Table of Content

    05 March 2017, Volume 37 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Composition and Important Research Issues of the Regional System of Coastal Areas and Territorial Seas
    PENG Fei,LIU Tianbao,HAN Zenglin,ZHANG Yaoguang,LI Ying
    2017, 37 (2):  145-153.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002929
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    The security and development of the coastal areas and territorial seas are related to the core interests of the country. In China, the theory of coastal and territorial waters has not been given due attention, realistic needs of maintaining rights and interests in the territory cannot be met with the weakening theoretical basis. This paper attempted to abandon the past concept about territorial seas “Land to determine the ocean”, and constructed the theoretical framework of the territorial seaside system under the background of human-ocean relations, defined the concept of the territorial seas and its composition based on the marine subject, discussed the attribute characteristics of the coastal areas and territorial seas system. The article summarized the general attributes of the territorial seas into three parts: natural attribute, social attribute and relationship attribute. Based on the characteristics of the territorial system boundary in the sea area, this paper divided the territorial seas system into three types: isolated seas regional system, separated seaside regional system and contact sea area regional system, and analyzed the interactive relationship among the elements of territorial seas system at the same time of the system types being classified. It is found that in the coastal areas and territorial seas system, the state dominates the space and shape of the ocean and land for its own security and development, and it is also the historical process of the temporal and spatial evolution of the national coastal and territorial system. Ocean and land have natural, social and relations properties and other basic properties under the leading role of the country, human activities lead to the formation of a complex interaction between the state and the oceans, the state and the land, and the sea and land in the coastal and territorial system. Ocean and land provide material basis and space security for the country's security and development, the state (human activities) develops and uses marine and land resources according to their own knowledge and scientific and technological capabilities. The territorial areas are re-shaped in the process of the system operation, and the perfection and renewal of the coastal areas and territorial seas system have been continually promoted when the country reflects the impact of its own activities and the status of the regional system. At present, the key fields of research on the coastal areas and territorial seas system include the basic theoretical research of the coastal areas, the safeguarding of the territorial seas and territorial rights, the development and protection of coastal areas and territorial seas, and the strategic study of coastal areas and territorial seas.
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    Trans-boundary Water Governance under the Framework of “One Country, Two Systems”
    Raymond Yu WANG
    2017, 37 (2):  154-162.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002928
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    The framework of “one country, two systems” constitutes a unique context of trans-boundary water governance, which has supported the long-term prosperity of Hong Kong and Macau. In the meantime, some contentious issues in regard to the trans-boundary water supply also reflect divergent water governance strategies shaped by different social, historical and political conditions. This paper first reviews the history and current status of trans-boundary water supply for Hong Kong and Macau. It highlights the long-term bilateral collaborative relationships, the main responsibilities of water planning, water development, water conservation and regional coordination that have been carried by the Mainland. Followed by a summary of divergent local water governance arrangements and agenda between Hong Kong and Macau, the paper outlines four main types of contentions which are associated with the water security and water pricing nested in the Guangdong-Hong Kong trans-boundary water supply. Then, the paper demonstrates an alternative side of each contention by providing a more comprehensive explanation to the focal controversy. It is shown that these contentions are stemmed from misunderstanding or misinterpretation of the general public, media, NGOs even academics rather than of inter-governmental arrangements. In this sense, trans-boundary water governance under the ‘one country, two systems’ framework is more likely to facilitate cooperation at the river basin level than international river governance influenced by diplomatic relations, but is also more prone to create internal conflicts that cannot be solely addressed by administrative power. This phenomenon not only echoes with the recent research agenda of political geography that accentuates ‘borders are everywhere’, but also confirms the importance of “soft power” in geo-political relations. The paper argues that the key to the long-term success of trans-boundary water governance under the “one country, two systems” framework does not simply depend on how to set inter-governmental agenda or agreements–they have been effectively supported Hong Kong and Macau’s prosperity but failed to prevent the emergence of social contentions–rather, it lies in approaches that could overcome problems of collective insecurity, inaccurate information and inadequate communication. In other words, successful trans-boundary water governance is not about “water” per se, but is also closely associated with the promotion of transparency, participation and education within a rapid changing society. Therefore, more nuanced understanding of trans-boundary water governance requires a new perspective beyond the “territorial trap”, as well as in-depth research that integrates theories and methods from sociology, political science and public administration and that focus on social relations and social regularities at the local level.
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    Spatiotemporal Evolution of County Urbanization and Migration of Population in Border Province: A Case Study of Guangxi
    LI Hong,ZHANG Jun,OU Xiaojing
    2017, 37 (2):  163-173.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002925
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    Based on the fourth, fifth and sixth population census data of China, econometrics method and the case of Guangxi on county scale, this paper analyzes the spatiotemporal evolution and driving forces of urbanization and migration. The results are as follows: 1) The county urbanization rate of border province has witnessed rapid growth and its gap with country’s average level becomes narrowed, but the rates in most of the counties are still below the national mean. The spatial distribution among counties shows a trend of imbalanced development of urbanization. The distribution of center municipal districts, which have higher urbanization level and play diffusion role, is dispersal. Those areas opening to the outside world earlier, such as the Beibu Gulf region, and the east and southeast of Guangxi adjacent to Guangdong, a developed province, have higher urbanization level than the west and north of Guangxi. 2) The population migration at county level in border province shows a strong trend of spatial autocorrelation, and the degree of spatial autocorrelation agglomeration increased from 2000 to 2010, but the spatial pattern remained stable during the study period. Migration flow and urbanization pattern are basically consistent and their high value regions are both concentrated in the southeastern Guangxi and the Beibu Gulf area. 3) There are three kinds of boundaries which influence the migration in Guangxi, i.e., national boundary, coast line and provincial border. The latter two types of boundaries play a significant role in “attracting” immigration and the development of urbanization and agglomeration along with them, while the national boundary is still having some shield or barrier effects on people movement. 4) From the perspective of immigration destination choosing, as for the spatial pattern of migration, service industries are becoming the main forces absorbing population to move-in. Free trade arrangements, business service, and passages or ports construction along the borders and “One Belt One Road Initiatives” are the main driving forces reshaping border geography in Southwest of China.
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    Spatial Difference and Contributing Factors of the Foreign Workers of Border Ports in Yunnan
    LIU Yuli,HU Zhiding,GE Yuejing
    2017, 37 (2):  174-184.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002930
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    The implementation of “the belt and road initiative” and the interpretation of its orientation of “facing the radiation center of South Asia and Southeast Asia” have created an important opportunity for Yunnan border ports. With the "labor shortage" problem, a large number of foreign workers have poured into Yunnan territory. Cross-border workers issue has become a hotspot in the field of anthropology, geography and economics in the western world, especially in the field of border study. Most researchers pay attention to the push-and-pull factors of foreign workers and its impacts on the local labor market. On contrast, cross-border issue causes a debate in the field of ethnology, demography and economics in the domestic literature. The main points are as follows: the influencing factors of foreign labor, the service and management of foreign labor, and its economic impacts on both two countries. It can be found that quite few geographers pay attention to the cross-border workers issue and the past study regarded border area as a whole area to explore, ignoring the spatial differences among different border ports. Consequently, from the view of geography, this paper analyzes the spatial difference and contributing factors of the foreign workers of border ports in Yunnan based on field research and questionnaires. Firstly, this paper summarizes the overall characteristics of foreign workers of border ports in Yunnan. In detail, first of all, the number of foreign workers shows an increasing trend. Secondly, they are distributed in a range of industries widely, and the different types of industries directly determine the frequency of cross-border labors. Thirdly, the educational level of foreign labors is generally low, which restricts their labor skills and wages. Fourthly, the employment path of foreign workers is single, and their legitimate rights and interests can’t be protected effectively. Subsequently, three characteristics of foreign labors and their spatial differences were analyzed, including the basic characteristics (gender structure, age structure, education level), job characteristics (cross-border approach, employment type, income level), and condition characteristics (living conditions, adaptability to the local environment). This paper concludes that the spatial pattern of the diversity of cross-border workers in Yunnan border ports is in fact the results of border effects, including both “shielding effect” and “mediation effect”. It is to note that human geography elements, such as development opportunities and hinterland supports of ports, foreign workers’ management and service system, the economic and political conditions of neighboring countries, and cultural and social differences, as well as physical geography elements, such as border types and traffic accessibility, contributing to border effects. Finally, this paper suggests that Yunnan should take advantage of political opportunity and pay close attention to the service and management of foreign workers. It would be good to change “shielding effect” into “intermediary effect” and rationally guide foreign workers to participate in the regional economic activity in good order.

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    Influential Factors and Effects of Border Ports on Carrier Cities at Micro-scale: A Case Study of Sino-Myanmar Border Ports in Dehong Prefecture
    MA Teng,GE Yuejing,HUANG Yu,HU Zhiding
    2017, 37 (2):  185-192.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002934
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    As the junction of national interests between sovereign states, border areas, and border ports in particular, have direct effects on carrier cities. This paper takes the four border ports in Dehong prefecture, Yunnan province, as the micro-scale units to discuss the influencing factors of the border ports on the carrier cities at the county scale by the panel data model and the RCI index comparison. The findings show that: 1) total imports and exports and total freight volume of port, and the number of people entering and leaving the port all have a positive effect on the carrier city, and the influence of logistics is the most prominent. The flow of people and logistics become an important form connecting border and carrier city, both of them also have positive effect on the development of carrier city. The customs clearance functions and border trade functions of port are highlighted. 2) the distance between the border port and the carrier city has a significant impact on the development of the carrier city. The greater the distance is, the more obvious the constraints will be, the friction resistance decreases with the reducing of the spatial distance. Through the comparison between Ruili and Yingjiang ports, it can be easily seen that the distance factor has a greater impact on the actual development of the carrier city. 3) among the four ports, only Ruili port shows a vigorous driving forces for the development of carrier city, while the forces at the rest ports, including Wanding, Zhangfeng, Nabang, are weak. Ruili port has great advantage in the flow of people, logistics and the distance from carrier city, and has significant trend of border-city integration, which promotes the development of the carrier city. Both the port scales of Wanding and Zhangfeng are small, and their interactions with carrier cities are weak, thus the port functions are not fully utilized. The distance between Nabang port and carrier city is longer, that restricts the action of the port to promotion the development of the carrier city. Finally, this paper puts forward some suggestions about the differential development of the ports. In order to promote the development of the local industries, Ruili port should play its geographical advantage and cluster effect for further realizing the border-city integration development. Wanding port should strengthen the optimization of import and export commodity structure, enhance the port's import and export capacity and scale, for achieving the interaction with the development of Ruili. Zhangfeng port should expand its scale, increase the flow of people, logistics and its customs clearance capacity, while strengthening the production, technical level of the towns and villages around the port, thereby increasing the value of goods. Yingjiang should break the terrain restrictions, and vigorously improve the quality of traffic between itself and the Nabang port to shorten the actual distance between them. Relying on its good ecological resources, the local government of Yingjiang should energetically promote Sino-Myanmar agricultural cooperation and eco-tourism corridor construction, and build “Yingjiang-Myanmar” green corridor, so as to change its location disadvantage into late-mover advantage.
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    Current Situation, Characteristics and Causes of the Cross-border Marriage in Yunnan and Guangxi
    LIANG Haiyan,DAI Yan,LUO Huasong
    2017, 37 (2):  193-202.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002931
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    With the speeding up of regional economic integration process, the socio-economic structure of the border areas between China and Vietnam has changed, and with the deepening of economic cooperation in the greater Mekong sub-region (GMS), shielding effect in the border areas has weakened, cross-border population migration, such as the population movement of intermarriage and business workers, has become more frequent, so that population in the border areas has become more complex, and the population structure is changed, leading to a series of population security problems. This paper makes an analysis on those problems with the macro-scope statistic data from County Governments and the data from qualitative interviews on illegal cross-border intermarriage in border areas of Yunnan and Guangxi. The results show that cross-border intermarriage in the border areas of the two provinces is increasing rapidly, intermarriage circle extends continuously from the border to the hinterland, cross-border marriage extends broader, Parts of the cross-border marriage will soon turn into the hinterland's transnational marriage, Married population gender structure presents serious imbalance, the number of the women from neighboring countries married into China is much more than that of Chinese women married into the neighbors, the couple’s education-cultural quality of the across border marriage is very low, their cultural levels are mostly primary school and junior high school, the couple’s education resources present a combination of weakness and weakness, across border marriage registration rates is very low, mostly in the form of de facto marriage family in China, And early marriage and many births phenomena in those families are serious, that would not be conducive to China family planning implementation. Couples’ age difference is too large and the cross-border marriages have features of intergenerational inheritance. Further analysis finds that the causes leading to the continuous increase of the cross-border marriage are closely related to the geo-spatial proximity of Vietnam, the homology of cross-border cultural circles, the closure of the marriage circles, the promotion of the two-level economic stair among the neighboring countries, China border areas and inland China, the cumbersome marriage registration procedures and high cost, the complementarity between the two countries’ population sex structure, the dislocation of the marriage system between the two countries, and the instability of the political situation in the border areas. It is difficult to effectively connect the marriage institutions of China and Vietnam because of the great difference of marriage systems between the two countries, including marriage registration certificate requirements, the legal age for marriage, marriage registration fees, and so on. To accomplish this, a special marriage registration agency or department in the border areas should be set up to maintain the reasonable pursuit of cross-border marriages of those people. Traditional security development strategies pay attention to the competition processes, obtaining a relative earning, while non-traditional ones lay more emphasis on cooperation to get absolute return. “Cooperation” should not only be embodied at the sector levels, but also at the national and international levels. China and her neighbors should not be a “zero sum game”, but a benign interaction process. In short, the persistence of Yunnan and Guangxi border areas cross-border marriage is not only connected with historical reasons, but also with the reality conditions, not only affected by cross-border ethnicity’s cultural assimilation, but also by the political restrictions and economic role of China and Vietnam, not only restricted by macro social structures, but also related to the micro life custom of the inhabitants living in the border areas. Cross-border marriage of those people from border areas in Yunnan and Guangxi has become a stable mate model, forming a unique marriage culture in the border areas. That is the result of the inter-action among many factors, and needs to be surveyed from long-term strategic view.

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    A Review on the Health Care Service in Border Regions
    WANG Shuai,CHENG Yang,YE Binhong
    2017, 37 (2):  203-217.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002937
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    Border regions are an important geopolitical area, also a national gateway and an important trade route. After the proposal of the Belt and Road Initiative and Healthy China, there is a pressing need to strengthen research on health care services in border regions. In this paper, we systematically reviewed the publications on health care services in border regions from 2000 to 2016 in China and abroad. There were 282 articles in Chinese and 359 in English shown by CNKI and Web of Science, respectively. The Keyword Co-occurrence tool of CiteSpace software was used to visualize the keywords of the articles we searched for so as to show the current research trend more clearly. In terms of study areas, overseas scholars mainly focused on the U.S.-Mexico border, while Chinese scholars focused on the border regions in Yunnan Province. In terms of research subjects, overseas scholars mainly focused on the ethnic minorities and women who lived in the border regions, while Chinese scholars mainly studied the minorities living in Yunnan Province. In terms of contents, overseas scholars mainly focused on two topics: 1) health care services and disease control in border regions, and 2) cross-border health care utilization behavior and cross-border medical tourism. In the first topic, the health conditions of border residents who were suffering from HIV and cancer were discussed, and how community health workers and governments managed to deliver intervention to the border residents were demonstrated. In the second topic, the characteristics and the influencing factors of various cross-border behaviors which took place in different border regions were studied, and the development and emerging risks of medical tourism which is a special form of cross-border utilization of health care services were pointed out. In addition, some overseas scholars also highlighted the importance of health care accessibility and equality. Because of the complexity of socioeconomic and demographic characteristics of border regions, many non-spatial factors had determinant effects on health care accessibility. In comparison, related research in China started relatively late, and mainly focused on the prevalence, control and influencing factors of various infectious diseases such as malaria, HIV and dengue in Yunnan Province, and the related health care services offered by hospitals. As for research methods, both quantitative and qualitative methods were used by overseas and Chinese scholars, and interdisciplinary characteristics began to show. Quantitative methods are advantageous in identifying the influencing factors of certain diseases or health care utilization behaviors, while qualitative methods perform better in revealing the mechanisms behind phenomena and also in analyzing the interaction between various factors. In general, future research needs to include more areas and discuss health issues in border regions from the perspective of health geography and political geography in the new era. China has many neighboring countries and the geopolitical environment is complex. Research on health care services in border regions needs to be strengthened. In the future, new research methods developed in western countries should be employed based on the Chinese context, such as spatial distribution of health care services and optimization of service layout, and health care service utilization behavior. New conceptual models and emerging theories in border studies need to be combined to perform further research of multidisciplinary characteristics.

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    Prediction of Potential Geographic Distribution of Actinidia chinensis in China Based on Maximum Entropy Niche Model and ArcGIS
    ZHANG Jie,AO Ziqiang,WU Yongming,YANG Chunyan,LI Min
    2017, 37 (2):  218-225.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002926
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    Actinidia chinensis, a large deciduous climbing vine, is native to China and listed as an endangered plant of the national second-grade protection. The origin of Actinidia chinensis is supposed to be the Yangtze River valley, and Actinidia chinensis is known as the widely introduced and cultivated kiwi fruit. The kiwi fruit has both edible and medicinal value. In recent years, because of rapid urbanization and ecological environment change, its wild resources were seriously damaged and its habitat fragmented, which need to be protected, reasonably developed and utilized. Mapping its current distribution is useful for conservation planning,and understanding the change in distribution impacted by climate change is important for mitigation of the impact from future climate change. In this study, 181 historical investigation records were used to predict the potential suitable distribution and current distribution space reconstruction of Chinese kiwi fruit based on ArcGIS and Maximum Entropy niche model. We modeled the potential geographical distribution of the kiwi fruit in China under current and future climate change, and analyzed the key factors determining such distribution areas in China. Results show that the main suitable areas for Chinese kiwi were current distributed between 23° N and 35° N latitude and in the subtropical hilly areas to the east of 102° E longitude, such as the Qinling-Dabashan Mountains, Yun-Gui plateau, Luoxiao Mountains, Nanling Mountains and the Wuyi Mountains. The Maximum Entropy niche model is evaluated to be highly reliable by Receiver operating characteristic (ROC).Training data and Testing data of AUC were both above 0.950, indicating a better forecast. Response curves created by Jackknife method displayed that mean temperature of coldest quarter, min temperature of coldest month, mean diurnal range and temperature seasonality, which are all related to low temperature and their variation range, were the dominant environmental variables that mainly contributed to prediction of suitable distribution potential. The total area of suitable region under current climate condition is 2.38×106 km2, accounting for 25.19% of China's total land area. Under moderate greenhouse gas emissions in 2050 (RCP4.5) scenario, the area of suitable region would change weakly, but the spatial distribution pattern would shift rapidly. Results showed that under the influence of climate warming in the future, the area of suitable region would increase and migrate northwards. These results would provide valuable reference for conservation of the wild resources of Actinidia chinensis as well as regional planting design, and might contribute to the establishment of climate change adaptation policies for considering various adaption options.

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    Reviews and Prospects on Studies of Locust Breeding Area Evolution and Drainage Network Change in China during the Historical Period
    LI Gang,KONG Dongyan,LI Fengqing,LIU Qian,WANG Huijuan
    2017, 37 (2):  226-237.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002922
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    Floods, droughts and locusts were always the three most common types of natural disasters, which seriously impacted agricultural production in China during historical periods. Current studies of historical locust outbreak are focusing on the Eastern Monsoon Region of China, especially the North China Plain and its adjacent areas. Around the main research theme “locust breeding area evolution and drainage network change during historical period in China”, this article first reviews the research background of the migratory locust hazards and locust breeding area evolution, then examines the current progress and difficulties in “climate and disasters”, “locust breeding area evolution and drainage network change” and other related topics, and at last points out the future scientific issues and their significance: 1) More attention should be paid to the systematic data mining and record excavation of the historical locusts and their breeding areas and also to qualitative, quantitative and normalized statistics of sub-species of locusts in different dynasties and regions. Historical locust database is to be improved and coupled with hydrological/climatic/social factors and other disasters. The Atlas of the history of locust outbreak is to be compiled and the Chinese Historical Locust Geographic Information System (CHLGIS) is to be established. 2) The spatio-temporal evolution history of locust breeding areas is lack of simulation and interpretation, especially lack of studies on typical spatio-temporal evolution history during typical hydrological periods and climate period, as well as the mutual transformation process and mechanism of four types of locust breeding areas. The spatial evolution maps of locust breeding areas need to be compiled, the time series need to be updated for high resolution reconstruction, the process analysis of major locust events need to be strengthened, and the explanation from the perspective of ecology and phenology need to be improved. 3) The interaction process and mechanism between locust breeding area evolution and drainage network change under climate change background in the Eastern Monsoon Region of China during the historical period should be explored. It is urgent to study the integration of “Climate-Hydrology-Locust” systematically and integrally, and to find convincing evidence and facts. 4) The coupling relationship between locusts and other natural disasters and social crises in the typical locust breeding areas and drainage network, the response process of the drainage network change and climate change, the quantitative impact on social development, and linkage among “Climate-Disaster-Society” should be examined. 5) Implication to future disaster and risk assessment should be disclosed. In particular, it is important to focus on the four types of locust breeding areas: river flood locust breeding area, lake shore locust breeding area, sea coast locust breeding area and internal plain flood locust breeding area. They have a significant feature of “water attachment” which indicates the interaction process and mechanism between locust breeding area evolution and drainage network change in the Eastern Monsoon Region of China during the historical period should be an important research direction. 6) Modern process studies focus on the characteristics and risks of future catastrophes in the context of global warming. These characteristics and risks need to be predicted and evaluated, which is expected to offer historical reference and scientific foundation for eco-environmental protection, disaster risk assessment and disaster reduction strategies.

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    Spatial Pattern and Service Level of Chinese Feeder Aviation in Small Airports
    LIAO Jiayi,DAI Teqi
    2017, 37 (2):  238-245.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002923
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    Feeder aviation is an important part of the air transport system, and our policy has been pledged to promote feeder development, but the increases are mainly concentrated on the main lines while feeders are lagging behind and stagnant. Researches about Chinese air transport network emphasize on network characteristics, hub-spoke structure and so on, however, the focuses of which are on the hub and trunk, and feeder related research is relatively weak. According to the existing limited studies, there is a large difference on the Chinese current situation of feeder air, which is mainly due to their different criteria on the feeder judging, and what’s more, there is no clear and uniform definition either, which is not conducive to the development and implementation of feeder aviation-related policies. The paper systemically reviews the concepts of feeder aviation at home and abroad to conclude that the judgment standard of feeder route is less than 800 km. And the airline data of small airports that have less than 100 000 passengers in 2014 is collected to analyze the spatial pattern and service level of Chinese feeder aviation in small airports. We find that feeder development in small airport as a whole is not high, and only 41% of the routes are in line with the definition of feeder airlines, which are mainly distributed in western China. There is a large proportion of inter-province routes for small airports, which accounts for 53.6%, and hub-spoke shape seems to be developed in some places. On the other hand, destinations of Chinese small airports are not well designed in consideration of 3 routes and above opening in 1/3 of those airports; what’s important, the feeder airlines’ operational efficiency is slightly better than that of the non-feeder, the average landing frequency of the former is 2.3 times the landing frequency of the latter, and among routes which have 7 times landing and over a week, feeder routes account for 53.1%, what’s more, the average attendance of feeder airlines is nearly 10% higher than that of non-feeder, that is related to their different selections on aircraft type. For example, ERJ-190 (medium), Xinzhou 60 (small) and Bombardier CRJ9000 (medium) are popular in feeder routes, while the main types of non-feeder route are Boeing and Airbus series.

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    Construction and Development of the Zambia-China Economic and Trade Cooperation Zone
    MENG Guangwen,SUI Nana,WANG Xue
    2017, 37 (2):  246-257.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002935
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    Since the 1980s, China has begun its direct investment in Africa. Economic and trade cooperation has been strengthened under the joint efforts of both sides. China has established six economic and trade cooperation zones in Africa according to the successful experiences of Chinese special economic zones, and the establishment and operation of these economic and trade cooperation zones are in line with the interests of both sides and have a huge potential for development. Up till now, research by experts in China and abroad has mainly focused on the establishment background, development process and status, influencing factors, and measures and suggestions for sustainable development of China-Africa economic and trade cooperation zones without in-depth investigation of a single economic and trade cooperation zone. Therefore, using Zambia-China Economic and Cooperation Zone in southern Africa as an example, the present paper analyzes the advantages of and challenges faced by the cooperation zone based on its establishment background and development process. One advantage is a mature political and economic environment in Zambia. Zambia has a mature national system and maintains friendly relations with many countries. Its GDP has achieved continuous positive growth for years now, and its macro-economy is stable. Another advantage is reflected in the protection and incentive policies made by the two governments: the Chinese government set up an economic and trade cooperation zone development fund and provides policy support for investment and financing; Zambia provides work permit and tax incentives. In addition, Zambia has a large market radiation circle; it is not only a founding member of the World Trade Organization, but also a member of the East African Common Market and the Southern African Development Community. Last but not least, the cooperation zone provides a full range of "one-stop" services for enterprises, and Zambia’s mature management experience has provided favorable conditions for the development of the cooperative zone. However, the cooperation zone is also facing some difficulties and challenges in its development process. The infrastructure outside the zone lags behind, especially transportation and power, which has become a bottleneck restricting the development of the cooperative zone; Zambia’s presidential election in every 5 years easily leads to legal and policy changes; the initial big investment but low profitability leads to financial shortage; additionally, Zambia’s prominent disease problems are questioned by the Western countries. According to the existing problems in the cooperation zone, the present paper discusses the experience and implications of its construction. The cooperation zone should rely on the Chinese government to set up a SME Development Fund and help Chinese financial institutions to set up branches in Africa to provide financing consulting, financial management and other aspects of services timely for enterprises; enterprises should play their roles in investment, focus on creating a complete industrial chain, make job-division and collaboration, reduce production costs and achieve economies of scale and agglomeration effect, and enhance cooperation competitiveness and ability to resist risks; enterprises should strictly abide by local laws and regulations, respect local culture and customs, and pay attention to the protection of local ecological environment; enterprises should focus on local people's livelihood, share achievements with local people, and actively fulfill their social responsibilities so as to obtain long-term sustainable development; last, exchanges between China and Africa should be strengthened and negative public opinion should be dealt with.
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    Physical and Chemical Properties of the Quaternary Red Clay in Shizi Town of Langxi County, Anhui Province and Its Paleo-environmental Significance
    DU Dandan,ZHENG Xiangmin,DENG Huangyue,REN Shaofang
    2017, 37 (2):  258-268.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002924
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    The Quaternary red soil is widely distributed in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, and also an important medium reflecting the Quaternary paleo-environment in southern China. The soil profile, located in Shizi town of Langxi County, Anhui Province, has a special double-layer structure with Yellow-brown Earth overlaying the reticulate red clay. Based on the analysis of particle-size, soil magnetism, color index and diffuse reflectance spectra of the 155 samples, combining with the research methods of Chronostratigraphy and Magnetic stratigraphy, comparing the study profile with that of Xiashu loess in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River, this paper aims to explore the material source of the profile. We also compare double-layer structure with Yellow-brown Earth overlaying the reticulate red clay, in order to reveal the implications of paleo-climate and paleo-environmental change about the transition of the double-layer structure. The results show that: 1) The studied profile of the section contains no gravel (>2 mm), low content of sand (> 63μm), and aeolian particle (10~50 μm) is the major type of particle in all samples, clay (<2 μm) is the second major type. All the above conditions reflect the aeolian characteristics of the studied profile. Generally speaking, the grain-size frequency curves of the reticular red clay horizons show the double-peak mode-the 10~50 μm particle group is “the dominated mode” and the one less than 2 μm is “the secondary mode” or “the dominated mode” of some samples. As compared with the Yellow-brown Earth range in the upper part, the underlying reticular red clay range is finer in particle-size and more intensively weathered. 2) The results of soil magnetism, color index and diffuse reflectance spectra for the Yellow-brown Earth range and the reticular red clay range samples in Langxi shows that the reticular red clay range has more hematite and goethite than the Yellow-brown Earth range. This is because the reticular red clay development in southern China was under an extremely humid condition, pedogenesis actually occurred under waterlogged conditions. So the fine-grained magnetite and magnetite were gradually dissolved, and finally converted into goethite and hematite. 3) There is significant negative correlation between magnetic susceptibility (MS) values and clay fraction contents, indicating the MS values are controlled by the weathering degree of the reticulate red clay. The studied profile has significant changes about each physical and chemical indicators from upper part’s Yellow-brown Earth to lower part’s reticulate red clay, that may reflect a significant climate change event in southern China, and can be considered to be a response to the middle Pleistocene major global climate change in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River.
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    Analysis of the Correlation between Air Temperature and NDVI Cohesion Density Using Geographically Weighted and Ordinary Least Square Regression Models
    XU Jianhui,ZHAO Yi,ZHONG Kaiwen,RUAN Huihua,SUN Caige
    2017, 37 (2):  269-276.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002933
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    To study the influence of the spatio-temporal pattern of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) on air temperature in Guangzhou city, four seasons data of MOD13A3 monthly NDVI and monthly data of average air temperature in 2015 are used in this study. The distance-weighted NDVI cohesion density is calculated with MOD13A3 monthly NDVI, which indicates the synthetic information of construction land, vegetation, and waters. The central regions, Panyu and Nansha in Guangzhou city, have low NDVI cohesion density, while other regions with high-density vegetation have high NDVI cohesion density. Based on four seasons’ data of NDVI cohesion density and air temperature, this study quantitatively evaluates the correlation between air temperature and NDVI cohesion density using the geographically weighted regression (GWR) and ordinary least square regression (OLS) models. The GWR and OLS models are then established with NDVI cohesion density and air temperature. The results of GWR and OLS models are evaluated with AICC information criterion, goodness of fitting, and Sigma indexes. As compared with OLS model, GWR shows a much better fitting result, the minimum goodness of fitting increases from 0.02 to 0.464. The maximum goodness of fitting in GWR model reaches 0.724. The Moran’s I value of residual from GWR is much less than that from OLS. The Moran’s I values from OLS are 0.383, 0.342, 0.370, and 0.204 in four seasons, respectively. However, the Moran’s I values from GWR decrease to 0.022, -0.002, -0.022 and -0.025, respectively. Four seasonal Moran’s I values of residual from GWR approach 0, which indicates that the residual from GWR has no spatial autocorrelation. The relationship between NDVI cohesion density and monthly average air temperature has a significant spatial heterogeneity. In general, regression coefficients of NDVI cohesion density increase gradually from negative to positive values from north to south in Guangzhou city. The negative regression coefficients mainly exist in Huadu, Zengcheng, Conghua and Huangpu regions. The negative regression coefficients show a negative influence of NDVI cohesion density on air temperature, while the positive regression coefficients show a positive influence. In those regions dominated by the impervious surfaces, the GWR model has lower goodness of fitting, with the goodness of fitting less than 0.20. Conversely, the GWR model results are in high fit degree in other regions dominated by vegetation, with the goodness of fitting larger than 0.30.
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    Spatial Pattern of Rural Settlements in Huangshan and Its Influencing Factors
    FANG Jian,YANG Xingzhu,ZHU Lin
    2017, 37 (2):  277-285.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002927
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    Based on the satellite image survey data of Huangshan City in 2014, by using the related spatial analysis methods such as landscape pattern index and GIS spatial analyses, the spatial pattern characteristics of rural settlements in Huangshan City were analyzed. Some conclusions are drawn as follows: First, the overall distribution of settlement density of Huangshan City is sparse, but highlights the characteristics of “central city” agglomeration distribution; Second, the scale distribution of rural settlements shows a strong spatial autocorrelation, the high-value and low-value clusters of rural settlement scale are respectively characterized by aggregation distribution in space; Third, the spatial differentiations of township residential spatial pattern in Huangshan City are evident. There exists a distinct spatial disparity in Huangshan City. On the whole, the northeast part is more complex than the Southwest part. The quantitative analysis to rural settlement spatial distribution factors in the regional level indicates that the driving force of influencing rural settlement space distribution is mainly altitude, slope, traffic, central town, population, economy, planning, policy. On that basis, the main factors of rural settlement spatial pattern, as well as the rural settlement spatial morphological characteristics are discussed. 1) The scale of rural settlements in Huangshan City decreases with the increase of regional elevation and slope gradient. 2) With the increase of the distance between the traffic routes and the central towns, the scale of rural settlements shows a downward trend. 3) There is a positive correlation between population size, economic strength and settlement scale. If a town has a larger population size and stronger economy, the scale of rural settlement will be larger. 4) Planning and policy are also the important factors that affect the spatial distribution of rural settlements, they play an important role in the regulation and guidance. Although different factors have different characteristics on the spatial distribution of rural settlements, the final formation of the spatial pattern of rural settlements is the result of the interaction of terrain, location, social-economic conditions and other factors.

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    Tourism Planning Development Strategy Based on Yi-ology: A Case Study of Qingyuan, Guangdong, China
    HUANG Shaohui,HUANG Sichong,LIU Yuanting,TAN Lingling,XU Wenrui
    2017, 37 (2):  286-292.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002936
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    With the vigorous development of tourism, tourism planning as an emerging discipline comes into being. Tourism planning provides a theoretical guidance to tourism, so it should go before tourism. However, the actual situation is not so. In fact, theoretical research has lagged behind. This article tries to set up a strategic model of tourism development employing Taiji(Supreme Pole), Liangyi(Two Modes), Sixiang(Four Images), Bagua (Eight Trigrams), Jiugong(Nine Palaces) from Yi-ology for tourism planning, taking Qingyuan City of China as an example. First, tourism genes are extracted from local terrestrial and cultural systems; second, based on the analysis of strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats(SWOT), the four basic relationships and eight orientations that tourism planning should address are presented systematically; the four basic relationships include quality-quantity, supply-demand, internal-external and large-small relationships, while the eight orientations include tourism destination characteristics, tourism quantitative index, tourism market, tourism product, tourism culture, tourism image, tourism function subarea, and tourism major project. Finally, a strategic model is developed.
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