Table of Content

    03 July 2015, Volume 35 Issue 4 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Balancing spirituality and secularism, globalism and nationalism: the geographies of identity, integration andcitizenship in schools
    Lily KONG
    2015, 35 (4):  443-455.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002691
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    Beijing’s Spatial Structure in 1920’s:A Study of the Beijing’s Place Names in LuXun’s Diary
    ZHOU Shangyi,ZHANG Leyi
    2015, 35 (4):  456-462.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002724
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    China has started the second survey of place names. One of the tasks is investigation of the culture of place names, which has six functions. One function is showing the spatial structure of settlements in history. This is the first aim of this paper. The second aim of this paper is finding the subjectivity of place names when elites lived in a city and used the place names. That shows the social structure of a city in eyes of elites. This paper shows the statistic of place names in LuXun’ s Diary, which were the places had been or stayed by LuXun from 1912 to 1926, when he lived in Beijing. The series of place names give us a spatial structure of Beijing in that time. This paper highlights the subjective image of Beijing in the eyes of LuXun. This is different from the way to find city’ s structure by historical maps, which is hard to find the real maker of a map. The conclusions are as follows. Firstly, many meaningless place names mentioned by LuXun in his dairy can get their meanings when people look at them in a whole. Their series can be regarded as a cultural heritage, which shows the cultural identity of Chinese intellectuals by LuXun’ s case. Secondly, LuXun took “area” as the most important element to understand the urban structure. In his view, path, border, node and landmark were the second level to percept Beijing.

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    Special Case of the Localization of Western Residential District Planning Theory in New China: Huaqiaoxincun, Guangzhou
    WANG Min,YUAN Zhenjie,ZHAO Meiting
    2015, 35 (4):  463-470.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002717
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    A pivotal transition of the history of urban planning in China occurred in the early days of the PRC. This paper aims to analyze the dialogue between Chinese and Western planning theories through conducting a case study of Huaqiaoxincun (Overseas Chinese New Residential Quarter) in Guangzhou. Huaqiaoxincun is the first private residential district in socialism China, representing the characters of modern residential district which was different from other worker residential districts in the same historical period. We argue that the distinctiveness of Huaqiaoxincun in the history of urban planning in China should be emphasized. This paper contributes to the discussion of the history of urban planning in China, presenting a case study that articulates the fusion of the Chinese and Western theories and thoughts in residential district planning.

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    Homeowner Association in Guangzhou’s Gated Communities: Development Characteristics, Governance Efficacy and Its Determinants
    HE Shenjing,WANG Kun
    2015, 35 (4):  471-480.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002725
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    With the breakdown of the Danwei (work unit) system and the deepening of social restructuring, housing structure in Chinese cities has undergone a profound transformation after more than two decades’ housing reform. Commodity housing estates become the predominant form of residential neighbourhoods, and give rise to a multiplex power relation entangling multiple stakeholders including the residents committee, property management company, and homeowner association (HOA). The current studies on HOA are mainly centered in the field of sociology, law and management sciences, and few is from geographical perspective, moreover, discussions on the institution are more than empirical studies, especially, qualitative analysis is highlighted and quantitative analysis is seldom used. Based on a large-scale household survey and in-depth interviews in Guangzhou in 2012, in combination of collective action, multi-center governance, community governance, we studied the gated community development characteristics and governance efficacy in Guangzhou, and analyzed the influence factors of governance efficacy by means of linear regression. We found that the current development of HOA in China is facing the problems such as imperfect legal environment, shortage of operation funds, lack of participation of the property owners, which is not good for the growth and promotion of “civil society” and ‘collective action’, and difficult to form an effective “multi-center governance order”. The governance efficacy of HOA is affected by a number of factors, including individual characteristics such as household registration, awareness and understanding of property management regulations, neighbourhood characteristics such as neighbourhood size, housing price, and neighbourhood disputes and public participation.

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    Role Conflicts between Hosts and Guests in Ethnic Restaurants: A Case Study of Baisha Village, Lijiang
    ZHANG Ji,XU Honggang
    2015, 35 (4):  481-488.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002713
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    The cultural interaction between local residents and tourists is the core of ethnic tourism, however, in Chinese academic circles, little attention has been paid to the research of the cultural interaction. Previous studies on China’s national exchanges did not involve the new national exchanges promoted by ethnic tourism under the background of mass tourism. Therefore, to study the role conflicts presented in the process of cultural interaction between locals and tourists not only can help to deepen ethnic tourism research, but also can extend the field and scope of national exchanges studies. Taking the theory of role and role conflict from the symbolic interactionism as the guide and two Naxi ethnic restaurants in Baisha Village, Lijiang, as the research objects, this paper conducts a qualitative research on role conflicts between local minority residents and Han tourists. Its findings show that there are multiple role conflict phenomena in the interactive processes between local residents and Han tourists. Specifically, there are not only intra-role conflict in both local residents and tourists, but also inter-role conflicts between the two sides. Those phenomena reflect not only the locals’ pursuit of economic interests, but also the status and power relationships between locals and tourists in their interactive processes.

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    Conflict and Negotiation: A Review on Children’s Geographies in Recent Western Geography
    CHEN Chun,ZHU Hong
    2015, 35 (4):  489-497.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002715
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    Abstract: Until the 1990s, the children were marginalized in the geographical research. With the drive of both human geography and social science, the childhood’s social space and the children’s place experience draw human geographers’ focus. The publication of Children’s Geographies: playing, living, learning and the foundation of the journal- Children’s Geographies indicated that children’s geographies, as a newly-built branch, had come into being and was developing day by day. This review traces back the academic background to the formation of children’s geographies, and analyses the concerned papers in the journal of Children’s Geographies and other three authority journals in the geographic field. After the detailed review, the authors find out two main research topics: 1) the social space of childhood: the adult’s discipline and children’s resistance in public space, school and home; 2) the diversified childhood under the globalization: mobility and difference. Based on this review, the paper proposes the potential research trends in China, aiming at the localization of children’s geographies and the integration with the western research.
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    Research Progress and Directions of Religious Secularization and Its Theories in Geography of the West
    NAN Ying,ZHU Hong
    2015, 35 (4):  498-506.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002718
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    Modern religions have increasingly developed various bonds with the secular society. However, different kinds of secular phenomena and the related theories have not been given enough attention by religious geographers in and out of China. Sometimes geographers even have big misunderstandings or one-sided interpretation. This paper reviews the huge body of western literature on secularization theories, pointing out that the modernity-religion relationships cannot be simply understood as the latter passively accept modernity’s damage or depression. In fact the two probably could be mutually enhanced and actively negotiated. This paper argues that avoiding mixed usage of Chinese and western “secularization” concept is important for avoiding wrong interpretations. Secularization theories are beneficial for geographic research by proving a powerful framework for analyzing and explaining modern religions. However, this framework has not been fully used for explaining the diversity and complexity, because the existing research is: 1) place-biased, 2) culture-biased, 3) mainly based on quantitative analysis and large-scale and lacking in-depth qualitative analysis, and 4) lacking empirical research and systemic investigation into the reasons and processes of religious change in specific geographic environments (especially the non West). Therefore, in future more research attention to religious change should be put to non-western society and its religions, using qualitative research methods to analyze processes and mechanisms of meso-scale and micro-scale religious changes. This is where geographers could use its advantages.

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    Community Attachment Studies in Western Countries
    CHANG Jiang,XIE Dixiang,HUANG Jianwen
    2015, 35 (4):  507-514.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002711
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    Based on the literature review of community attachment studies in western countries, this paper 1) compared the concepts of community attachment and place attachment, 2) introduced three research stages including linear-development model, systemic model and multi-model of community attachment research, and 3) summarized the research methods and predictors of community attachment. Specifically, research methods included qualitative methods, such as in-depth interview, discursive analysis and pictorial methods, as well as quantitative methods, such as survey method, scale development and statistical analysis. In addition, some studies combined the above two types of methods. Predictors of community attachment included socio-demographic predictors, social predictors and physical-environmental predictors. Conclusions suggested that research of community attachment in China should explore theories and methods adapted to China’s own conditions, combine qualitative and quantitative methods, conduct research that focuses on various community forms and predictors with Chinese characteristics, so as to provide basis for government’s policy formulation in China.

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    Progress in the Application of Space Syntax in Human Geography Research in China
    DING Chuanbiao,GU Hengyu,TAO Wei
    2015, 35 (4):  515-521.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002722
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    The relation between space and society is the topic that many academic disciplines involve. Space syntax theory has showed the unique perspective and advantages in the topic. This paper from the “space ontology”, “space configuration”, and “social logic” illustrates the theoretical basis, the core concepts of space syntax and logical thinking. Throughout the overview of existing syntax research in human geography, we find that for human geography scholars the introduction of syntactic theory is still at an early stage. Finally we look further into the application of human geography throughout the optimization of space, microcosmic architectural space, urban space and the relationship between the spatial properties, in order to enrich human geography in the ‘language’ of space and theory.

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    Interpret Film “So Young” Based on the Perspective of Body Geography
    TAO Wei,LIN Pingping,WANG Shaoxu
    2015, 35 (4):  522-531.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002728
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    The article selects the movie “So Young” which is popular in Chinese mainland 2013, as the research material. The article tries to interpret the integration of body, space, and emotion in virtual space from two aspects of corporeality of space and the spatiality of body, which is on the basis of the living practice of different spatial scale of Zheng Wei, Chen Xiaozheng and other characters in film by means of text analysis. The conclusions are reached from the perspective of the embodiment of space 1) The female in the film occupies the initiative position in the relationship, their life is no longer the men’s accessory. They clearly express their own choice of love, show strong feminist style. At the same time, the love experience of heroine represents the aestheticism adhere in campus space and compromise when they enter the society, displays the body under different social power relations and intertwined strategic choice result. 2) The film uses “body” and other discourse, which represents the diversified university campus space, shapes the passion of youth through the consumption of the body. Personalized body has become consumer goods to meet people’s curiosity. Moreover, the conclusions from the angle of the spatiality of body: 1) When they face the discipline of the family, school, social, college students are positive actors rather than passive object. They constantly negotiate with the authority of power through individual body practice. 2) Situated body awareness, expression and characteristic are under the influence of different space subject, which constructs the individual subjectivity, form the living identity.

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    Perceptions and Attitudes of the Residents Taking Residence in Gated Communities towards Gating in Guangzhou, China
    FENG Dan,Werner Breitung
    2015, 35 (4):  532-540.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002710
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    Gated communities, one of new pattern of residential settlements, have been springing up around the United States since the early 1980s. Gated communities are also spread to China during the particular era of globalization, social transition and the reform of housing policy. It has almost become the fixed mode of new residential projects, especially in suburban areas. Though gated communities in China share the similar characteristics with those in America, the local tradition and social contexts are quite distinct. This study explores the mechanisms of gating in China through the demand perspective by empirically examining three gated communities in Guangzhou, China. Drawing on factor analysis and ANOVA analysis, the dimensions of perception and the factors that have influence on the different dimensions are unraveled. Perceptions towards gating are constructed around spatial consequence, spatial belonging and social segregation, and spatial belongings are identified by the residents living in gated communities while social segregation is not perceived. The general attitude toward walls and gates is quite positive which to some extent indicating the development of gated communities in China reflects the market choice. The results differ from the United States or South Africa et al in that class and racial problems in those countries are not evident in urban China.

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    World Heritage Perspective on Ancient Tea Forests of the Jingmai Mountain in Pu’er, Yunnan
    CHEN Yaohua,ZHANG Ou
    2015, 35 (4):  541-548.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002693
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    As the development of conservation work of Ancient Tea Forests of Jingmai Mountain in Pu’er, defining its outstanding universal value in the context of World Heritage is of much importance. Based on social and natural investigation, this article mainly introduces the typical cultural landscape of the Ancient Tea Forests of Jingmai Mountain in Pu’er. It is considered that the ancient tea forests have not only the significance in interaction between man and nature, but also have a unique value and cultural significance in the cultural landscape heritages in physical geography and cultural geography perspective. The article expounds the development history, the key cultivation technology and the whole landscape of the forests and their important influence on man-land relationship and cultural inheritance. In the paper, the present situation and protection status of the ancient forests under the protection of the World Heritage Convention are also discussed, and a comparison with similar world famous agricultural landscape or famous tea garden is made. The preliminary results suggest that the landscape of the forests includes a high degree of integration of man and nature and has precious outstanding universal value. Generally speaking, the value of the Ancient Tea Forests of Jingmai Mountain in Pu’er is unique, as compared with other world heritage. The authenticity, integrality of the landscape may fit the world heritage criteria iii and v, thus the research and the understanding of the value of the ancient tea forests seem to be especially important for us, and they should be further investigated.

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    Rising of Rubber Culture Landscapes in Southeast Frontier Ethnic Regions of China under the Background of Globalization:A Case Study of Xishuangbanna
    XU Bin,ZHOU Zhisheng
    2015, 35 (4):  549-560.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002714
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    The change of the agricultural culture landscapes and its influence in Southwest frontier ethnic regions has attracted much attention from the related academic circle. This paper researches the spatial pattern and process of rubber culture landscapes, as well as the rise of the landscapes and its influence on ethnic groups’ relationship. Xishuangbanna is selected to be the research region, where Jinuo Mountain area is chosen as the site for fieldwork. The research results indicate that the rice culture is weakening and rubber cultural landscapes are rising in Xishuangbanna, as rubber planting areas are enlarging sharply and land use patterns are changing. The rubber culture can increase local farmer’s incomes, but it also brings about a lot of negative influences on ecological environment and social development, such as damaging the ecological diversity, increasing the risk for ethnic development, reducing the ethnic complementarity, breaking the symbiosis relation of ethnic economy, impacting the ethnic rural society structure, and making the ethnic emotions and national identity give place to economic benefits.

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    Interpretation of the Conflict in Myanmar from Geopolitical Perspective after 2009
    HU Zhiding,LUO Huasong,LI Cansong,FU Lei,XIONG Liran
    2015, 35 (4):  561-568.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002727
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    In the years after Myanmar independence, the conflicts between the central government and local ethnic armies have varied between a state of fighting and periods of relative calm. But after 2009, the conflict in Myanmar began to internationalize, the situation became more complicated, and changed in nature. The scale and the continued fighting in the Myanmar domestic conflict into 2015 confirms this. Based on interviews and a questionnaire, this article confirms the point of view that Myanmar’s domestic geopolitical conflict is no longer just due to domestic ethnic problems, but has come into the sphere of the “big game” between America and China in the context of global geopolitical and economic structural change. The changes in the global geopolitical pattern have led to the convergence of geopolitical strategy between the great powers in Myanmar. The result is the global geopolitical change in the location of Myanmar. Myanmar has become a new front in the global game of great powers, and the geographical characteristics in Northern and eastern Myanmar combined with the ethnic armed geopolitical relations in the north, have changed permanently the geopolitical significance of the conflicts of Myanmar, and altered as well the domestic situation of Myanmar.

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    Politics Situation and Development Trend in the North Myanmar in 2015 and China’s Countermeasures
    LI Cansong,LUO Huasong,HU Zhiding,FU Lei,XIONG Liran
    2015, 35 (4):  569-576.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002731
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    After the US resumed official relationship with Myanmar, the nation has become the key area of Sino-US East Asia strategy. The Myanmar government and its local minority ethnic military forces have made any effort to fulfill their political goals. Thus, the political situation of North Myanmar is subject to many parts, and the current situation is reflecting the complicated relationship among different parts, including US, China, Myanmar government and local ethnic military forces. From the perspective of inter-subjectivity, along with global geopolitical changes, we analyzed the actions of main parts and their inter-relationships in the North Myanmar situation. Based on the interview and the investigation data, we inferred the future situation in Myanmar. The conclusion is as follows: in the short run, before the presidential election, the situation will be unstable and with lasting intense tensions; in the long run, after the election, the situation will tends to be pacified but with temporary tensions. It suggests that China should strengthen inter-governmental cooperation to prevent the US intervention in the future, and change its investments, maintain the national image in Myanmar. China can also attempt to keep contact with local military forces and other parties, as an impressive nation, creatively involving the regional affairs to properly solve the conflicts in the North Myanmar.

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    Spatial-Temporal Evolution of KoKang Conflicts in the Northern Myanmar and Its Immediate Impacts on China’s Border Security: Based on the Event Data and Field Survey
    XIONG Liran,LUO Huasong,FU Lei,HU Zhiding,LI Cansong
    2015, 35 (4):  577-584.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002730
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    Since the adjacent Chinese border, the military conflict of Kokang area in Northern Myanmar has an immediate impact on China's border security. Based on the event data and field survey data, the article reviews the spatial-temporal evolution pattern of Kokang Conflict in Northern Myanmar, and analyzes the war aims of both the Myanmar Government Army and MNDAA and the spatial characteristics of the conflict at different stages; On this basis, this paper analyzes the traditional security impact along China’s border caused by the Kokang Conflict, i.e. direct war damages and threats, as well as the non-traditional ones that may lead to social panic and increasing social uncertainty. The regional differences of China’s border security in response to the spatial variation of Kokang Conflict, the most immediate security problem is the loss of property and the life security threats of the Chinese people along the border caused by Myanmar military aircraft cross-border or Myanmar bomb falling in China near the southern Kokang, the most immediate security issue is social stability and social safety problems caused by a lot of Kokang refugees into China along the border near the northern Kokang. Finally, this study suggests that the main battlefield of warring parties is likely to further close to China-Myanmar border and extend to the northern Kokang, if the conflicts continued it would have had profound impacts on the geo-political and economic relations in Southeast Asia and the eastern Indian Ocean Region.

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    Influence of Refugees in Burma Kokang Flooded into the Border Area on China
    YU Haili,LIU Jing,HU Zhiding,XIONG Liran,LI Cansong,FU Lei
    2015, 35 (4):  585-591.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002723
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    The conflict in Burma Kokang Broke Out, and a large number of refugees have poured into China’s Yunnan Province border area to escape the war. The Kokang refugees entered China and live in penury. But with the help of government and the public in our country, their basic need of life was guaranteed. Although people in Kokang and people in China’s border areas, language is interlinked, live in a similar way, people on both sides almost have no estrangement. But we cannot ignore the effects caused by the influx of Kokang refugees in border areas, so as to avoid the refugee problem lead to the scourge. This study analyzes the impact of the conflict on the border areas of China through field trips, questionnaires, and interviews. The result shows that an influx of refugees has damaged border areas of bilateral trade and increased security pressure, and threatened the ecological environment, but also has brought new labor and economic source for the border area. At the same time, the government has promulgated a series of effective measures for the problem of refugees. Overall, the impact of the influx of Kokang refugees in the border area of our country is in the controllable range, and did not cause the unbalance of border area society.

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    Climatic Characteristics Indicated by the Variations of Rb/Sr in the Liukuang Section during the Last Glacial Period
    LI Zhiwen,LI Baosheng,SUN Li,WANG Fengnian
    2015, 35 (4):  592-600.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002729
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    Liukuang Red bedding of the Last Glacial is located near Chenshantou in the north of Shandong Peninsula. Based on the field investigation, we found the Liukuang section mainly consists of the alternating deposition of dune sands and paleosol or lacustrine, and its geological age is 13.1-78.9 ka BP. According to the analysis of the contents of Rb, Sr, Rb/Sr ratio and other mineral composition, we got the conclusion as follows: 1) Rb and Sr are released by the decomposition of instable minerals, especially by the potash feldspar and plagioclase, and their amount is increasing as the weathering strengthens. Rb is absorbed and Sr is leaching because of their different geo-chemical properties, which led to the different Rb contents in different sedimentary facies, that in dune sand< sandy paleosol < lacustrine < silty paleosol, and the Sr contents also varying in different sedimentary facies, that in dune sand > lacustrine > sand paleosol >silty paleosol. 2) The value of Rb, Sr and Rb/Sr ratios shows remarkable variations in alternation of peaks and valleys, of which LKS4 and LKS2 represent cold periods and LKS3 represents warm period which includes LKS3b cold period and LKS3a and LKS3c warm periods. It suggests the climate variations on ten-millennium scale. These warm periods mainly correspond to strong summer monsoon indicated by stalagmite in Hulu Cave in China, as well as the peak of total amount of astronomical insolation at 65°N in July, and cold periods correspond to weak summer monsoon and low value of total amount of insolation, which reveals that the climate changes in the Liukuang section during the Last Glacial period probably results from the mutual impact of total amount of insolation and East Asian summer monsoon.

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    Applications of EEMD in the Trends Analysis of the Thunderstorm Days
    CHEN Zehuang,ZHANG Yufeng,XIE Fei,HUO Guang,CAO Hongliang
    2015, 35 (4):  601-606.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002726
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    The EEMD (Ensemble empirical mode decomposition) was used to analyze the thunderstorm days of Hong Kong to clarify the applicability in the trends analysis of lightning day. At first, the IMF (intrinsic mode function) components were decomposed based on EEMD, and then the Hilbert transform was also used to extract the features of each IMF component of the thunderstorm days. Also both the Hilbert spectrum and the marginal spectrum were showed in this paper to illustrate the variation features of the days. Lastly, the significance test of the thunderstorm days of IMF component was also made to illustrate the reliability of the IMFs in analyzing the trends. According to the research the conclusions can be drawn as follows: the thunderstorm days in Hong Kong could be decomposed into a trend term and five IMF components with different center frequencies. And the energies of the IMFs were mainly concentrated in 0.35~0.5 Hz and 0~0.05 Hz. Based on the analysis of the energy spectrum density and period distribution of the IMFs, it proved that 2.8 a interannual variation and 25 a generational variation of lightning day were the main cycles, and 4.5 and 7.1 a were the secondary cycle. Besides, from the trend term, the thunderstorm days in Hong Kong grown in wave-like form. From the results, the EEMD algorithm can be applied to the analysis of the characteristics of thunderstorm day’s trend better.

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