Table of Content

    05 May 2017, Volume 37 Issue 3 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Tourism-driven Urbanization in Ancient Rural Areas: A Case Study of the Hongcun Village
    LU Song,ZHOU Xiaofeng,ZHANG Xiaojun,XING Lihong
    2017, 37 (3):  293-303.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002944
    Abstract ( )   PDF (10233KB) ( )   Save
    Development of tourism has already become an effective way to the protection and usage of the ancient village heritages. It has brought significant changes to the land use, employment patterns and the industrial structure in traditional rural areas. And the development of tourism has also become an important driving force to the urbanization of those areas. This paper takes Hongcun, one of the World Cultural Heritages, as an example, to research the urbanization process of the ancient villages under the tourism drive in terms of the land, industry and population, etc. The research is done on the basis of the field survey by the whole team. Several methods such as GIS and in-depth interviews are used. The purpose of the paper is to provide reference for China village urbanization, traditional rural cultural heritage protection and sustainable development of tourism. The results indicate: 1) The land urbanization process of Hongcun mainly occurs in peripheral areas around the scenic spot, as Hongcun is a world cultural heritage and the national key culture relic protection site, where all kinds of construction and development activities are strictly prohibited. Hongcun tourism triggered by the process of urbanization occurred mainly in the villages around Hongcun proper. And the land urbanization is mainly manifested on the structure and the type of the land use. Before applying for world cultural heritage, the land exploitation of Hongcun mainly focused on a small scale development in the scenic area, while after that the development direction has transferred to Jicun where there has a river opposite to Hongcun, and the land has been exploited at a faster speed and larger scale. 2) Driven by the development of tourism for more than 30 years, Hongcun’s industrial structure has been continuously adjusted. The tertiary industry has been continuously increasing, and now the proportion of the three industries is 68:21:11, in the order of tertiary industry-secondary industry-primary industry. At the same time, with the rapid development of small tourism businesses, the international luxury resort brands of businesses have begun to enter the market. All those will give tremendous impact on Hongcun tourism and economic development. 3) The agglomeration trend of Hongcun population is more obvious, mainly because of the returning of local residents by the tourism interests attraction and the inflow of external investors and labor force. And the employment structure of local residents has transformed to non-agriculturization direction, the local residents’ life way is gradually modernized, and the social behavior as well as the ideology has trended to urbanization. Finally, in this paper some factors which affect the tourism urbanization of Hongcun are briefly discussed.
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    Characteristics and Forming Mechanisms of Architecture Cultural Landscape in Zhaoqing’s Traditional Villages
    ZHANG Haolong,JIN Wanfu,ZHOU Chunshan
    2017, 37 (3):  304-317.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002952
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    With the country’s increasing emphasis on the protection of traditional villages, domestic research on traditional villages has become more and more abundant since 2000. However, few studies discuss the characteristics and forming mechanisms of architecture cultural landscape of traditional villages in depth. This paper took the traditional villages in Zhaoqing as a case study to learn the characteristics and forming mechanisms of the architecture cultural landscape of traditional villages by GIS, spatial syntax, et al. The results show: 1) Influenced by the traditional landscape culture, the combinations between traditional villages and the natural geographical environment come in four types, i.e., living near waters, building around mountains, expanding on flat lands, and developing near hills and beside rivers. 2) The formation of spatial organization in some traditional villages is greatly influenced by the clan and kinship. And the spatial organization is conducive to the exchange of information among villagers and presents a multi-slice mode with the ancestral hall as the core node. 3) The streets around public places have a high degree of integration. Travelers can build up cognition for the spatial structure of the whole village on the flat terrain through the local spatial structure. 4) The architectural landscape in Zhaoqing’s traditional villages mainly includes Cantonese and Hakka, which display some significant differences in their spatial layout and internal structure. From the perspective of an architectural layout model, Cantonese and Hakka are mainly comb and enclosing houses, respectively. In terms of internal structure, Cantonese architecture emphasizes simplicity and practicality, while Hakka architecture shows the idea of “unification” and “harmony”. 5) Although there are different cultural zones in the region, their architectural culture is of a significant Lingnan cultural gene. 6) The formation of the architectural cultural landscape in Zhaoqing’s traditional villages is comprehensively affected by the natural geographical environment, social foundation, economic foundation and technical level. Among them, the geographical environment is the basement, social foundation and cultural heritage are the intrinsic power and the external power, respectively, and economic foundation and technical level are the guarantee.

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    Spatial Distribution Pattern of Traditional Villages and Brief Analysis of Han Chinese Subgroup Characteristics in Guangdong
    YUAN Shaoxiong,TANG GuangLiang,ZHANG Hong’ou,GONG QingHua,YIN Xiaoling,HUANG Guangqing
    2017, 37 (3):  318-327.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002950
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    In this paper, 126 traditional villages in Guangdong Province were taken as the research object. GIS spatial analysis was used in order to understand the spatial distribution pattern of traditional villages (TVs) in Guangdong, the differences in distribution pattern between in Guangdong and in other provinces, and the Han Chinese subgroup characteristics of TVs. The spatial distribution type was judged using the nearest neighbor index; the spatial distribution equilibrium was determined by the geographical concentration index and the unbalanced index; the spatial clustering region was measured by the nuclear density; the spatial autocorrelation analysis was carried out using the Moran index; and the spatial link function was used to determine the relationship between the TVs and Han Chinese subgroup characteristics. The results show that: 1) the spatial distribution of TVs in Guangdong Province is condensed. From the perspective of the city scale, TV distribution is concentrated in Meizhou, Qingyuan, Guangzhou, Zhanjiang, and Zhaoqing. There are 87 TVs in these cities, accounting for 69% of the total in Guangdong, and Meizhou City is home to 40 TVs, accounting for about 32% of the total in the province. The TVs are generally unevenly distributed, mainly in northern Guangdong and the Pearl River Delta region. 2) There are significant differences in the spatial distribution density of TVs in Guangdong Province. The average distribution density of TVs in the province is 0.59 per thousand km2; the highest density of 2.14 per thousand km2 is in Meizhou; in Heyuan and Maoming, TV density is less than 0.1 per thousand km2; and there is no TV distributed in Yunfu City. There are four noticeable agglomeration areas: the Meizhou-Chaoshan Area, the Guangfo-Dongguan Area, the Zhanjiang-Leizhou Area, and the Qingyuan-Lianzhou Area. The core-edge distribution pattern is noticeable. 3) The spatial distribution of TVs in Guangdong Province shows significant global spatial autocorrelation and clustering characteristics of similar areas. As the distribution of the TVs in the province is relatively decentralized, it is of a noticeable “few-moderate-many” pyramid-like distribution. From the Moran scatter plot, most of the TVs are located in the first and third quadrants, displaying serious polarization. The overall spatial distribution pattern is of “hot spots - sub-hot spots - sub-cold spots - cold spots” in the province, with “sub cold spots - cold spots” as the major pattern. 4) The TVs in Guangdong Province are mainly distributed in the Guangfu and Hakka areas. The TVs in these two subgroups account for about 72% of the total in the province. The TVs of the highest density, 1.31 per thousand km2, are in the ethnic minority areas, followed by those of about 1.00 per thousand km2 in the Shaozhou Tuhua civil area. Although the Hakka and the Guangfu areas have the largest number of TVs, the density of TVs is only 0.59 and 0.48 per thousand km2, respectively due to wide distribution of the two ethnic groups. The distribution type of the TVs in Guangdong Province is similar to that in Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Hunan, Shanxi, and other provinces in the country, which is condensed with its core area and spatial autocorrelation having their own characteristics.

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    Design of Traditional Village Infrastructure Evaluation System Based on MongoDB
    HUANG Duo,MIAO Kai,WEI Cheng,YUAN Shaoxiong
    2017, 37 (3):  328-333.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002953
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    Evaluation of traditional village infrastructure is an important part of traditional village protection. Because of the complicated data environment and the multi-level and multi-weight evaluation process, traditional data processing methods are not sophisticated for traditional village infrastructure evaluation. Therefore, building a digital infrastructure evaluation system is an important way to ensure that the evaluation process is scientific and sustainable. Based on the analysis of the data characteristics and structure of the traditional village infrastructure evaluation system, this paper puts forward the multi-source and heterogeneous data storage scheme based on the non-relational database MongoDB and the calculation logic and table design of the multi-level infrastructure evaluation system. The paper focuses on two topics: one is under highly unstructured data-dependent conditions, how to build integrated text, binary stream documents and evaluation forms based on MongoDB unique document types so as to obtain integrated document set management database storage system; the other is to realize highly flexible and consistent evaluation calculation and analysis and in turn to meet traditional village infrastructure evaluation in diverse regional environments by building a multi-level infrastructure evaluation system and differential weight allocation in different regional environments.
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    An Empirical Study of Foshan Governance Rescaling and Industrial Decentralization
    LI Xun,XIE Shiying,ZHANG Chengguo
    2017, 37 (3):  334-346.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002951
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    With the globalization of production, the role of City-region” has replaced that of the state and become a prominent scale in global production networks and national governance. Meanwhile, through “de-designation of county (city) districts” and administrative division re-adjustment, “City-region” -a new type of regional space at the prefecture-level has also emerged in China's major metropolitan areas. The scale theory of human geography is a set of analytical methods to explain the development and transformation of the region under globalization. Scale theory focuses on the analysis of the change of the power structure of different levels of government and the development of space, which has a good explanation for the development of cities and regions around the world today. However, the analysis of governance rescaling and its spatialization process has been conceptualized, and the space has been “conceptualized” into a noun, focusing on the analysis of space from the perspective of “Spatiality”. Through the empirical study on the governance rescaling of Foshan urban areas, this paper attempts to specify and materialize the process of governance rescaling. Taking Foshan as a case, this paper explores the process of governance rescaling and its impact on the development of industrial space. After “turning county into district”(che xian she qu), governance structure of Foshan has started the process of rescaling, the power of municipal has been strengthened. Through adjustment of “city - district” financial relations, Foshan government promoted the administrative structure reform, establishment of spatial planning and approval structure, Foshan Municipal began the process of governance rescaling. As a result, a governance structure that matches the new administrative space has been constructed. 1) After “turning county into district”(che xian she qu) in 2002, the overall trend of financial relations between Foshan municipal government and district governments is that the fiscal revenue continue to concentrate on the municipal government level. 2) To rationalize the administrative relationship between the municipal government and district governments, Foshan City promotes administrative management reform, includes “the overhaul of administrative system reform”(da buzhi gaige) and “city - district” departmental administrative relations reform. In the new administrative framework, Foshan municipal government achieves full coverage of management to the 5 subordinate districts,and the management power from city sector to district sector has been strengthened. 3) The structure of Foshan City’s spatial planning management approval, has witnessed a change from previous decentralized state, which was of county-level municipal government-led state, to a more centralized state in which Foshan municipal government is responsible for macro-space planning, while the district government is responsible for the control of detailed planning management approval. Also, the re-adjustment of administrative scales has brought changes to the spatial distribution of industrial production, leading to a reconfigured spatial pattern. The city government-led ring road and industrial park construction accompanied with governance rescaling, affect the spatial distribution of industrial enterprises. In other words, governance rescaling promotes the process of restructuring of economic space. Displaying a trend of “macro-dispersion, micro-concentration”, the spatial trajectory of industrial production activities in Foshan can be largely characterized by an evolutional process of decentralization and polycentricity.
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    Evolution of Spatial Agglomeration of Manufacturing Industry and Regional Division of Labor Driven in Guangdong Province under the Industrial Transfer: Based on the Analysis of Statistical Data during 2005-2014
    XU Shuhui
    2017, 37 (3):  347-355.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002938
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    Industrial transfer is an important way of industrial agglomeration and interregional division of labor. By using Gini coefficient, location quotient and Krugman specialization index, the 2005-2014 data of manufacturing industry above the scale in Guangdong province are analyzed, and the SPSS correlation research is conducted with FDI and domestic investment, which are two representative indicators of industrial transfer. The purpose of this paper is to find out the spatial agglomeration change, interregional division of labor and driving factors of Guangdong manufacturing industry since the implementation of dual transfer strategy. Through Gini coefficient, location quotient and the specialization index of Krugman, we found that manufacturing industry agglomeration levels in Guangdong province differed greatly, the spatial agglomeration degree was lowering, and industry spatial decentralization occurred; textile industry and resource processing industry moved to the East, West and the mountainous areas in the province, and the agglomeration of mechanical and electronic manufacturing industries in the Pearl River Delta region was enhanced; among the cities in the Pearl River Delta and those of couplet-assistance the manufacturing industry specialization was deepening. In the analysis of the correlation between industrial transfer and spatial agglomeration and interregional division of labor in Guangdong manufacturing industry, we also found that the degree of spatial agglomeration of manufacturing industry declined, which was affected by international and domestic industrial transfer; Agglomeration of advanced manufacturing industry in the Pearl River Delta was closely related to international industrial transfer, while that of the textile and resource processing industries in the eastern, northern and western regions of the province was associated with the transfer of the domestic industry. There existed a double superposition phenomenon of industrial transfer in the division of labor based on specialization among cities. The transfer of industry enhanced the comparative advantage of the advanced manufacturing industry in the Pearl River Delta and the textile industry and resource processing industry in the East, West and the mountainous areas, that would contribute to the trend of division of labor, showing that the advanced manufacturing industry would agglomerate in the Pearl River Delta, while the textile industry and resource processing industry mainly in the East, West and the mountainous regions.
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    Risk Identification and Evaluation of the Construction Land Securities in Chongqing Based on Set-valued Statistics and Hierarchy
    CHEN Chun,ZHANG Wei,FENG Changchun
    2017, 37 (3):  356-364.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002947
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    The Construction Land Securities (Dipiao in Chinese) in Chongqing has been created under the background of the increasingly intense use of urban construction land as well as the sharp decline of farmland quantity, aiming at resolving the current situation of intense use of urban construction land and guaranteeing the quantity and quality of cultivated land. It is an important way to realize the overall development of urban and rural areas and promote the newly-typed urbanization. However, due to the immaturity of the system itself, there are some risks in the operating process of Dipiao. Based on the summary of the six potential risk factors, by using the methods of quantitative and qualitative analysis, many risk sub-factors have been studied so as to not only get a comprehensive and specific understanding of overall risk probability of the Dipiao system but also find out several major risk sub-factors existing in the system. The risk factors and corresponding risk sub-factors are graded and given weigh values by Fuzzy AHP. Afterwards, set-valued analysis is used to get the risk value of each risk sub-factor. Results showed that the overall risk probability reached 0.670 7, which highlights a relatively high risk existing in Dipiao system. Furthermore, 7 major risk sub-factors have been presented as follows: rent seeking in the reclamation led by the local government, potential risk of higher land prices passing to housing price, the Dipiao holders’ failure in finding a proper receiving area, the effect of fallow on cultivated land quality after reclamation, the risk of famers’ social security, the impact of Dipiao on the land expropriation policy, the lack of legal supervision and management between Dipiao and planned land indicators. To avoid the risks, the Dipiao system needs to ensure the quality of reclamation for cultivated land, monitor the dynamic balance of cultivated land quantity and quality, ensure the rights and interests of the farmers and Dipiao holders in the reclamation and acceptance, transaction and using section. In the application of reclamation, the Dipiao policy should be propagated fully before the reclamation, so that the farmers could understand the advantages and disadvantages of reclamation. Besides, it is necessary to consider the housing problems of the farmers who reclaimed their homestead land and would reside in the rural area years later. In the acceptance of reclaimed land, the Bureau of the Land Resources of Chongqing and the Rural Land Exchange Centre in Chongqing are expected to be involved in the check before acceptance and strictly monitor the quantity and quality of reclaimed land. The local land resource management department would make efforts to prevent land abandonment and stimulate farmers' enthusiasm on cultivating. In Dipiao trading process, the scale of Dipiao should be refined to meet the need not only of the large enterprises, but also the small and medium-sized enterprise or individuals. In the using phase of Dipiao, it is recommended to conduct a study of the withdrawal mechanism of Dipiao and explore secondary market, including the way of transfer, the subject and the object of transfer, the frequency limit of transfer and the time limit of using Dipiao after the transfer. Considering the differential land rent and the loss of land use rights, the landless peasants' compensation standards are expected to be improved. In addition, Dipiao would be incorporated into the land use master plan to prevent the negative impact of the demand of Dipiao because of the existing double way of acquiring construction land.

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    Exploring Local Residents’ Perceptions and Adaptation Intention to Climate Change
    WANG Wei-Ching,LIN Chung-Hsien
    2017, 37 (3):  365-371.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002932
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    The various effects caused by climate change are the main focus of different fields of current scientific research. Recent developments in climate change research have found that the assessment of residents’ perceptions of climate change and their adaptation intention can help us understand how to convey appropriate information about climate change to them to prepare for their travel, work, or living. Several researchers have indicated the nature of perception of climate change, which depends on the specific groups or study context. The study on climate change in the context of tourism and travel is needed, especially the exploration on different geographic areas or regions. However, few researches attempt to explore residents’ perceptions and their adaptation intention to climate change. Furthermore, the explanations of the way in which residents’ climate change perceptions impact generating more adaptation intention are not provided. The purpose of this article is to detect the urban residents’ and coastal destination residents’ perceptions of climate change in Taiwan. In addition, the relationship between perceptions of climate change and adaptation intention for both urban residents and coastal destination residents are examined. Therefore, a better understanding of exploring local residents’ perceptions and adaptation intention to climate change would help management organizations plan the spaces and places for residents. The sample of this study consisted of Taichung (urban) residents and Kenting (costal destination) local residents, who were 18 years of age and older. Data were collected more than a 4-week timeframe at different periods of time, which were chosen randomly from July through September 2014. The experienced interviewers with a student ID marker used a convenient sampling method to select and intercept Taichung and Kenting residents to be involved in an on-site self-administrated survey. A total of 597 Taichung surveys and 675 Kenting surveys were usable. By conducting independent samples t-test, the results showed that there were statistically significant differences in many climate change perceptions between Taichung and Kenting residents. Namely, the Kenting residents’ perceptions of climate change about tourist attractions were higher than Taichung residents’ perceptions of climate change. In addition, the results, obtained by performing the logistic regression analysis of the impact of climate change perceptions on adaptation intention, indicated that the effect of climate change perception on adaptation intention for the costal destination residents was higher than that for urban residents. Namely, coastal destination residents were highly sensitive to climate changes, which even directly linked to their economics and household income. Thus, the more psychological attention of coastal destination residents is specific (i.e., lower psychological distance), the more the occurrence of an adaptive behavior will be possible. On the contrary, climate change is a part of life for urban residents, who may use a gear to adjust personal micro-climate. Thus, the psychological attention of urban residents is so abstract (i.e., higher psychological distance) that the occurrence of an adaptive behavior is less. The findings suggest that in addition to further strengthening the climate change perceptions of residents, the future efforts of management organizations to understand residents’ adaptation intention to climate change should consider the geographic areas of residents.

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    Collaborative Characteristics of Chinese Tourism Scholars Based on SSCI Papers
    ZHONG Siqi,WANG Xia,WU Xiaogen,ZHANG Jiao
    2017, 37 (3):  372-382.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002942
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    With the rapid growth of knowledge, scientific cooperation increasingly becomes an important form of research work. The final results of scientific cooperation are often presented in the form of academic papers. Using bibliometric analysis and social network analysis, this paper reveals the mode and characteristics of Chinese tourism scholars’ cooperation based on SSCI papers, which provides a reference for Chinese tourism scholars to seek scientific cooperators. The results and conclusions are as follows. Firstly, from the perspective of cooperation trend, the number of SSCI papers published by Chinese scholars is growing fast, and the cooperation among Chinese tourism scholars have constantly strengthened. Cross-institutional collaboration has become main way of cooperation. Secondly, in terms of cooperative features, the collaborative group of central authors constantly expands because ‘Matthew effect’ is found in the network. As a result, the cooperation of scholars has an obvious characteristic of power law distribution. In addition, the active degree of cooperation is related to the academic output to a certain extent, which reflected in the scholars and institutions. For example, active scholars with high centrality like Law Rob, Song Haiyan and Bob Mckercher have a strong scientific and technological productivity. The Hong Kong Polytechnic University has cooperators all over the world, and that explains why it achieves high ranking in the tourism academic circle. Besides, the cooperative network has the characteristic of wide distribution and dense centralization, some of the scholars have a group of partners that are closely connected within the group but relatively isolated from other groups, and that would be detrimental to the spread of tourism academic knowledge. Although the cooperation between the central scholars is more extensive, their cohesion force is not strong, especially the China-Taiwan region has become an ‘academic isolated island’. Its academic cooperation with other region is mainly produced by Ryan Chris from the University of Waikato in New Zealand. This further shows the necessity of strengthening regional tourism academic cooperation. Thirdly, from the perspective of cooperative mode, mainland China, China-Hong Kong and China-Taiwan differ from each other. China-Hong Kong formed the pattern of ‘a myriad of stars surround the moon’, Hong Kong Polytechnic University cooperated with a large number of universities all over the world. China-Taiwan formed the pattern of ‘crowded stars’, the division of universities’ academic strength is about the same, and the cooperation between colleges and universities is very frequent. Mainland China only formed several elite tourism research teams and the cooperation among them is weak. Lastly, based on the analysis above, this paper puts forward four suggestions to promote the international cooperation of Chinese tourism research, namely, focusing on the research topics of the central authors, letting ‘bridge’ authors to play a role in the network, strengthening cooperative relation within China and implementing 'point to area' international academic cooperation strategy.
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    Spatial Optimization for Emergency Materials Allocation Based on a Self-adaptive Binary-state PSO Algorithm
    CHEN Tongli,MA Shifa,XU Shuyuan,Li Haibo
    2017, 37 (3):  383-391.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002911
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    The allocation of emergency materials is a typical spatial optimization decision problem for social service. A hybrid model was proposed in this paper to allocate the emergency materials based on GIS and particle swarm optimization algorithm. In view of the drawbacks that it is easy to fall into local best solutions with the increasing dimensions for classical PSO, the evolution curvature was defined as population diversity, and a binary-state evolution mechanism, which includes the “predation” and “exploration” states, was adopted. In addition, the variation operator was designed just only for the elite particles, which can well balance the group learning and exploration behavior in outer space. Furthermore, the constraint for this spatial optimization was set by the combination of dynamic recurrent and the random characteristic of swarm intelligent algorithms. This model has been tested by using a theoretical datasets with low dimensions and high dimensions respectively. It has shown that the spatial optimization model designed in this paper can get global optimum solution for fewer and also perform well for larger dataset. Finally, a case study was implemented in a city. Results demonstrate that the spatial optimization model coupled with GIS and swarm intelligence algorithm would be an important application for the smart city’s construction.
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    Altitudinal Patterns of Self-thinning Law in Forest Phytocoenosium
    ZHENG Zeyu,ZHANG Ling,QIAN Huaisui
    2017, 37 (3):  392-399.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002940
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    Self-thinning is a hot issue in ecological theoretical research, however, because of the long growth period and complex process in self-thing, relative research in woody plants’ self-thinning rule is very few and still no consensus has been reached up to the present. The research used natural phytocoenosium quadrat in different altitudes in Nanling nature protection area as the material to study the woody phytocoenosium’s self-thinning rule by means of spatial-temporal substitution and to analyze the relationship between space size and density, in addition, we discuss how their crown diameter and plant height response to the altitude change. The results showed that: 1) The self-thinning rule is also suitable to the natural woody phytocoenosium. The self-thinning exponent of arbor phytocoenosium is -1.305 6 and that of shrub phytocoenosium is -1.298 9, which are in accord with Enquist’s -4/3 self-thinning rule. The main reason may be that, Enquist put forward the -4/3 self-thinning rule at the point of the relationship between plants’ growth’s resource need and density. In this research we regard the plants’ living room as the biomass, which reflects how much resource that the plants gain. 2) Woody plants’ size and density have close correlation. When the density increases, both the average crown diameter and tree height reduce obviously in arbor quadrat, similarly, in Shrub quadrat the average crown diameter reduces, whereas, the plants’ height does not change obviously. In this research, it is shown that the crown diameter in the arbor phytocoenosium that live under altitude 900 m plays an important role in self-thinning process, in the phytocoenosium living between altitude 900 and 1 300 m, the plant height plays an important role in self-thinning process, and when the altitude is over 1 300 m, survival pressure plays a leading role in self-thinning process. Differently, in shrub communities, crown diameter plays a leading role in self-thinning process in different altitudes. 3) Arbor and shrub phytocoenosiums make a different response to habitat change caused by the change of altitude. In the equation of self-thinning, the coefficient k changes with the altitude. The higher the altitude is, the smaller the coefficient k will be. At the altitudes of <900 m, 900~1 300 m and 1 300~1 462 m, the arbor quadrats’ log k are 2.056 5, 1.372 6, 1.194 7, and the corresponding k values are 113.89, 23.58, 15.66 respectively, that means that the arbor’s largest living room reduces with the increase of altitude obviously. At the altitudes of <950 m and 950~1 800 m, the shrub quadrats’ log k are 0.050 3 and 0.016 8, and the corresponding k values are 1.12 and 1.04 respectively, meaning that the shrub ’s largest living room reduces with the increase of altitude, but it is not so obvious as that of arbor quadrats, showing that the altitude change has greater impact on arbor size.

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    Urban Residents’ Activity Diversity and Its Influential Factors in Nanjing City
    LIN Meihua,ZHEN Feng,ZHU Shoujia
    2017, 37 (3):  400-408.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002945
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    Urban residents’ activity is an important perspective to understand the urban spatial structure. Since the beginning of the 21st century, China’s social space structure organization has a trend towards Humanism. Meanwhile, the development of ICT has a strong impact on residents' behavior and urban space. It is a great significance to study the characteristics and influencing factors of the residents’ activity system in the information age. The raw data of the paper was collected in Nanjing from the 2012 survey for residents’ activities in network information era, including 885 valid samples. It contained individual attributes, living and employment options, influences of information technology on residents’ daily activities, and activity records of the latest 24-hour workday and weekend. This paper uses the residents’ activity log data of the survey as the basis of analysis. Drawing on the concept of “urban diversity”, the concept of “diversity of activities” which can reflect the diversification and heterogeneity of residents' activities is put forward to evaluate residents’ activities system. The proportion of non-surviving activities in the total activity time (24h) was used to quantify the “diversity of activities”. With the help of ArcGIS10.0, the characteristics of the time and space of the residents' activities in Nanjing are analyzed, and through the multiple linear regression, we figure out the relationship between the residents’ activity diversity and the residents’ social-economic attributes, urban transportation, and informational technology. The research show that, firstly, Residents’ socio-economic conditions such as gender, age, income and urban transportation play a key role in influencing residents’ activity diversity, but the impact of ICT is not direct. Women, who were subjected to constraints of both work and life, have lower activity diversity than man. Young people, higher income groups have a wider range of activities and more diversified activities. Convenient urban traffic can increase the diversity of resident activities. The impact of information technology on resident activities is constantly infiltrating, but the intensity of its impact is gradually becoming smaller between different people. Online shopping as a new shopping channel replaces part of offline shopping. Meanwhile, the interaction of online shopping and offline experience will “promote” the occurrence of shopping trips. The increase in Internet entertainment has, to a certain extent, reduced the diversity of resident activities in weekday, but the same case hasn’t investigated in weekend. Secondly, residents’ activity in the spatial distribution show the characteristic of “Single Center and multi-node”, but the variety and strength of residents’ activity are different according to regions, activity in city center and urban areas is more abundant and intense, and vice versa. The structure of residents’ activities is consistent with the status of land use within the unit area. The spatial distribution of resident activities shows that, urban residents are increasingly dependent on the city center and the attractiveness of the newly built business center still needs to be further improved. Improving the function of regional deputy center, building a “functional compound” to meet the needs of residents is import to improve the quality and vitality of the city.
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    Relationship between Geographical Factors and the Reference Value of High Sensitive C-reactive Protein
    LIN Qianyi,GE Miao,WANG Congxia,CEN Minyi,JIANG Jilin,HE Jinwei,LI Mengjiao,LIU Xin
    2017, 37 (3):  409-416.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002948
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    High sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) is an important predictor of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. In the dynamic balance human-nature system, the residents’ physical functions differ from each other in different regions. However, the geographical factors are neglected while establishing the reference value of hs-CRP. It will lead to inaccurate clinical diagnosis while using the same standard system of reference values of hs-CRP on the residents of different areas. Therefore, in this paper the relationship between reference value of hs-CRP and geographical factors was analyzed in order to establish a more comprehensive standard of reference values of hs-CRP. Firstly, by collecting the observed hs-CRP values of 8 350 Chinese healthy adults from 84 cities in China, the correlation analysis method was adopted to investigate the relationship between the reference value and 23 geographical factors with SPSS 21.0. Then the five geographical factors that were significantly correlated with the reference values of hs-CRP were extracted to perform the Support Vector Machine Regression model (SVR) with the reference values of hs-CRP. Good fitting of the model was obtained in this case, and reference values of hs-CRP of 2 322 cities in China were predicted by using the model. Finally, ArcGIS 10.0 was used to make Kriging interpolation with the predicted data and form the SVR model to produce the geographic distribution map of the reference values of hs-CRP of healthy Chinese. The results show that the geographical environment has an important effect on the hs-CRP reference value, and the reference value of hs-CRP is significantly correlated with 5 indexes, namely, the altitude, the average relative humidity, the annual average precipitation, the annual temperature range and the annual average wind speed. The Support Vector Machine Regression model got good fitting effect in this case with a small prediction error. And the extraction Kriging interpolation model also obtained good prediction accuracy. From the spatial distribution of the map, it can be seen that the overall reference values of hs-CRP of China is decreasing from northwest to southeast. At the end of this paper, the specific influence mechanism of geographical factors on hs-CRP reference value was discussed.
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    Evaluation of a Variety of Satellite Retrieved Precipitation Products Based on Extreme Rainfall in China
    LIU Yu,WU Yuzhen,FENG Zhizhou,HUANG Xuerongzi,WANG Dagang
    2017, 37 (3):  417-433.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002949
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    Climate change may have a serious impact on human society and the natural system. In recent years, extreme weather events have occurred frequently, and the global temperature and rainfall extreme values have been significantly changed. In order to reduce the direct or indirect loss caused by extreme events, especially extreme rainfall events, it is extremely important to strengthen the study of extreme rainfall. With the development of meteorological satellites and the development of its technology, it is possible to monitor, invert and integrate precipitation with various detectors carried by satellites, and there are also a variety of high spatial resolution satellite retrieval precipitation products widely used in the fields of hydrology, meteorology, climatology, and water resources management and other fields. Due to a variety of satellite retrieved precipitation products used in satellite data and inversion algorithms are not the same, so their accuracy will be some differences, in view of this, it is necessary to test and evaluate those satellite precipitation products that are widely used and continue to be used in future. Seven extreme rainfall indexes were used to analyze the performance of the three main satellite precipitation products TRMM 3B42, TRMM3B42RT and CMORPH in China. In order to evaluate those products comprehensively and scientifically, different time scales, spatial scales and evaluation indexes were used to test the results, and the following conclusions were obtained: 1) Overall, the performance of 3B42 was better than that of 3B42RT and CMORPH, 3B42RT tends to be overestimated, while CMORPH tends to be underestimated; 2) In the performance of extreme rainfall, the three products are overestimated in the Himalayan region and the best performance in spring; 3) In the performance of extreme rainfall intensity, the three satellite precipitation products on PRCPTOT have better performance, especially in China and west part of China; 4) In the performance of extreme rainfall period, the three products in the areas of higher altitude are significantly overestimated, but CMORPH is also overestimated in the areas of low altitude. The performance of the three products is better in CWD (consecutive wet days). In general, 3B42 is superior to 3B42RT and CMORPH in detecting extreme rains in China. When extreme precipitation is considered, the three products should be used with caution on a spatial scale and time scale other than spring at high altitudes (mountains such as the Himalayas, the Kunlun Mountains and the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau); When the intensity of extreme rainfall is considered, 3B42 should be used with caution in northwestern China and high altitude areas, as well as PRCPTOT, R1, 3B42RT and CMORPH in eastern China and high altitude areas; When CDD and CWD are considered, the three products are somewhat overestimated at higher altitudes and should be used with caution.
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    AMSR-E Passive Microwave Remote Sensing Surface Temperature Inversion Experimental Model Focused on Differences between Dry Season and Rainy Season
    LIU Liyang,SU Yongxian,CHEN Xiuzhi,SHAO Huaiyong
    2017, 37 (3):  434-442.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002954
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    Based on the AMSR-E/Aqua L2A brightness temperature data and MODIS MYD11A2 Land Surface Temperature (LST) product in 2009, we retrieved LST in Central and Southern China. Firstly, the study area was divided into the southern (humid) and northern (semi-humid) regions along Qinling Mountain and Huaihe River based on local humidity. Next, according to the temperature difference between the dry season (October to March) and the rainy season (April to September), the study area was further divided into four types: northern rainy season, northern dry season, southern rainy season, and southern dry season. Finally, using the stepwise regression method, LST inversion models were built for each type based on AMSR-E 4-channel brightness temperatures. The decision coefficients (R2) of the regression models are 0.437 (southern rainy season), 0.663 (southern dry season), 0.701 (northern rainy season), and 0.682 (northern dry season), and the corresponding root mean square errors (RMSE) are 3.052 K, 2.637 K, 3.510 K, and 2.931 K, respectively. We selected the MODIS MYD11A2 LST product and the AMSR-E brightness temperature data in 2010 to validate the model. Firstly, the LST of different regions and different periods were simulated, and then the simulation errors of each period were calculated. Finally, the average errors and their spatial distributions in different regions and different periods were obtained. The validation results showed that, for the areas with an error ranging from 2.5 K to 5 K, their distribution in the northern region is relatively of disorder, with no prominent features, while their distribution in the southern region is mainly concentrated in the southwest of the Sichuan-Chongqing-Yunnan area. And the areas with an error greater than 4 K, such as the western Sichuan Plateau and the Hengduan Mountains, are mainly distributed at the edge of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. From the statistical results, the average error of the model is less than 2.5 K in about 80% of our study area, and the average error is less than 2.5 K in 88.64% of Southern China in the dry season. This study mainly investigated the impact of water vapor on microwave. An empirical model of surface temperature was constructed by taking into count the difference in regional humidity and the difference between dry season and rainy season, which provided an improvement on previous empirical methods.
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