Table of Content

    31 March 2016, Volume 36 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Translocal Restaurants’ Cultural Production:Authentic Standardization Process of Meet Fresh
    ZENG Guojun,SUN Shuzhi
    2016, 36 (2):  151-157.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002816
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    The paper studied the mechanism and process of restaurants’ cultural production of authentic standardization. Taking Meet Fresh, a Taiwan dessert shop brand, as a case and using participant observation and interview, the paper elaborated the mechanism and process of translocal cultural production of Meet Fresh and tried to clarify the relationship between authenticity and standardization. The study indicates that: First, the process of restaurants’ cultural production of authentic standardization is to symbolize the unique or differentiated authenticity, then produce the symbols in standardization in the process of scale and constantly make adjustments based on customers’ feedback and needs. Second, in this mechanism, the authenticity is constructive and should be unique. The relationship between authenticity and standardization is that standardization is the protection of authenticity while authenticity is the basis of standardization. Third, consumers’ perception of authenticity and standardization are consistent with that of the enterprise. The study develops the theoretical system of translocal restaurants’ cultural production, and would provide reference for those restaurants which are engaged in the same kind of translocal cultural production.

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    Politics of Scale in Tsang Tsou Choi’s Graffiti
    CHEN Danyang
    2016, 36 (2):  158-165.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002820
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    Modern graffiti originated from the western world. In recent years it also appeared in China's urban spaces, and caused a lot of social problems. The article analyzed the research achievements at home and abroad, explicated that one important effect of graffiti is constructing and changing place meanings. Known as Kowloon Emperor, Tsang Tsou Choi was one famous graffitist in Hong Kong. The article discussed different defines of Tsang’s graffiti by Hong Kong Government, cultural elites and Tsang himself in three periods, tried to use politics of scale theory to explain different circumstances of Tsang’s graffiti in those periods. The conclusion is the protection of Tsang’s graffiti by Hong Kong Government after Tsang's death did not mean that the government recognized Tsang’s graffiti as art, but the compromise with cultural elites when facing their scale-up strategy. Finally, the article discussed the prospect of applying politics of scale theory to the problem of graffiti in the current Chinese cities.
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    Historical Stratum Accumulation and Mechanism of Cultural Landscapes in Confucius’ Hometown
    TANG Shunying,ZHOU Shangyi,LIU Fengxiang
    2016, 36 (2):  166-173.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002814
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    Qufu is a famous historic city in China, which is known as “Hometown of Confucius”, “Eastern Holy City”, and “Birthplace of Confucian Culture”. The landscape pattern of Qufu is the result of history. Why have some landscapes been reserved and left increasingly significant impact while some others have fallen into oblivion? What is the operating mechanism behind such a phenomenon? This paper will explore answers to these questions on the basis of historical relics, historical documents, and planning information. The following conclusions will be drawn. First, identity to Confucianism by officials was the main cause of stratum accumulation construction of Qufu’s cultural landscapes. In the history, as rulers utilized Confucianism as a governance instrument, the government would create the peak of landscapes construction in Qufu through investment, thus making the landscapes serve the political culture of the country. Therefore, landscapes related Confucius have been constantly strengthened while other cultural landscapes have been ignored intentionally or unintentionally and even disappeared. Second, at present, the government invests in the Qufu’s landscapes for the purpose of showcasing Chinese culture to the outside world and developing tourism. The landscapes of Qufu were labelled as Confucius and Confucianism, which constrain the possibility of other type of landscapes.
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    Transnational Upgrading of ZARA: Perspective of Spatial-Temporal History
    LIU Bo,ZHU Hon
    2016, 36 (2):  174-180.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002817
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    Under the context of globalization, brands are more increasingly close to places. The fast fashion brands from western developed countries adopt management model with unified prices, the same styles and similar style shops all over the world and their brand images are usually considered with negative significance, but they actually upgrade with higher prices in developing countries including China than in western developed countries. In the case of ZARA, the study describes spatial history of ZARA and analyses how place origin, history of social and space and store location play a role in the transnational upgrading of fast fashion brands. The study finds that interaction of fashion brands and fashion places is crucial to transnational upgrading. Several conclusions are as follows: First, the interaction of fashion brands and fashion place continues to write a new fashion brand memory into the brand and therefore weakens the effect of brand origin stereotype and meanwhile enhance its fashion image on the global scale. Therefore, history of social and space of ZARA has more influence on the brand image than place origin. Second, ZARA interacts with the global fashion city such as Paris, New York, London and so on to shape global and fashion image, and the title of “global brand” appeals to Chinese native consumers. Third, ZARA penetrates from big cities to the smaller cities so as to establish better fashion image and achieve transnational upgrading. Fourth, the stores locate in the high-end consumer blocks and reposition in the high-end consumer groups to achieve fast fashion brand upgrading. The study provides the place and transnational perspective of cultural geography for understanding transnational upgrading of fast fashion brands. It also improves our understanding of how Chinese consumers response to the global fashion culture.
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    Daily Consumption Activities of Different Classes Impacted by Smog and Their Constraint
    JIU Jiangwei,ZHANG Min
    2016, 36 (2):  181-188.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002818
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    Unprecedented widespread serious smog, which has occurred for recent years in China, has had severe impact on almost every aspect of social lives. This study makes effort to find detail conditions of the influence on residents’ daily consumption activities, and their differences among different classes. The assumption is that, as a kind of external constraint, the smog causes temporal-spatial variations of residents’ daily consumption activities, as well as the differentiation among social groups, when it encounters individual initiatives in different socio- economic contexts. Following the interpretivism approach of situation analysis, this study conducts surveys and interviews with residents of different class, who are living in a special inner city section of Nanjing, namely the old Southern City, where lower, middle and higher classes neighborhoods are located adjacently, and which is near to diversity consumption places. This study finds that, under the influence of smog, there are different temporal-spatial changes of consumption activity among different consumption types, as well as different classes. Furthermore, when it is smoggy, there are different consumption behavior and activities due to different ability to break through the constraints. The different ability to break the constraints is mainly caused by the differences in economic conditions and social networks. The lower class usually has very poor capacity in struggling against bad weather, and they always make passive compromises, while the middle and higher classes can proactively respond to the smog hazard. This study further highlights that the daily-life spatial segregation among different classes is intensified, when negative environmental constraints, such as bad weather conditions, are adding to existing segregated social economic isolation. According to the research results, some suggestions are put forward as follows: 1) adopting life style-oriented spatial policy; 2) improving the convenient level of connection between public transportation and the daily consumption spaces; 3) giving lower class residents’ daily life more social concern and policy support.
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    Urban Elderly’s Social Interaction and Space Reconstruction in the Hypermarkets
    WANG Shuo,ZHANG Min
    2016, 36 (2):  189-197.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002822
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    Social interaction is one of the important indexes of evaluation of the quality of life to the elderly, and shopping is one of the major activities of the elderly, the features and social meaning of interaction in shopping space should be discussed by geography researchers .Based on the old people who often go to the hypermarket for shopping as the respondents, through in-depth observation, tracking study, semi-structured interview and other qualitative research methods, and the model of a “sociability”, the content, features, factors and mechanisms of elderly’s social interaction in the hypermarket have been studied. Study findings suggest that interaction is an important activity of the elderly in the hypermarket, which is influenced by family structure, loneliness, hypermarkets’ environment and so on, thus forming various features and types of interactions and communication. In the background of the residential segregation of urban renewal and the increasing scarcity of communication space, construction of social communication environment of shopping space like hypermarket for older people is playing an important role in getting rid of loneliness, improving the quality of life and happiness.
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    Overseas Chinese Architecture Morphology and Reconstruction of Patriarchal Clan Locality: A Study on Architectural Geography of Chen Cihong’s Former Residence
    ZHAO Meiting,WANG Min.Overseas Chinese Architecture Morphology and Reconstruction of Patriarchal Clan Locality:A Study on Architectural Geography o
    2016, 36 (2):  198-207.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002757
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    This paper tried to analyze the interactive relationship and the mechanism between the transformation of architecture morphology and socio-cultural construction from the angle of view of architectural geography. Chen Cihong’s former residence in Shantou was taken as a case to be studied. We found that the relationship between the morphology evolution of the former residence and socio-cultural construction was coupling and interactive. As the acting forces of the conflict and reconstitution were different in three stages, the morphology and the relationship were also different. What’s more, for the Chen Cihong’s former residence, the locality of patriarchal clan meaning is one of their meeting points. The architecture morphology of the residence showed its locality meaning and the times pushed the former residence’s meaning reconstructing to experience a process from declaring family glory and power to trying to discipline clan volition, and then to performing the place’s and clan’s culture. We argue that more attention for human geography should be paid to the study of the space-time overlying property of Overseas Chinese’s architecture and the locality meaning produced from its cultural connotation.
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    Architecture Features and Functions of the Embrasure Fortresses in Linwu County, Hunan
    HE Feng,LI Yuwei,CHEN Zheng
    2016, 36 (2):  208-215.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002819
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    Linwu’s embrasure fortress is a kind of unique historical heritage in Southern Hunan. Now they remain less than ten, although they had a long history and were widely distributed in the past. These embrasure fortresses were usually located beside the ancient roads or among the ponds, which were dozens or hundreds of meters from the entrance of the villages. Therefore, they were known locally for “Shuikou” or “Xiashou”. They had obviously military defense capabilities for their close and firm shapes and rectangular embrasures on their walls from top to bottom. In addition, they had other functions such as religious temple, classical academies, pavilions or Fengshui architectures. These embrasure fortresses provided a kind of precious historical materials, with important historical, scientific and artistic value for studying ancient military defense systems, social cultures, architecture art, folk customs and so on of Linwu County.
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    Influence of Tourism Development on Traditional Local Culture Preservation: Based on the Field Work in Hongcun, Chengkan and Xucun Villages
    KONG Xiang,ZHUO Fangyong,MIAO Changsong
    2016, 36 (2):  216-224.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002823
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    With the development of tourism, the residents play the role of the local culture inheritors, and their cultural identity of the inheritors will have a special and important value to traditional local culture protection. Since the development of tourism may affect the income and lifestyle of residents in ancient villages, it has profound impact on the residents’ cultural identity. On the basis of field work in Hongcun, Chengkan and Xucun in Huizhou, this thesis preliminarily tested the internal connection between tourism, residents’ cultural identity and the preservation of traditional local culture. It shows that, if the development of tourism may increase the residents’ income and provide more chance to strengthen their cultural self-confidence, it may improve residents’ cultural identity and protect consciousness on ancient village. Therefore, there may be significant differences in the influence of tourism development on culture preservation, and the unreasonable development of tourism may lead to huge challenges for the protection of cultural resources of the ancient villages.
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    Space Reconstruction of Home under the Background of Tourism Commercialization: A Case Study of Dai Family Hotel in Xishuangbanna
    ZHENG Shilin,ZHU Hong,TANG Xueqiong
    2016, 36 (2):  225-236.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002827
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    The transformation in tourism destination has changed local people’s lives dramatically, in which the local house is the key transformed feature. Local houses which used to be private space with the exclusiveness and privacy, are converted into open business space as family hotels to influence the space of home and the daily life of hosts. However, current literature only reviews family hotels as a “business organizations” while little analyses their original attribute as hosts’ “home” from a cultural geography perspective. Employing the method of observation and interview method, this research aims to analyze how family hotels are still acting as hosts’ “home” in Dai Nationality Garden in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan. It studies the reconstruction process of interior space of “commercial home” by focusing on the changes of the structure, function, boundary of Dai people’s building, and how these changes affect the connotation of the space. It is found that the reconstruction of home space is the product of interaction and negotiation among the activities of tourism. The tourists’ consumption and the host’ construction of home accelerate the reconstruction of the home space. The reconstruction process of interior space of Dai people’s home is from space transformation to space expansion and then space segmentation and space making. Tourists play a dominant role in the reconstruction process of home, their gaze and demands directly contribute to the space reconstruction of home. The main body of space reconstruction of home is Dai people, their cultural background and the demands for the comfort of home lead to more multivariate and complex space of home. The change of interior space of home leads to the transfer of diversification of the identity performance and spatial cognition of Dai people, and makes home become a diversified and complicated social space which combines with economic, cultural consumption, social relations and multiple identities performance.
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    Tourists’ Pro-Environmental Behavior in Urban Mountainous Scenic Spot: A Case Study of the Yuelu Mountain
    WANG Kai,LI Zhimiao,XIAO Yan
    2016, 36 (2):  237-244.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002824
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    Tourists’ environmental performance has exerted far-reaching influences on the sustainable development of the scenic spot. Converging value-belief-norm theory involving pro-social motives and theory of planned behavior involving self-interest motives, this paper was designed to provide a comprehensive understanding of the formation of travelers' pro-environmental intentions in the Yuelu Mountain which attracted numerous tourists since free-admission policy. Results showed that our unified model for pro-environmental intention was superior to existing theories; Adverse consequences for valued objects had significant positive influence on ascribed responsibility, attitude toward the behavior, perceived behavioral control and subjective norm, whose standardized path coefficients were 0.98, 0.50, 0.70 and 0.66 respectively; Personal norm and subjective norm were the main factors affecting pro-environmental intention whose standardized path coefficients were 0.70 and 0.51 respectively, while the path from attitude toward the behavior and from perceived behavioral control to behavioral intention was found to be not significant. Based on above conclusions, this paper suggests raising tourist’ pro-environmental awareness through strengthening publicity and education from authorities and supervising them from pro-environmental volunteers.
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    Excessive Commercialization in Ethnic Minority Villages: A Case Study of the Xijiang Miao Village
    SUN Xiaolong,GAO Jie
    2016, 36 (2):  245-252.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002826
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    Taking Xijiang Miao Village as a case, based on an M-R theoretical model that in view of “stimulus – organism-response”, this study submits a conceptual model of commercial perception and examines the relationship between the predetermined variables affecting the tourists’ perception and commercialization through SEM by using SPSS and AMOS. The results show that tourism space environment, resident social forms and tourism subsidiary products have positive influence on tourists’ commercial perception, and tourism business environment has indirect influence on tourists’ commercial perception. Meanwhile, taking into account the stakeholders involved to commercial factors, and based on the empirical analysis, this research discusses the push and evolution mechanism of tourism commercialization from view of the “stimulus-response”. This study argues that the core cause for excessive commercialization of Ethnic Village Resorts such as Xijiang Miao Village is irrational allocation of property rights and the lack of effective management mechanism. Finally, this study proposes some suggestions for regulating excessive commercialization in Ethnic Minority Villages: 1) In terms of technical means, this kind of resorts needs to strengthen the custom flow control, and to plan marketing and tourism service facilities. 2) In terms of system management, the resorts should build a reasonable property right system and clarify the scope of ownership. 3) The resorts should construct a development model or platform which meets the interests of all stakeholders.
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    Development of Beach Nourishment and Beach Economy in the United States and Its Implications for China’s Coastal Tourism
    REN Hang,YANG Tian,ZHANG Zhenke,JIANG Daling,REN Zepei,XIE Li
    2016, 36 (2):  253-259.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002815
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    According to the latest US beach economy and tourism research data, this paper analyzes the status, management system of beach nourishment, and its contribution to the economic growth of coastal tourism in United States. Also analyzes the difficulties which American coastal tourism are currently facing with. It shows that, as an important natural resource, sandy beach brought huge economic benefits to tourism development. However, the coastal tourism development in China has been facing with many problems such as increasing coastal erosion, beach pollution, inadequate investment in beach nourishment, tourism development undermine the public interests etc. Lastly, this paper discuss the future direction of China’s coastal tourism in the four following aspects, beach nourishment, beach development research and evaluation, government management and dynamic monitoring, on the base of comparing the US beach tourism development experience and the present coastal tourism situation in China.
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    Communication between the Inhabitants of Sino-Burmese Border Areas Based on the Questionnaire and Interview: A Case Study of the Section between Nanhong, Nansan Town and Jianping Villages, Yunnan
    WANG Bo,LI Xuyang,HU Zhiding,XIONG Liran,LI Cansong,FU Lei
    2016, 36 (2):  260-266.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002765
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    In the background of the current Kokang conflict, a large number of refugees poured from Myanmar into Yunnan Province of China. Based on the questionnaire and interview, four perspectives are discussed in this paper: the foundation of the communication between the inhabitants of Sino-Burmese border areas, the form of the communication, the frequency of the communication and the impact factors of the communication. The results indicate that: 1) the long history, convenience of terrain and supportive policy promote the communication between Chinese and Burmese; 2) the form of the communication includes trade, education and marriage; 3) the frequency and intensity of the communication between China and Burma border people are high; 4)the interaction between Chinese and Burmese has been affected by the relationship between the two countries, and their trade policies and the policies of opening to the outside world.
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    Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Kokang Refugees under the Conflict of North Myanmar in 2015
    YANG Zaiyue,HUI Kai,HU Zhiding,FU Lei,XIONG Lirang,LI Cansong
    2016, 36 (2):  267-273.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002792
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    Through on-the-spot investigation, questionnaire survey and in-depth interview, and combined with GIS technology and statistical analysis, the spatial distribution characteristics and causes of the Kokang refugees pouring into China during the Feb. 2nd, 2015 North Myanmar conflict are analyzed from macroscopic and microscopic angles of view. The results show that: Under the conflict, influenced by Geographic distance, policy, social relations, economy, natural conditions and so forth, the refugees are mostly distributed in the Chinese side. From macroscopic point of view, the refugee distribution presents a strip of zone along the border, showing a depth decreasing trend in China; from microcosmic point of view, there exist three types of distribution: agglomeration type, decentralization type, and agglomeration-decentralization type.
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    Spatial Distribution and Mechanism Analysis of Exhibition Enterprises in Shanghai
    ZHU Qijing,WANG Ying,YU Hu,GE Lyulong,LU Lin
    2016, 36 (2):  274-283.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002813
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    The exhibition industry has become an important part of modern urban service economy. With the data of 2 156 exhibition companies in Shanghai, the authors use ArcGIS spatial analysis to study the temporal evolution of the process of Shanghai exhibition industry, explore layout features of exhibition business from the perspective of industry chain, and finally explore the evolution mechanism. The result shows that: 1) Shanghai exhibition industry developed slowly and the differences of the spatial distribution gradually reduced before 2000. After 2002, differences increased and gathering trend strengthened; 2) Exhibition industry was mainly distributed in Huangpu and Jing’an Districts in 1992, single-center gathering was significant. In 2002 exhibition industry gathered along the west bank of the Huangpu River and gradually extended to both sides, forming an exhibition industry development axis where Shanghai government was the center and Xujiahui the sub-center. To the end of 2014, a multi-center cluster and expanded multi-axis network distribution pattern was presented; 3) The mean value center of Shanghai exhibition industry chain was located in Xuhui District, which is the sub-center of Shanghai, and Huangpu District, the downtown area of the city, its spatial distribution was of a positive spatial agglomeration. The space gathering trend of downstream exhibition services companies was more obvious; 4) The evolution of spatial pattern of Shanghai exhibition industry was influenced by many factors such as regional development strategies and policies, urban transport and exhibition facilities, transformation of urban functions and industrial restructuring, as well as major festival issues.
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    Topography,Morphological Characteristics and Formation of Weathering Pit in the Miaowan Island, Guangdong, China
    HUANG Rihui,LIU Yun,WANG Wei
    2016, 36 (2):  284-295.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002825
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    Weathering pit is a common rock landscape in the East of China and there are a variety of explanations for its formation. In the thesis, the topography features and its morphological parameters of the weathering in the Miaowan Island are measured and recorded in detail. Also, the debris inside the weathering pits, parent rocks and weathering profile samples were collected. After that, they were analyzed by XRF(X Ray Fluorescence) and XRD (X-Ray Diffraction). Based on the previous factors, the topography and morphological features, chemistry and its mineral features of weathering pit were put under analysis and the genetic mechanism of the development of weathering pit is explored as well. According to the results, firstly, the development of weathering pit is not relevant to its altitude. Weathering pit of various sizes and depths might appear on any rocks that are flat and exposed at any height. Secondly, the various sizes and depths of weathering pit represent different degrees of development. Thirdly, the speed of the development of the caliber in weathering pit is higher than that of its depth. Also, the speed of the development of weathering pit’s long axis is higher than that of its short axis. There are spillways in majority of weathering pits and the groove on the wall is of the same height of the spillway. Fourthly, the element migration characteristic of the debris in the weathering pits and difference of CIA value (chemical index of alteration) between the debris and the parent rocks represent the chemical weathering cause of the weathering pit. Fifthly, the difference of the ratio of quartz to feldspar between the weathering pit’s debris and parent rocks can represent the cause for weathering pit by different weathering of minerals.
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    Water Quality Response on Land Use Pattern in the Water Function Area of the Dongjiang River Basin
    LIU Xulong,DENG Ruru,QIN Yan,LIANG Yeheng,XIONG Longhai
    2016, 36 (2):  296-302.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002821
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    For exploring the response of water quality of water function area to land use pattern in the Dongjiang River Basin in Guangdong Province, the water quality monitoring data of water function area and Landsat 8 OLI image in 2013 are selected in this study. The water quality monitoring data contains CODMn, NH3-N and TP. The response relationship and correlation coefficient between land use structure in riparian zone and water quality monitoring data are analyzed on different spatial scales by using remote sensing classification, GIS spatial analysis and mathematical analysis methods. The results reveal that water quality is relatively poor in the highly-urbanized area, which is in contrast to the protected areas, reserves and buffer strip. The land use structure of the riparian zone exerts a great impact on water quality parameters in the water function areas. The land use structure of farmland, forest and grassland shows positive effects on water quality. However, the land use structure of water body and construction land has negative effects. CODMn shows a higher correlation with farmland, forest, grassland and construction land than NH3-N and TP. The main sources of the pollutants are industrial wastewater, sewage and atmospheric pollutants subsidence. The increase of urban impervious surface deteriorates the water quality. The cropland and grassland are most relevant to water quality on small riparian zone scale. The correlation coefficient between forest and construction land and water quality increases with the riparian zone scale. The correlation between water body and water quality is significant and fluctuates with the scale of riparian zone.

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    Bibliometrics Analysis on MICE Study of China during 2010-2014
    WANG Xiuqiong,DAI Guangquan,WU Xiaojie,PENG Yunyan
    2016, 36 (2):  303-312.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002794
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    Existing literatures on the development of domestic MICE were mostly published before the year 2009, few in recent years. Based on the tourism and geography core academic journals in CNKI from 2010 to 2014, this article searches for the literature about MICE studies, identifies 112 papers as samples, and uses bibliometrics and content analysis to estimate the situation of MICE studies from seven aspects, i.e. published trend, scholar groups, research institution, research object, study method, paper type and research topic. It is shown that MICE study in China is not mature enough and the research level is relatively low. As for research subject and content, there are five characteristics: first, research fields are relatively wide; second, research topic is balanced on broad heading, but concentrated on subdivision; third, crossing study is significant; fourth, in-depth research has made big progress; and final, humanistic care idea is increasing.
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