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    05 March 2018, Volume 38 Issue 2 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Regional Historical Geographic Relations between Xunwu and Nanyue in the 1930s: A Study of the Report Xunwu Investigation for Searching the Old Red Post Roads
    XU Ruisheng
    2018, 38 (2):  151-165.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003035
    Abstract ( )   PDF (11671KB) ( )   Save

    Based on the report Xunwu investigation made by MAO Zedong and his group in the 1930s, this paper analyzed the regional historical geographic relations between Xunwu and Nanyue (an ancient name of Guangdong) by means of the traffic location, economic geographic relations and regional culture in the 1930s. Geographic information system (GIS) techniques were applied to reconstruct the historical scenes by using historical map data, current remote sensing data, historical road and toponymy information, as well as other related historical data. (1) Research results in this study reconstructed and corroborated the descriptions about regional transportation systems in Xunwu investigation. The basic characteristics of water and land transportation networks between Xunwu and Nanyue were also analyzed. Xunwu performed as a transportation hub mainly owing to its typical border location and natural geographical conditions. (2) The economic geographic relationship between Xunwu and Nanyue was characterized by a typical “salt northward and rice southward” pattern. Although the economic development level of the border areas near Xunwu was low, Xunwu played a transit station role in the regional trade network. Meanwhile, socioeconomic development in Xunwu was deeply influenced by Nanyue. (3) The culture of the border areas was closely linked with the human and historical geography of Nanyue. The red forces in south Jiangxi and northeast Guangdong made indelible contribution to the Central Soviet Area in China, and so the border areas near Xunwu have a deep red tourism cultural deposit. The results of the study would have some effects on guiding the planning policies of regional development, and also would provide a “red travel route of Xunwu investigation” for the redevelopment of the old post roads in Nanyue.

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    Impacts of Festivals on Community Reconstruction in the Context of Modernity
    LIN Geng,CHEN Xiaoxuan,YANG Fan
    2018, 38 (2):  166-175.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003020
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    Under the influence of modernity, community has become more complicated in many aspects such as values, identity, social relationships, etc. Festivals, as the expression of lifestyle and culture that interacts with community, has become an important event by which the community reconstruction is observed and influenced. With the unprecedented revival of festivals in the latter half of twentieth century, the relationship of festivals with the vicissitude of community in the context of modernity has been concentrated in cultural geography. Based on analysis of previous literature of festivals and community reconstruction, the process and mechanism of community reconstruction such as the vicissitude of community, the interrelatedness of social relations and power, the conflicts and integration in community development can be explained more deeply. This article proposes a framework in regard of the relationship between festivals and community reconstruction under the context of modernity in four aspects: continuation of traditional community and reproduction of modern identity, reform of immigrant community and integration of multiple identities, community regeneration and place marketing, the reshaping of order and negotiation of power. The results can be illustrated as follows : (1) Traditional communities pursue or rebuild local traditions through festivals, by which the community identity is continued, reconstructed and strengthened and then transformed into social capital to maintain local continuity in a rapidly changing world. (2) In terms of the migrants in multicultural communities, festivals is not only a way of protecting their original identity , but also an acculturation strategy to integrate into the local community and establish hybrid identity. (3) Rooted in the local culture, festivals can also be used as symbol economy. Communities rely on them for place marketing to revive their vitality and establish their image. However, the interrelated realities such as economy, politics, culture, society embedded in festival promotion need to be acknowledged to address deeper mechanism of community regeneration. (4) In a world dominated by discourse, the power relationship enables different stakeholders to impose their will on social relations. What is more, the invasion of capital makes the power structure more sophisticated. Therefore, the reconstructing of community identity, class stratification, place image and economy vitality has become more and more pluralistic. In conclusion, the reconstruction of modern community is closely tied with festivals. On the one hand, the community is not dispelled by modernity, but developing in a more sophisticated manner with continuing the traditional community order, or building hybrid community order by absorbing foreign and innovative elements, or expanding its influences through place marketing. On the other hand, festivals are constantly adjusted and recreated by globalization, marketization and other modern forces. Furthermore, considering the particular context of contemporary China in a period of rapidly social transformation, it is worthy of conducting locally theoretical and empirical researches on the interaction of Chinese rural society and modernity. Around this theme, it is instructive to explore the relationship between festivals and community reconstruction in China from the perspectives of different actors and the creation of social relations, community boundaries and social production, etc.

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    Spatial Characteristics and Spatial Effect of Chinese Provincial Financial Exclusion
    ZHANG Guojun,YAO Yangyang,ZHOU Chunshan
    2018, 38 (2):  176-183.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003025
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    By constructing the evaluation index system of financial exclusion, this paper calculates the financial exclusion degree of 31 Chinese provinces (cities and Autonomous regions) from 2004 to 2012, and by applying the method of exploratory spatial data analysis and spatial Durbin model, this paper discusses the spatial characteristics and the spatial effect of Chinese provincial financial exclusion. The results show that: 1) the financial exclusion degree of the 31 provinces in China is generally high, forming a pattern of increasing level from the East to the Middle-West in space. 2) China’s financial exclusion shows obvious characteristics on the spatial correlation and spatial agglomeration, and a noticeable trend of low-low agglomeration in the east and high-high agglomeration in the west, this trend is stable. 3) The results of the spatial Durbin Model analysis show that regional economic development, financial expenditure capability, education level and population density have significant negative correlation with the financial exclusion in this region, the direct effect is significant; The indirect effect of education level and population density is prominent, that means that increasing the regional education level and population density can reduce the spatial difference of financial exclusion to a certain extent. 4) The regions with high financial exclusion level on the one hand need to accelerate their economic development, enhance the internal hematopoietic function to increase the direct effect; on the other hand, have the fiscal policy and monetary policy appropriately directed to the central and western regions, strengthen government’s macro-control so as to prevent the further expansion of financial exclusion’s regional differences; at the same time, popularize financial knowledge, actively promote regional financial cooperation and exchange, increase the investment of human capital to promote the expansion of regional financial spatial spillover effect.

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    Coupled Coordination Analysis of Regional Talent Superiority and Economy Development in China from 2000 to 2010
    WANG Ruoyu,LIU Ye,XUE Desheng
    2018, 38 (2):  184-195.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003021
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    Based on the 5th and 6th population census and socioeconomic data, this article uses different economy factors and principal component analysis to create city economy development index while it also uses the number of different talents and AHP analytic hierarchy to create city talent index. After creating these two kinds of index, they are applied to analyze coupling relation between talent superiority and economy development in China. Other models are also included in this article to figure out the relationship between talent superiority and economy development such as Local Getis-Ord G* and coupled coordination degree model. Main results for this study are as follows: (1)Spatial features of economy development in China are obvious. On the whole, the level of urban economic development has increased from 2000 to 2010. Compared to that in 2000, the spatial feature of urban economic development can be summarized as “diffusion in large scale, cluster in small scale” in 2010. However, the economy gap within a city is getting bigger and bigger and the most obvious one is the economy difference between capital city and none-capital cities. (2)Compared to that in 2000, the spatial polarization of urban talent superiority is remarkable in 2010. The spatial structure can be concluded as following three modes: Senior talent superiority regions (Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou and Shenzhen)-Intermediate talent superiority regions (Direct-controlled municipalities, capital cities and cities specifically designated in the state plan) - Low level talent superiority regions (other cities). In a word, the difference between eastern and western parts and the difference between capital cities and non-capital cities are obvious. (3)Coupled coordination degree model shows that all of the regions can be summarized as three modes: ①High coupling degree - high coordination degree cities: this kind of cities is mainly located in eastern part of China or located in middle and western part but are capital cities and these cities not only have a high speed of economy development but also do well in attracting talents and innovative companies. Obviously, when a city has a higher speed of economy development it is much easier for it to attract talents and the increase of the number of talents will also strengthen the development of a city. With this virtuous circle, cities located in the eastern part can develop sustainably and jump into another virtuous circle. ②High coupling degree - low coordination degree cities: this kind of cities is mainly located in middle and western parts of China but they have a low speed of economy development and do poor in attracting talents. These cities not only are lacking in natural resources but also fail to attract innovative factors so it is hard for them to attract talents and finally to jump into another vicious circle. ③Low coupling degree - middle coordination degree cities: this kind of cities is mainly located in middle and western parts of China and they are resource based cities, their development mainly depends on their natural resource including: mineral products and petroleum so their industry structure may be vulnerable. In a word, these cities also develop in an unsustainable way. From 2000 to 2010, the eastern region has tended to be ‘High coupling degree - high coordination degree’ mode while the middle and western regions have tended to be ‘High coupling degree - low coordination degree’ mode.

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    Spatial Differentiation and Formation Mechanism of Retail Industry in Guangzhou
    WU Kangmin,ZHANG Hong’ou,WANG Yang,YE Yuyao,JIN Lixia,WU Qitao
    2018, 38 (2):  196-207.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003030
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    The recognition of spatial differentiation of retail formats and its driving force is very important to optimize the allocation of urban resources. The traditional research is mainly based on sampling survey and questionnaire interview to observe the difference of spatial distribution. Based on that, the driving mechanism is further explored. With the emergence of new data, it is possible to explore the spatial differentiation of retail industry in more detail. Spatial distribution recognition of retail formats based on high precision and large sample data is more accurate and convenient than traditional research. Based on that, this study is based on the data of 47 026 retail outlets in Guangzhou in 2014. By using the methods of information entropy, nearest distance analysis, and kernel density analysis, we discussed the distribution pattern of retail industry in Guangzhou. The study process is as follows: First we analyzed the overall distribution pattern of retail industry in Guangzhou. Then we discussed the spatial differentiation of different formats. Finally, we analyzed the impact mechanism of retail industry in Guangzhou. The results are shown as follows: 1) The retail function of Guangzhou concentrates on the urban core area. The urban core area has a higher density distribution of retail outlets, and the development of retail function is more mature. The retail function is more proportionate in Yuexiu, Liwan, Tianhe (North) districts and the proportionality is significantly decreased from the core to the periphery. 2)The spatial distribution of different formats of retail industry has different characteristics. The concentration of retail outlets based on commercial services and basic living services is significantly higher than the comprehensive retail format. Convenience stores, professional stores, and food stores have a high degree of agglomeration, while the distribution of supermarkets and shopping malls is relatively balanced. 3)The distribution of different types of retail outlets is significantly different in each circles. The integrated types are relatively proportionate while those commercial types are more concentrate in the core layer and the inner layer. The integrated retail format has a consumption threshold so that their distribution is more balanced. The retail formats of business services more rely on the distribution of people, so they are concentrated in the urban core areas. 4)The driving force of urban retail spatial pattern is complex. The consumers flow, agglomeration factors, accessibility, the distribution of population, local policy factors and social spatial differentiation work together to affect the formation and evolution of retail format space.

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    Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Death Rate in China
    LIANG Haiyan
    2018, 38 (2):  208-216.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002931
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    The paper makes use of the 5th and 6th census data published by the National Bureau of Statistics. The results showed that there was a significant regional difference between standardized death rate (ASCDR) and crude death rate (CDR). The standardized mortality differed in different regions, and even opposite direction of change occurred. According to the standard population age structure, the mortality changes of 31 regions in China were calculated. The standardized death rate in all regions decreased from 2000 to 2010, which was in full agreement with the statistical results of average life expectancy of population. Comparisons between any two regions might have conflicting conclusions. Therefore, the selection of the age structure of the standard population would be the key step of the direct standardization method. In the process of the specific standardized calculation, it is generally selected as the standard of the average age of a population or population. Because this article compares two population structures, so choosing the average of these two population structures as the standard structure would be more appropriate. Its basic logic is, if the correlation coefficient between the two is higher, in particular, if the correlation coefficient reaches a critical value of 1:00, the crude death rate can be compared directly with the standardized mortality, which shows that the population age structure has a very weak effect on mortality. Conversely, the lower the correlation coefficient between the two is, the less the crude death rate will be used instead of standardized mortality to make regional or sequential comparisons, and the risk of making mistakes will be high, indicating that the population age structure has a significant impact on mortality. This paper uses the direct standardization method to analyze the regional differences and temporal variation characteristics of the mortality levels of 5th and 6th census data in China. In fact, there are many similar statistical indicators in demography, such as the birth rate, the fertility rate and other indicators will be affected by the population age structure, even the gender structure. In order to eliminate the impact of population structure on the rate indicators, in the specific analysis, it is usually necessary to use the standardized method to deal with it. The purpose of this is only to eliminate the impact of the age structure of the population in order to compare the level of rate indicators in different regions or different periods. In other words, the standardized rate indicators have only relative meanings, but not absolute, only meaningful when comparisons are made, and a single standardized rate indicator does not indicate any problem, since it is only a result of a hypothetical condition, The age-non-rate index is the real level of reality. In addition, it is also important to note that the standardized rate indicators do not necessarily eliminate the impact of the age structure of the population. Therefore, in the process of standardization, how to choose a suitable standard population age structure is a very important link, the selection of population standards directly affects the results of the calculation and even the judgment of the conclusion. Different criteria can be used to draw different conclusions.
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    Decadal Variation and Evaluation of Flood Risk based on the Combination Weight of Game Theory
    ZHANG Lilan,LAI Chengguang,CHEN Xiaohong,HE Yanhu,YANG Bing,LI Wei
    2018, 38 (2):  217-225.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003018
    Abstract ( )   PDF (48618KB) ( )   Save
    Affected by global warming and intensifying human activities, floods have increased recently across China. In this context, the analysis of flood risk assessment and how the risk had evolved is of significance. According to disaster system theory, 10 indices were selected and classified into three driving factors that are disaster-inducing factor (Maximum 3-Day Precipitation, and Typhoon Frequency), hazard inducing environment (DEM, Slope, Distance to River, Topographic Wetness Index, Stream Power Index, and Runoff Coefficient) and hazard-affected body (Population and Gross Domestic Product), respectively. This study proposed a combination weight that combines the objective and subjective weights by game theory, and then applied the combined weight to an assessment model based on the Fuzzy comprehensive evaluation (FCE). Taking Beijiang River Basin, which is located in South China and had experienced typical urbanization during the last few decades, as a study case, this study assessed the flood risk in 1990, 2000 and 2010, respectively. According to the characteristic of the input indices, only Population, GDP and SPI were considered to evolve from time to time, while the other indices basically remain stable and represented the average annual value. The flood risk was divided into 5 levels: lowest risk, lower risk, middle risk, higher risk and highest risk; finally, the study analyzed the decadal spatial evolution during 1990~2010. After the assessment model was established, the calculating and visualization procedure were accomplished based on the ArcGIS interface. The results showed that: 1) among the 10 selected indices in the combined weight, typhoon frequency and maximum three-day precipitation were assumed to be the most important while population and GDP the least important; the combined weight determined by game theory can decide the proportion of subjective weight and objective weight, and by making some abnormal values of certain index in single weight more reasonable, it can avoid the shortcomings of one-sidedness of single weights; 2) flood risk was basically stable in Beijiang River Basin in the past two decades, where low risk zone occupied most of the basin (60%), and higher and highest risk zones took up around 20%; among the highest risk zone were the cities of Qingyuan, Huaiji, Fogang and Wengyuan, which generally have adverse natural conditions, such as greater precipitation, lowlands and gentle slopes, and denser population and more developed industries; 3) the high risk zones showed an expanded trend during the last 2 decades; and the trend was more significant in the second decade (2000-2010) than in the first decade (1990-2000) with cities of Qujiang and Nanxiong transferring from higher risk zones to highest risk zones, that is the result of the combined effort of severer changes in land used type, population and property of the basin. Regional flood risk is a combined effort of natural factors and human society, and thus it changes over time, the reveal of the evolution law in the study would be of great significance in the plan of land development and urban flood control.
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    Modification of Reservoir Module in SWAT Model and its Application of Runoff Simulation in Highly Regulated Basin
    LI Wei,CHEN Xiaohong,HE Yanhu,ZHANG Lilan
    2018, 38 (2):  226-235.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003033
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    Humans have altered the water cycle with methods such as construction of dams. Large dams and reservoirs can significantly modify the natural flow within channels, as well as the distribution of water in the basin. This kind of changes will evidently affect the runoff simulation which is of high importance in many kinds of hydrological research issues. The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), one of the most popular hydrological models over the world, was designed for use on rural basins, and only take simple human activities into account. The algorithm in the reservoirs module of SWAT was designed for those dams just with flood control needs, and it unavoidably made the model not suitable enough for such basins with highly regulated reservoirs, especially in the application at daily time step. To consider the operations of reservoirs in runoff simulation, a new algorithm for reservoirs with predefined complex operational rules was integrated into SWAT in this paper, and the rules adopted were designed for the benefits including water supply, electricity generation, and flood control. The paper was aiming at providing users of SWAT model with a simple and convenient way to deal with reservoirs in runoff simulation and improving the runoff simulation of SWAT model in regions with highly regulated reservoirs at both daily and monthly time steps. The performance of the modified model was tested at daily and monthly time steps over the East River (Dongjiang) Basin in China. After comparing the outputs of runoff simulation before and after modification, the results showed that the modified SWAT model could solve the problem that the simulated outflow of reservoirs had been too low in non-flood seasons and excessive in flood seasons before. Moreover it could work out a better output in runoff simulation at both monthly and daily time steps. The improvement of runoff simulation at the stations hugely impacted by dams was more remarkable. In addition, there is also an impressive result in the simulation of the water level in reservoirs. In terms of parameters, the sensitivities of SOL_K (Saturated hydraulic conductivity), SOL_AWC (Available water capacity of the soil layer) and GWQMN (Threshold depth of water in the shallow aquifer required for return flow to occur) became lower after modification. In details, at the monthly time step, the coefficient of determination (R2) was increased by 0.06~0.22 in calibration period and 0.1~0.19 in validation period , while the Nash-Sutcliff Efficiency (NS) was increased by 0.06~0.52 in calibration period and 0.12~1.22 in validation period after modification; at the daily time step, R2 was increased by 0.04~0.16 in calibration period and 0.11~0.15 in validation period, while NS was increased by 0.04~0.46 in calibration period and 0.15~1.21 in validation period after modification. Although the accuracy of the model is limited by the error in simulating the process upstream of the reservoirs, the improvement of the runoff simulation in the East River Basin is still significant after modification. Thus, it is a valuable reference for hydrological simulation in such watersheds that are hugely affected by reservoirs operations.
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    Research on the Recognization of the Impact of Climate Change and Urbanization on Surface Warming Using Subsurface Heat Tracer
    DONG Linyao,YU Zhiqiang,XU Jinxin
    2018, 38 (2):  236-243.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003022
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    Greenhouse gas emissions and urbanization both contributes to the surface warming events, but in two different modes, and it has been difficult to separate these two influences. Subsurface heat is an effective implement to detect and separate these two effects. Subsurface temperature-depth profiles in 28 observation wells in urban and rural areas in Kumamoto plain, Japan, was observed to inversely detect the surface warming rate based on the analytical solution of one dimensional unsteady water-heat flow transport equation, and the air temperature in 7 meteorological stations was also analyzed for comparative purpose. The results show the following: (1)The estimated surface warming values range from 0.34 °C (well No. 23) to 1.91 °C (well No. 13). The high surface temperature increase commonly occurs in the urban areas, whereas the low surface temperature increase mainly occurs in the rural areas. Only well No. 18 shows a relatively low surface temperature increase (0.78 °C). It is located in the central part of Kumamoto city with an urban land use since 1965. (2)The average GST increase obtained from temperature-depth profiles in the expanded urban area is about 1.51°C, while the average increase estimated in the rural wells is about 0.81°C. It is highly probable that the urbanization effect contributes the same amount as climate change to surface warming in the study area, and the subsurface heat can serve as an effective tracer to detect this phenomenon; (3)The surface warming rates in SAT of M1–M3 range from 0.04 to 0.054 °C per year, while the rates in SAT of M4-M7 are about 0.025°C per year. The impacts of urbanization and climate change on SAT visible in the data. The meteorological stations M1-M3 lie in the expanded urban areas, and the surface warming rates were associated with both the urbanization and climate change issues. Stations M4-M7 are located in the rural areas, and the surface warming rates were caused only by the climate change. The surface warming rates obtained from the fitted SAT series indicate that the urbanization contributes the same amount to the rising of SAT as climate change. The contribution of urbanization to surface warming was confirmed by the SAT records from 1978 to 2012. The average SAT increase in expanded urban area from 1987 to 2012 is 1.13 °C, while the average increase in the rural area is 0.59 °C. The urbanization effect thus contributes the same amount as climate change to the increase of SAT. A direct link was found between ground surface and air temperatures. The urbanization effects contribute the same amount as climate change to the increase of both GST and SAT. However, the variations of estimated GST are higher than the observed SAT, which might be associated with the different mechanisms involved in the variations driven processes of GST and SAT. The temperature-depth profile serves as an effective tracer to separate urbanization from climate change effects on the surface warming. However, the uncertainty involved during the calculation process limits the employment of the heat tracer implement, and the approach needs to be investigated deeply.
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    Electrical Resistivity Tomography of Volcanic Crater Structure and Quaternary Lacustrine Sediments of Jiudouyang Maar Paleolake, Leizhou Peninsula
    ZENG Lifeng,CHEN Cong,ZHENG Zhuo,XIAO Fan,HUANG Kangyou,MAN Meiling,TIAN Liping
    2018, 38 (2):  244-254.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003031
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    Maars, formed by phreatomagmatic eruptions, are major concern of volcanology and paleoenvironment research. There are many Quaternary maars located in Leiqiong Volcanic Field, south China, which provide excellent archives for paleoenvironmental reconstructions. To clarify the spatial distribution of Quaternary sediments and volcanic structure of Jiudouyang maar paleolake, Leizhou Peninsula, we conducted electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) imaging surveys in the crater, accompanying with core drilling that was used to verify the resistivity results. Two profiles along the major and minor axis of the crater respectively, comprised of five segments with lengths varying from 900 to 1 200 m, were collected by means of Wenner array with 10 m electrode spacing. They were inverted by using Res2dinv software, and the result allowed imaging the uppermost 150 m strata. The basalt bedrock with higher resistivity (more than 80 Ω?m) is distinct from the upper Quaternary sediments and the interface is approximately flat, revealing that the crater basin has a bowl-like shape rather than a funnel shape. Moreover, magma conduit is characterized by abnormal high resistivity (up to 300 Ω?m), which is surrounded by the underlying Quaternary sediments (e.g., the Zhanjiang Formation or the Beihai Formation). Volcanic structure as above is corresponding with universal model of soft-substrate maars but not hard-substrate maars. In contrast, the upper Quaternary lacustrine sediments are characterized by low resistivity (less than 60 Ω?m) areas where the thickness varies between 25 and 50 m. Based on variations in lithology, the sediments sequence can be divided into five units from top to bottom: Unit 1 (0-6.18 m), reddish yellow clay and fine sand with occasionally irregular gravel (1.96-3.07 m); Unit 2 (6.18-11.70 m), green-greyish clay; Unit 3 (11.70-13.37 m), organic-rich clay with wood fragments and organic detritus; Unit 4 (13.37-38.51 m), green-greyish diatomaceous clay to diatomite, with some varve-like laminae (29.23-31.86 m); Unit 5 (38.51-47.60 m), diatomite laminae with a layer of tephra and scoria (38.51-39.55 m); Unit 6 (47.60-49.49 m), tephra and pyroclastic breccia, overlying the unweathered basalt. Despite of some slight offsets in depth resulted from the limit of spatial resolution of ERT, it shows agreement between the coring stratigraphy and electrical resistivity profiles. For instance, organic-rich clay layer (Unit 3) is corresponding to the lowest values of resistivity result (<5 Ω?m), because of its lower density and higher water content. Overall, we have successfully imaged the volcanic structures and sediment spatial distributions, and testified that electrical resistivity tomography would be an ideal method to provide fundamental information for other researches.
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    A Model for Optimizing Chinese Addresses’ Geocoding Results from Multiple Map APIs Based on Clustering and Classifying
    LIAO Weiwei,LIU Lin,ZHOU Suhong,Song Guangwen,LI Qiuping,LIU Kai
    2018, 38 (2):  255-263.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003007
    Abstract ( )   PDF (1556KB) ( )   Save
    Online geocoding services are capable of transforming text-based addresses into spatial positional data on the map conveniently and efficiently. However, inaccuracies exist in all online geocoding services, and the quantity differs among the services providers. Therefore, it is necessary to filter and optimize geocoded results for improving the accuracy. In this paper, we developed a multi-source integration model for optimizing online geocoding results of Chinese addresses based on a clustering algorithm. The model assesses inconsistencies among various online geocoding providers and come up with an optimal result. It is capable of fast geocoding of massive collections of Chinese addresses efficiently using the application programming interfaces (APIs) of the online geocoding services, including Amap, Baidu and Tencent. First, data-cleaning rules are applied to examine whether the online geocoding results are credible or not. Then, the credible geocoding results are further improved through a random forest based on clustering optimization algorithm. A training address sample with known precise location, consisting of 2000 addresses of theft, is clustered based on hierarchical clustering method. The addresses are divided into 8 groups through clustering and then used to train the random forest model, resulting an accuracy of 95.36%. The trained model is then validated using a second sample, also containing 2000 addresses of theft. Our experiments have found the following: 1) for addresses with mediocre level of standardization, Amap geocoding service has the highest quality, but still has the significant spatial inaccuracy; 2) the spatial confidence values and geographic level fed back from geocoding APIs are capable of reflecting the quality of geocoding; 3) locational accuracy of the model is significantly higher than those of the three providers. Overall, for the training sample, the mean of Amap’s error distance is up to 590.43 m. The model improves the accuracy to 173.73 m, with 87.78% of the addresses geocoded. For the validation sample, the model improves the mean of error distance from 554.88 m to 180.04 m, with 90.08% of the abnormal geocoding results from Amap rejected. The accuracy and geocoding success rates of the two samples are rather similar; and 4) the model is able to optimize geocoding results of addresses in both urban and suburb areas with comparable accuracies, which suggests that the model can be widely applicable. In sum, the model is capable of converting massive text-based Chinese addresses into spatial locations effectively and efficiently, and improving online geocoding accuracy through clustering and optimization.
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    Spatial-Temporal Differentiation Characteristics of Conversions among Different Land Use Systems in Metropolitan Areas: A Case Study of Guangzhou City
    LI Jiahui,DONG Yuxiang
    2018, 38 (2):  264-273.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003034
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    A land use conversion index was constructed based on vector data about land use types of Guangzhou in 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, and 2010 and in virtue of buffer analysis, Lorenz curve, and other research methods. With this index, analysis was conducted on the spatial-temporal differentiation characteristics of conversions among different land use systems in Guangzhou under different levels of human influences. According to results of the study: 1) the proportion of artificial systems in Guangzhou is on a gradual increase and shows a spatial evolution characteristic of expanding from the center to the outside gradually; the proportion of natural systems in the entire system is decreasing gradually, while semi-artificial systems account for a gradually stable proportion of the entire system but the gravity center of this part begins to deviate from the urban center and expands to the periphery little by little. 2) As a whole, the functional pattern of the land use systems in Guangzhou shows a trend of changing from being dominated by ecological and production functions to a pattern where ecological, production, and living functions co-exist. 3) The mode of conversion among land use systems in Guangzhou has changed. From 1990 to 2000, conversion from semi-artificial systems with production function to artificial systems with living function prevailed, while during 2000~2010, the major conversion was from natural systems with ecological function to artificial systems with living function, with these artificial systems driving the changes in the land use function structure.
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    Simulation of Land Use Change in Coal Mining Area under Different Scenarios based on the CLUE-S model: A Case Study of Jiawang Mining Area in Xuzhou City
    LI Baojie,GU Hehe,JI Yazhou
    2018, 38 (2):  274-281.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003029
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    Mining of mineral resources in China have contributed a lot to the economic boom for the past years. However, it produced many ecological and environmental problems as well. In recent years, land reclamation and ecological reconstruction in mining area has become an important solution to solve the confliction between the natural supply and human’s demand of land, improve ecological environment and ensure regional sustainable development. Evaluation of landscape pattern changes and ecological effects driven by coal mining is of great importance to keep ecosystem balance, sustainable utilization of land resources and coal resources green mining from local to regional scales. Based on the background above, The authors adopted CLUE-S model to simulate land-use distribution in 2016 which is set up through incorporating components describing the spatial autocorrelation into a classic logistic model by choosing policy factors, natural environment factors, socioeconomic factors, space constraint factors et al based on landscape disturbance index and landscape fragility with the landsat images in 1986, 1996, 2006 and 2016. Then three scenarios of land-use spatial allocation in Jiawang mining area in 2026, namely, trend development scenario, economic-oriented scenario and ecologically-oriented scenario were established through designing different restrictions on land-use transition when running CLUE-S model in GIS environment. The results show that: 1) The ROC values of five land use types under Auto-Logistic regression were all greater than those of traditional Logistic regression, which showed that the Auto-Logistic regression model was effective and the driving factors chosen could better explain land use change in the study area. The kappa index was 0.83 in simulation of the spatial of land use of 2016, which indicated that the model and the parameters can be used to forecast the future spatial distribution of land use in Jiawang mining area. 2) the construction land would increase ceaselessly,but unutilized land continued to declining under each scenario.Under ecological protection scenario, the expansion of construction land would be restricted due to the preservation of forest land and water resource. The study conclusions will provide data reference and basic information of decision support for watershed future land use planning, management and policy-making. 3) In the future research of LUCC simulation, this study set up three different situations according to the actual situation in the study area, the simulation results could provide some decision-making guidelines for the land use planning revision and future urban planning layout of Jiawang mining area, and it also would provide reference for the similar type research in the future.
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    Progress and Enlightenment on Tourism Development and Political Trust in the Foreign Tourism Research
    CHEN Pinyu,ZHU Chuncong
    2018, 38 (2):  282-292.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.003019
    Abstract ( )   PDF (672KB) ( )   Save
    The dynamics of trust and distrust are central to understanding modern society, social relations and development processes. However, numerous studies suggest that societal trust and citizens’ trust in government and its institutions are on the decline, challenging the legitimacy of government and leading to an undemocratic and unsustainable form of development. Tourism, as a tool to promote the local development, lays an important foundation of government affairs and political stability, but there are less attention being paid to the relationship between tourism development and political trust. Based on an outline of political trust in social sciences and combined with the Western scholars interpretation of empirical researches, this paper tries to summarize the main research topics about tourism development and political trust. The main research topics include the factors influencing political trust in the process of tourism development, political trust and support for tourism, political trust in the specific context of tourism development and the general level of political trust, and political trust and tourism politics. Finally, enlightenment to Chinese tourism studies will be discussed. It is not insignificant for the political trust in the tourism research. On the contrary, with the advent of the era of mass tourism, tourism industry is regarded as the dominant industry or pillar industry to drive social and economy development in many places, which is endowed with political missions to meet the macroeconomic challenges, create more employment opportunities and overcome poverty and achieve prosperity. And the political trust relates to achieving these goals. Introducing the political trust to Chinese tourism research, this paper aims at providing a new perspective and thinking both in theory and practice.
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