• 2015 Volume 35 Issue 2
    Published: 31 March 2015

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  • ZHONG Yun,WU Meng
    2015, 35(2): 147-153.
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    With the theory of economic growth convergence, the paper tries to research the service industrial development convergence from the angle of regional cooperation. As the thought of regional cooperation aims at reducing the gap among the regions, we link sevice industry development convergence to the regional cooperation, and take the outcome of convergence analysis as the foundation for judging regional cooperation, describe the concept of convergence on service industry development, and illustrate the correlation between economic growth convergence and service industrial development convergence. Furthermore, we figure out the convergence mechanism and put forward a model to verify the industrial development convergence. With the indexes used in the model, we test the convergence of the financial sector in the Greater Pearl River Delta (GPRD), a region that has long history in industrial cooperation. The result shows a divergence trend in the testing period. The result is basically in accord with the conclusions from the research by other methods.

  • WANG Dehui,KUANG Yaoqiu,WU Bo,ZHOU Huijie,BIAN Yong,WANG Meng
    2015, 35(2): 154-161.
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    In recent years, more and more counties and districts in estuarine delta areas in China have been upgraded to national-level new districts. Scientifically estimating the population capacity of those districts plays a fundamental role in the planning of new districts. However, there is a lack of estimation method specific to the livable population capacity of estuarine delta areas in existing study. This study selects the dominant natural environmental factors for human settlements and extracts the population bearing areas referring to population densities of similar areas and relevant national standards to set up an estimation method to evaluate the population capacity in estuarine delta areas based on the suitability of human settlement environment. This method has been applied to estimation of the livable population capacity of the original Nansha District in Guangzhou. The research shows that the livable population capacity of Nansha District is 870 000 persons and the livable population density is 2 776 persons per square kilometer. The results of livable population capacity at township level in Nansha District are listed below: Nansha Subdistrict 230 000 persons, Huangge Town 210 000 persons, Wanqingsha Town 190 000 persons, Hengli Town 130 000 persons, Zhujiang Subdistrict 110 000 persons. As considering the actual discrepancy of the subgrade bearing capacity and the stage of socio-economic development, the livable population density of Nansha District is very comparable to that of Pudong New District in Shanghai, Binhai New District in Tianjin and Washington DC in the US. This estimation method highlights the restriction of hydrogeological conditions and can be used to estimate the livable population capacity of estuarine delta areas.

  • LIU Nanwei,ZHANG Zhengsheng
    2015, 35(2): 162-169.
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    The folk place names of the Xisha and Nansha Islands are names given by Hainan fishermen in Hainan dialect in the process of fishery production and nautical activities. Most of them are recorded in Manuscripts or oral forms of Genglubus and related maps and books. This paper analyses the cultural background of the generation of the folk place names of the Xisha and Nansha Islands. It figures out the sources of 141 folk place names of islands, shoals and reefs in the Xisha Islands and Nansha Islands and demonstrats that the folk place names originated in the early Ming Dynasty by analyzing the relationship between folk place names and ancient place names. It detailedly illustrates that the folk place names have distinct characteristics such as historical and stable, comprehensive and systematic, rich local flavor, scientific classification, and convenient and practical application. The paper finally points out that, the folk place names were created by Hainan fishermen, which save a lot of cultural information of ancient Hainan fishermen’s cultivation and management in the Xisha and Nansha Islands and the nearby sea areas. They are irrefutable evidence that the sovereignty of the Xisha and Nansha Islands and their adjacent waters belongs to China.

  • YANG Jianbo,LI fan,HUANG Wei
    2015, 35(2): 170-178.
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    The trasformation of “the Three Olds” refers to that of the old towns, old factory buildings and old village residences. Taking “Lingnan Tiandi” in Foshan City as an example, this article discusses the evolution, mechanism and restriction of utilizing the conception of urban renewal for famous historical and cultural city. Especially more attention is paid to analysis of the utilazation, function and restricting factors of the conception in the core area transformation of historical and cultural city. The relevant conclusion of this article is based on the case study of the Ancestor Temple-Donghuali historical and cultural blocks (Lingnan Tiandi) in Foshan. It is indicated that the concept of the trsndformation of “the three olds” has been applied to the latest renewal of the old district of Foshan, which reflected the desire, imagination and cognitive disposition of the local government, and some limitation in application of the concept existed. It is considered that the mode and imagination of “the Three Olds” transformation might be a means for local government and developers to develop the city and industry, and might also be the technology for them to seek their own concerns and raise their comprehensive competitiveness. Essentially the attraction of the concept to them is the associated resources and the language for their use, interpretation and replacement, while less attention was paid to the practicability of the concept for the renewal of the historical and cultural city.

  • LI Zhiwen,LI Baosheng,SUN Li,WANG Fengnian
    2015, 35(2): 179-185.
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    The climate changed frequently in eastern China during Holocene, that caused significant migration of the mammals for several times. The common species of the mammalian fauna mainly lived in subtropical zone, only a few tropical species such as Hylobates, Elephas maximus, Megatapirus augustus and Rhinoceros sinensis, were mainly distributed in tropical zone and south-subtropical zone, indicating a forest environment with tropical climate features in the south of mid-subtropical zone. Studying the faunal composition and geographic distribution characteristics in different phases of Holocene in South China, this paper inferred the climate variation in different phases of Holocene according to the distribution of the tropical species and their far-north living boundary. The results were as follows: the climate gradually turned warmer after the last glacial epoch in Holocene, the north boundary of the southern mid-subtropical zone moved southwards by nearly 2 latitude degrees during 14 000- 12 000 a BP, the mean temperature of January in this period was about 3-5℃ lower than that today. The transitionally warm period was 12 000-8 500 a BP, when the climate was approaximately similar to that of today. The Megathermal period was from 8 500-5 000 a BP. With the north boundary at Qinling-Huaihe, and the mean temperature was about 7-9℃ higher than today’s in January. The transitionally cold period was 5 000-3 000 a BP, the north boundary reached the Yangtze River Basin, and the temperature was about 5-6℃ higher than today’s in January. Then from 3 000 a BP, the climate was getting colder, and the north boundary of the zone retreated southwards. Those phenomena suggested the significant changes of the climatic zone and the bio-climate variations in Holocene.

  • WANG Xiaowei,LI Zimo
    2015, 35(2): 186-192.
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    Epidemic is a general term for epidemic infectious disease caused by strong pathogenic microorganism, which is harmful to mankind health and life. Taking CNKI as the main data source, this paper uses bibliometric methods to examine the present situation and the development of research on epidemic in China. The conclusion comes that: During the past 60 years, 1) The research contents involved more and more fields, in which 12 subjects were included, and the study on history increased the fastest. The gaps among different subjects were obvious. 2) The research paid more attention to modern period, and gave priority to dynastic history. The research from so-called “Macroscopic View of History” was not usually seen, accounting for less than 1.0% of the total. 3) The research paid attention to nationwide areas and foreign countries, and also involved villages and towns. The spatial differences of the research among domestic provinces were significant and the hot-point areas showed a decreasing trend from eastern coastal areas to inland areas.

  • SU Yongxian,WANG Chongyang,ZHANG Hong’ou,CHEN Xiuzhi,LIN Hui,XU Xifeng
    2015, 35(2): 193-201.
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    Under the current rapid urbanization process, it is an urgent task to map the regional and global built-up urban areas timely and accurately. The DMSP/OLS night light data is one accurate, affordable and convenient dataset to reflect the urban distribution and built-up area boundaries. In order to promote the accurate level, this paper develops a Neighborhood Statistics Analysis method (NSA) for mapping the built-up area, which is based on the relative differences between neighborhood pixels. The proposed method indentifies the mutation region by raster calculating and accurately extracts the built-up area boundaries by combining the threshold method. Then, the proposed NSA method is applied to extract the built-up urban areas of China’s 34 main cities in 2009 and the accuracy is validated by using the results extracted from TM data and the global-fixed and local-optimized threshold methods based on DMSP/OLS night light data. Results show that the pixel numbers of NSA-extracted built-up lands match well with those of TM-extracted built-up lands. The coefficient of determination R2 is 0.966, with root mean squared error RMSE=191.64 and relative accuracy RA=82.79%. The Landscape shape index, aggregation index, edge area ratio index and connectivity index also show highly consistent (R2=0.475 4, 0.366 2, 0.858 9 and 0.915 3, respectively). In addition, the proposed NSA method, which significantly overcomes the disadvantages that are associated with the global-fixed and local-optimized threshold methods, accurately maps both the large patches of built-up areas in urban regions and the small patches of built-up areas in surrounding towns.

  • ZOU Wei,LIU Yongxue,LI Manchun,WANG Yecheng,ZHOU Minxi
    2015, 35(2): 202-207.
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    Considering the serious situation in the South China Sea and the character of GIS system, the research designs and implements an analysis system of historical and geographical situation. This system is developed by Visual Studio 2010 with Microsoft SQL Server Database and ArcSDE Spatial Database Engine based on ArcGIS Engine technology. It is composed of four modules: the Historical and Geographical Situation Analysis module, the Islands Analysis module, the Oil Analysis module and the System Management module. In addition, this system summarises the changing of historical situation, islands situation and oil situation in the South China Sea. It can offer some firm support for decision-making and solutions of conflicts in the South China Sea.

  • GUAN Shuai,ZHA Xini,DING Bo,LIN Yingyan,ZHUO Wenshan,LIU Zufa
    2015, 35(2): 208-217.
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    The Pearl River Basin holds an important economic, political and social status in China. The runoff of the Xijiang river,Beijiang river and Dongjiang river affects the regional flood safety and the safety of drinking water directly. Considering the critical requirement of unified schedule of the Pearl River, this paper constructed 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional joint distributions of runoff of the three river systems based on copula functions, and analyzed their wetness-dryness encountering probability. The basic conclusions are obtained as follows:1) the synchronous wetness-dryness probabilities of any two rivers are higher than the asynchronous ones (except the Xijiang and the Dongjiang in flood seasons). The synchronous wetness-dryness probabilities of the Xijiang and Beijiang, or the Xijiang and Dongjiang are relatively small, which offers the possibility of wetness-dryness compensation between the Xijiang and the other two rivers. 2) The 3-dimensional joint distribution indicates that the synchronous wetness-dryness probabilities of the three rivers on annual scale, in flood seasons and non-flood seasons are 40.16%, 38.11% and 36.49%, respectively, with the probability of synchronous wetness and dryness much larger than that of synchronous normal ones. 3) By the joint distributions constructed above, we can get the probabilities of any runoff combinations of the three rivers, as well as diverse runoff combinations under certain probabilities. And all of those will provide important reference for unified schedule of the Pearl River.

  • WENG Yingfang,ZHAO Cuiwei,WANG Peibin,WANG Yifan,YANG Yang
    2015, 35(2): 218-227.
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    Water source protection is an effective way to solve the problem of urban water supply, and a reasonable compensation standard is an important guarantee for the smoothly implementing of the water source protection plan. A case study on plot scale was made in Aha Reservoir in Guiyang City by using the arable land revenue as the opportunity cost of forest protection and the index system affecting arable land revenue based on the natural and transportation factors. With the field survey and experimental data, combining with the GIS technology, a multiple linear regression equation was established to ccount the opportunity cost of forest protection. The result shows that: 1) The natural condition index values of arable land are between 0.549-0.823 in Aha reservoir drainage area; the regions of high condition index value are distributed along the rivers and the low altitude areas in the southeast of the reservoir; while the regions of low condition index are in the higher altitude areas and the steep slopes; the traffic condition indexes are between 0.224-0.900. 2) The result of the arable land forecasting model shows that the correlation coefficient between the revenue and the traffic index and that between the natural condition index and traffic index are 0.731 and 0.550, respectively. 3) The opportunity costs of the 14 woodland plots are between 896.405-1 523.772 yuan/mu, and the average opportunity cost is 1 274.623 yuan/mu. As the opportunity costs of the protection of different woodland plots differ greatly, different compensation standards should be adopted.

  • WANG Mixue,YAN Junping,LI Shuangshuang
    2015, 35(2): 228-234.
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    Using time symmetry method system of natural disasters, this paper analyzed changing characteristics and judged tendency of severe thunderstorms in Hong Kong during 1960-2013. Results indicated that: 1) Severe thunderstorms had an increasing trend during 1960-2013 in Hong Kong and the increasing rate was 2.6 d/10 years. As compared with the fact that thunderstorm days had a decreasing trend from mid to high latitudes in China, thunderstorms in Hong Kong were especially severe. 2) Severe thunderstorms had obvious commensurability in Hong Kong. Commensurability Test showed that, in next 10 years, severe thunderstorms would increase again in 2017 and 2018. The random probability of Butterfly Structure of 2017 would be 86.67%, and that of 2018 would be 93.33%. So according to the results of Map of Butterfly Structure (MBS), those two years might be thunderstorm anomaly years, severe thunderstorms would happen again in 2017 and 2018. The primary periods of commensurability structure of 2017 would be 1, 3, 5, 8 and 15 years; and those of 2018 would be 1, 4, 5, 8, 12 and 15 years. The commensurability structure could clearly reflect the symmetry of disaster years, that would be able to prove Commensurability Test and MBS. 3) Severe thunderstorms had closely relationship with sunspots and ENSO. When there were only a few sunspots, there would be obviously more severe thunderstorms in Hong Kong, and vice versa. Also when SST of equatorial Pacific was anomalously high (El Niño), there would be obviously more severe thunderstorms in Hong Kong.

  • QIN Qu,YANG Hong,YANG Yi
    2015, 35(2): 235-241.
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    With the concept and connotation of urban ecological infrastructure, this paper establishes an index system for evaluation of urban ecological infrastructure. The paper uses the mean square error method to calculate the weight of each index and the gray correlation theory to construct an evaluation index system consisting of two subsystems, i.e. natural and aritificial ecological infrastructure. The index system includes 9 factors and 33 indicators. The 9 factors are atmosphere, green space, wetland, transportation, energy supply, water supply and drainage, telecommunications, environmental health, and safety of disaster prevention. With the index system a case study was made in Liupanshui City, Guizhou Province. The evaluation results are as follows: the comprehensive index values of the poorest, poor, medium, good and superior infrastructure are 0.678 8, 0.750 4, 0.724 3, 0.611 0 and 0.523 5, respectively. That shows that as a whole the ecological infrastructure in Liupanshui City is of poor grade, in which the natural ecological infrastructure is of medium grade with an index value of 0.828 5, and the aritificial ecological infrastructure is of poor grade with an index value of 0.791 2. Through the evaluation and analysis, we can have a basic understanding of the current situation of the ecological infrastructure in Liupanshui City and the results can be for scientific reference of the programming and construction of Liupanshui City. Also the index system can be applied to others cities.

  • JIANG Daliang,YANG Tian,REN Zepei,CHEN Yingying,ZHANG Zhenke
    2015, 35(2): 242-249.
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    From the four aspects, i.e. the economic production,healthcare,basic education and industrial structure, the article created a regional economic and societal synthetic development level model of 52 countries in Africa in 2012. Introducing the coefficient of variation method to determine the weight, it made quantitative evaluation and analysis combined with the weighted TOPSIS method. The research showed that: In Africa, the relatively developed regions were distributed in the north and south while the less developed in the midland areas. As compared with North, South and East Regions, the level of healthcare in West and Central Africa Regions was very low. The spatial distribution of the basic education level in the continent presented a stairs-shaped pattern. The basic education level in North Africa Region and South Africa Region was the highest, followed by East and Central Africa Regions. The lowest was in West Africa Region. The regional difference of industrial structure was obvious. Therefore, China’s aids of financing, infrastructures and policy to Africa should be different in different counties, so the assistances and cooperation with Africa would have more pertinence and territoriality, and would work better. China will play a significant role to give assistance to Africa and will try every means to offer more opportunities to bilateral development.

  • LI Yuanfang,ZHANG Xiaoping
    2015, 35(2): 250-257.
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    Global warming is mainly caused by carbon emissions produced by human activities. In China, electric power sector is an important sector to consume fossil energy and emit carbon, so enough attention should be paid to implementation of energy-saving and emission reduction policies. With the development of economy and society, domestic electricity consumption has been increasing gradually, and its carbon emissions problem has caused people’s concern. Based on the data of household electrical carbon emissions per capita, the paper firstly employs some unbalanced indexes of classical statistical methods to describe the trend of regional disparities of domestic carbon emissions in urban China at prefecture level. Secondly, the spatial-temporal evolution of carbon emissions of domestic electricity consumption since 2002 is analyzed quantitatively by using ESDA. The result reveals that there had been an overall downward trend of spatial inequality during 2002-2011. The per capita carbon emission exhibited a positive spatial autocorrelation, which increased gradually over time. The cold and hot spots distribution pattern kept stable in general, while the high-value agglomeration area extended northward from Guangdong Province to other southeast coastal areas. In terms of the growth rate of carbon emissions, there was no significant spatial autocorrelation and the cold and hot spots changed frequently without obvious appearance of geographical concentration. The number of high value areas increased greatly and moved northward as well.

  • YANG Zhongzhen,GONG Zhiguang,CHEN Dongxu
    2015, 35(2): 258-266.
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    We establish a structure equation model to simulate the relationship between the size of the catchment area and scale of airport airline network. With the model, the relationship between the variable group of “the outputs of the secondary and tertiary industries, total population, and the social consuming amount” and that of “the number of reachable airports, flight frequency, and the length of the airline network” is cleared. Based on the land-side and air-side transport networks, we give the equations to calculate the land-side and air-side accessibilities of an airport. Moreover, based on passengers’ subjective feelings, we combine the two accessibilities as an index of regional air transportation accessibility, and use it as the criteria to evaluate the airport location/distribution schemes. Finally, taking Yantai/Weihai region as an example, we analyze different airport location/distribution scenarios. The results show that it is good to build one airport in the region, in one airport case passengers can enjoy good flight services and the highest regional air transportation accessibility can be offered.

  • XIAO Zhanxin,LUO An,LIANG Jin,HONG Zihan,LI Hongzhong
    2015, 35(2): 267-274.
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    With the data from field survey and literature comparison analysis, taking road transportation as an example, this paper explored the current situation of transportation in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. The results indicate that the total amount of the trucks continuously increased from 634 117 in 2009 to 686 022 in 2010 and had a sudden drop to 615 188 in 2012. Similarly, the sum of petrol consumption increased from 1 605 039 063 litres in 2009 to 1 683 547 808 litres in 2011 with a sudden fall to 1 565 549 249 litres in 2012. The diesel consumption rose from 10 280 424 087 litres in 2009 to 11 469 238 676 litres in 2011 constantly, then declined to 10 132 183 276 litres in 2012. Meantime, the amount of buses increased from 23 709 to 26 586. Accordingly the sum of petrol consumption increased from 61 475 930 litres to 108 517 822 litres while the diesel consumption rose from 627 713 514 litres to 704 660 120 litres. Calculation results show that CO2 emissions in PRD region in 2009 were 31 443 857.39 ton. It rose to 34 808 009.10 t in 2011 during the following 3 years. Then it went down sharply to 31 277 418.01 ton in 2012, equivalent to the level of 2009. Thereinto, in 2012 disesl truck produced more CO2 emission (82.9%) than other types of vehicles. Generally, huge energy consumption and environment pollution have been deemed as the vital challenges for PRD traffic development, especially traffic air pollution. Thus this article proposes the core thoughts of the future traffic development in RPD, including transport efficiency improvement, bus-first strategy, clean transport system and technology, development of waterage and green cargo project.

  • WU Limin,HUANG Zhenfang,WANG Kun,ZHANG Chen
    2015, 35(2): 275-283.
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    People’s emotional attachment to a particular place is an objective phenomenon of man-land relationship. By handling the literature of place attachment in tourist destination both at home and abroad, the paper finds that the academic study mainly focuses on the following aspects: the concept definition, influencing factors of place attachment, formation mechanism of place attachment, and the impacting effect of place attachment. In terms of study methods, quantitative study significantly exceeds qualitative study. The theoretical system, the influence mechanism and application field of place attachment of tourism have not been explored in depth. As compared with domestic study, foreign study of place attachment started relatively early, research topics are more abundant, and time and space scales are involved. The paper holds that the relevant domestic research in future should focus on the theory system construction, influence mechanism analysis and the deepening of the tourism research on application fields of place attachment. At the same time, the research of place attachment should consider the peculiarity and typicality of the tourist destination, take into account the possible impacts of the spatial and temporal scales on the research, and use comprehensively qualitative and quantitative research methods, combining with Chinese cultural characteristics of different types of geographical objects, so as to reflect the characters of times, history and dynamic of place attachment research.

  • XU Shuhui,WANG Lihua
    2015, 35(2): 284-290.
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    Undertaking foreign and domestic industry transfer is an important way for industrial restructuring and updating in developing regions. This paper makes a review of the studies at home and abroad on the relationship between industrial transformation and industrial upgrading in developing regions, as well as on the action mechanism of the transformation, and the upgrading ways. It is found that the studies on those topics are lacking in China, as compared with those in foreign countries. The authors consider that a theoretical framework should be constructed from three aspects: correlation between interregional industrial transfer and industrial upgrading in developing regions, their interactional mechanism, and industrial upgrading way. An integrated evaluation system involving industrial structure, business structure, product structure, value structure and location upgrading should be built. Attention also should be paid to the industrial upgrading of the developing region under the joint effect of international and domestic industrial transfer.