imaging science, photography technology, geology, physical geography, environmental science, ecology, agricultural science and other fields. Second, the United States, China, Spain, and other countries have a large number of publications and a strong research profile in the field of UAV remote sensing. Among them, the Chinese Academy of Sciences has the largest number of publications, and the h-index of Spain's top scientific research council is the highest, both of which have great influence. The h-indices of Australian scholar Lucieer A and Spanish scholar Zarco-Tejada PJ were relatively high and they are representative scholars in this field. Third, UAV remote sensing research is focused on the following three parts: 1) applied research of UAV remote sensing in the field of agriculture and ecology. UAV remote sensing can overcome the problems of high cost, low resolution, and weak turnover of traditional agricultural and ecological remote sensing products. 2) Thanks to the high resolution data of UAV remote sensing, research on image classification methods, such as support vector machine, neural network, and expert systems, has been promoted. 3) Research on photography and computer vision technology. UAV remote sensing can provide a large quantity of high-resolution data for 3d reconstruction research, which greatly promotes the development of 3d reconstruction, especially SfM (Structure-from-Motion).
    References | Related Articles | Metrics