Table of Content

    05 January 2016, Volume 36 Issue 1 Previous Issue    Next Issue
    Review on the Study of Formation Mechanism of Coral Reefs
    ZHAO Huanting,WANG Lirong
    2016, 36 (1):  1-9.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002789
    Abstract ( )   PDF (5818KB) ( )   Save
    Coral reefs have been formed through accumulation of debris of scleractinian corals and associated organism in shallow water of the tropic ocean, most of which are distributed in both sides of equator of the Pacific, the Indian Ocean and the Atlantic. The study of the formation mechanism of coral reefs is very important to understand the tectonic movement of the earth and marine dynamics. Darwin firstly gave the theory of coral reefs’ formation mechanism about 200 years ago, since then many theories have been proposed, which can be classified into 2 groups according to the relationship between the formation of coral reefs and change of sea level. The theories which are related to the change of the seal level include: Darwin’s subsidence hypothesis, Penck and Daly’s glacial-control theory, Kuenen’s glacially controlled subsidence theory, Dietz and Hess’s spreading and subsidence theory, and Morgan’s hotspot subsidence theory. And the other theories which have nothing with sea level change include: Murray’s Sea floor uplift theory, Hoffmeister and Ladd’s antecedent-platform theory, and Yabe and Asano’s Karstic saucer theory. In the past decades, the studies on the revolution of coral reefs in the Pacific, the Indian Ocean and the Atlantic showed the factors which affected the structure and morphology of the coral reefs and how the reefs developed in the extreme events. The studies on formation mechanism of the coral reefs in China were started from about 50 years ago. The records of deep drilling in South China Sea shows that the corals reefs in China may form in accord with Subsidence theory and glacial subsidence theory, that is, the development and formation of coral reefs in South China Sea are in the slow subsidence of crust for a long time and controlled by the Quaternary glacial and inter glacial epoch. The formation of the coral reefs is so complicated and one theory could not be used to explain all coral reefs. With the development of the new way for field investigation and the application of new laboratory techniques, more data can be obtained and suitable formation model for specific reefs can be reached.
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    Terrace Topography of the Ganquan Plateau in the Xisha Area of the South China Sea
    ZHANG Jiangyong,HUANG Wenxing,LIU Shengxuan,JIANG Dapeng
    2016, 36 (1):  10-18.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002810
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    Topography of the Ganquan Plateau in the Xisha area of the South China Sea was studied using multibeam bathymetric data. The top of the Ganquan Plateau was flat with slopes generally less than 1°, but the topography was a three-level terrace tilting toward the southwest with water depth ranging from 550–700 m. At water depth of 600–850 m, submarine terraces commonly developed with up to 5 levels recognized, and the terraces in the west were more developed than those in the east of the Ganquan Plateau. It is preliminarily believed that the top and peripheral terrace topography of the Ganquan Plateau was a result of the combined effects of the global sea level change at the time scale of glacial-interglacial cycle and the crust subsidence of the South China Sea. These two influencing factors might control the development of the other coral reefs in the South China Sea as well. Talus topography developed at the periphery of the Ganquan Plateau at water depth between 850 and 1 300 m, which is speculated to result from deposits of coral fragments transported from the top of reefs. The more developed talus topography in the northwest compared to that in the southeast might be directly related to the southwest tilt of the top of the Ganquan Plateau.

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    Review on the Coralline Algae Functions in the Development Process of Coral Reefs
    LI Yinqiang,YU Kefu,WANG Yinghui,WANG Rui
    2016, 36 (1):  19-26.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002805
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    Coralline algae are common in calcified red algal groups and an essential component of coral reefs. In addition, they play an important role in the process of coral reef development: 1) Coralline algae provide calcium for building the reef body; 2) coralline algae have strong binding and gluing ability to glue the broken biological fragments together and build coral reefs that can withstand strong winds; 3) coralline algae’s hard calcareous surfaces provide rigid basements for coral larvae to attach and grow; 4) coralline algae promote energy flow in coral reef ecosystems through photosynthesis; 5) coralline algae’s high primary productivity helps to maintain the efficiency of material cycle in coral reef ecosystems. Current research on coralline algae is focused on coralline algae’s responses to environmental stresses such as global warming and ocean acidification, and on the relations between the community structure, species diversity and spatial and temporal variations of coralline algae and environment changes. Further studies will be conducive to reveal the multiple functions of coralline algae in coral reef ecosystems.

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    Sea Surface Temperature Variations during the Last 100 Years Recorded in a Porites Coral from the Mischief Reef of Sansha City
    LIN Ziyun,YU Kefu,SHI Qi,CHEN Tianran,TAO Shichen
    2016, 36 (1):  27-33.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002804
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    Sea surface temperature (SST) variation over the last 100 years was reconstructed with high-resolution Sr/Ca of a Porites coral from the Mischief Reef, Sansha City. The results showed that the annual average SST from 1906 to 2007 AD was 28.4°C with the maximum of 29.2°C in 1998 AD and the minimum of 27.6°C in 1917 AD. The SST of the Nansha Islands increased by 0.025°C/10 a during this period, similar to that of the Xisha Islands. The SST series displayed a significant decadal oscillation with a period of 33 years, suggesting a possible linkage between the SST and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. In addition, in the years when ENSO occurred, the SST was high, indicating the influence of ENSO in this area. In this paper, a Sr/Ca-SST relation was first established for the Mischief Reef and then the high-resolution SST record was extended to more than 100 years in this area. The SST variations were characterized and related mechanisms were explored.
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    The Negative Correlation between SST of the Northern South China Sea and the Strength of EASM on Inter-Annual and Inter-Decadal Time Scale
    ZHANG Huiling,YU Kefu,SHI Qi,YAN Hongqiang,CHEN Tegu
    2016, 36 (1):  34-40.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002797
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    Based on comparison of band-SST of Porites from Northern South China Sea and δ18O records from Wanxiang Cave, Gansu province and Dongge Cave, Guizhou province, this paper revealed the relationship between SST of the Northern South China Sea and strength of East Asian Summer Monsoon (EASM). On inter-annual and inter-decadal time scale, there is a negative correlation between SST of the Northern South China Sea and the strength of EASM. When SST rises, the value of stable oxygen isotope becomes heavier and the strength of EASM weakens, and vice versa. The comparison of instrument-measured SST and δ18O record from stalagmite WX42B, Wanxiang Cave verified the relationship. ENSO influences the rainfall of the monsoon region and controls the SST of the Northern South China Sea. ENSO may directly result in the negative correlation between SST of the Northern South China Sea and the strength of EASM. But the relationship between ENSO and rainfall of the monsoon region is complicated, the relationship between SST of the Northern South China Sea and local monsoon regions still needs further study.
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    Reef Water pH Variation and Its Implications for Ocean Acidification
    CHEN Xuefei,WEI Gangjian,DENG Wenfeng,ZOU Jieqiong
    2016, 36 (1):  41-47.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002803
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    In the recent century, it is calculated that reef water pH has fallen by 0.2-0.3 pH units worldwide due to the increase of atmospheric CO2 concentration, threatening the life of coral reefs. However, the long-term variation of reef water pH revealed by δ11B in the calcareous skeletons of coral demonstrates eminent interannual and decadal periodicities, and the variation was a result of the combined influences of regional marine climate processes and biological activities in the reef ecosystem. Metabolism in reef waters controls the dynamics of carbonate system parameters and regulates the variations of water pH. Influenced by global climate and environmental changes and regional marine climate processes, biological activities in reef water exert effects on variations of seawater pH, resulting in differential responses to ocean acidification from coral reef water of different sea areas. Therefore, learning the effects of the biological activities of coral reefs on marine water pH at long-term time scales is very important for understanding the acidification mechanisms of coral reef waters, and it is also an important means to learn how the coral reef ecosystem responds to ocean acidification.
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    Isotopes of Carbon, Nitrogen, Boron in Reef Coral as Proxies of Ocean Acidification
    HAN Tao,YU Kefu,TAO Shichen
    2016, 36 (1):  48-54.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002796
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    Ocean acidification, caused by the increasing atmospheric CO2 levels, has not only decreased seawater pH, but also changed the carbonate equilibrium so that the aragonite saturation state has decreased, which has lead to the decrease of calcification rates. Researches show that 13C, 11B and 15N of the coral skeleton have the capacity of recording Suess Effect, productivity, seawater pH and nutrient source. The main characteristics are: its 11B records seawater pH, 13C records sea water dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) 13C and productivity, and 15N records terrestrial input. The combination of those proxies can indicate “the shelf carbon pumping” of the South China Sea and the coastal pollution effects on ocean acidification. However, researches on records of ocean acidification in coral reefs are insufficient, our understanding of ocean acidification, climate variability and global carbon, nitrogen cycle can be deepened by the application of such combination, which may be an important tool of revealing sea water pH change regularity.
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    Sustainable Development of the Coral Reefs in the South China Sea Islands
    ZHAO Huanting,WANG Lirong,YUAN Jiayi
    2016, 36 (1):  55-65.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002800
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    Coral reefs are the most productive and diverse of all marine ecosystems. In recent years, coral reefs are in degradation under the threats of natural events and human activities, such as climate change, sea-level rising, ocean acidification, over-fishing, sedimentation, contamination and regional development. How to protect coral reefs so that they can produce ecosystem goods and services sustainably to meet the needs of today and future is focused on in recent years. Related concepts and approaches of sustainable development of coral reefs are introduced in this paper. The potential of sustainable development of and the pressure faced by the coral reefs in the South China Sea Islands are also analyzed. Finally, several sustainable development methods for the coral reefs in the South China Sea Islands are proposed, such as MPA, ICZM, and EBM.
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    Ecological Situation of Coral Reefs in the Weizhou Island Based on Reef Check
    CHEN Gang,ZHAO Meixia,LIU Bin,ZHANG Chunhua,LIANG Qun
    2016, 36 (1):  66-71.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002807
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    In this article, Reef Check (coral reef health survey procedure) and factor analysis of coral reef ecosystem health index were used to evaluate the health status of the coral reefs at three sites (Zhuzheliao, Gongshan and Niubeikeng) of the Weizhou Island, Beihai, Guangxi Province from 2001 to 2012, focusing on fishes, invertebrates and reef substrates. The investigation results indicated that, during the nine years, coral reef ecological conditions showed big differences in different peripheral regions of the Weizhou Island. Although coral reef coverage was stable in Zhuzheliao and Niubeikeng, dominant population changed. But in Gongshan, coral death has occurred over a large area since 2002 and has not recovered up till now. Invertebrates were at extremely low levels, and fishes were also poor in both population quantity and diversity. This indicated that in this region, the coral reef ecosystem bore a heavy pressure from human activities.

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    A Review on the Research of Coral Reefs in the Weizhou Island, Beibu Gulf
    WANG Wenhuan,YU Kefu,WANG Yinghui
    2016, 36 (1):  72-79.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002806
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    The coral reefs in the Weizhou Island (WZR) are located at the northern margin of the tropical zone, and have been developing on the volcanic rocks for at least 7000 years. This paper reviewed the related studies on the coral reefs and summarized the characteristics of WZR as follows: 1) The living coral covers of WZR have substantially declined over the past two decades. For example, the coral cover reduced by 51.6% in the north (2009–2010), by 42.42% in the southeast (1991–2010), and by 71.55% in the southwest (1991–2010); 2) the relatively high-latitude Weizhou Island is an ideal site for testing the refuge hypothesis that, under the background of global warming, corals are migrating from low-latitude areas to high-latitude areas; 3) as the basement rocks of WZR are volcanic rocks, this is an excellent case for testing Darwin’s atoll origin hypothesis; 4) the Weizhou Island is experiencing heavy anthropogenic activities, thus it is a natural laboratory to study the interactions between human and coral reefs and how this relatively high-latitude coral reef responds to the global warming, extreme climatic events and anthropogenic stresses. Therefore, as an important resource, the WZR are not only of vital ecological and environmental significance as other coral reefs, but also of unique scientific value and deserve close attention for effective protection.

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    Review on Ecological Restoration Theories and Practices of Coral Reefs
    QIN Zhenjun,YU Kefu,WANG Yinghui
    2016, 36 (1):  80-86.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002809
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    Coral reefs are degraded rapidly by the global warming and large-scale human activities around the world, especially in the South China Sea (SCS). Coral reef restoration has caught the attentions of researchers and volunteers in recent years. Related theories and technologies are to be developed, but undoubtedly, the most important strategy is to protect the eco-environment of coral reefs to avoid further damage. For coral reef restoration, coral transplantation is a promising way. After corals are transplanted, the damaged tissues can be repaired in a few days, the immune system can be rebuilt, and the symbiont (zooxanthellae) community structure can be changed to enhance coral’s adaptation to the new environment. Gardening and captive breeding are effective ways to provide transplantation materials while artificial reefs are an important means to help establish coral development base. Creating and maintaining the growth environment for corals can help to raise the efficiency of ecological restoration. Spread and survival of coral larva can be promoted with the help of favorable water flow, chemical induction and microtopography. The environment-tolerant capacity and recovery potential of corals and they symbiotic zooxanthellae can be improved using molecular technologies. Coral restoration technologies including coral transplantation, gardening, artificial reefs, coral repair and captive coral breeding can be employed effectively in lots of areas.

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    Research Progress in the Engineering Geological Characteristics of Coral Reefs
    YUAN Zheng,YU Kefu,WANG Yinghui,MENG Qingshan,WANG Ren
    2016, 36 (1):  87-93.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002808
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    Coral reefs are a special geological structure developed in the tropical marine environment. The structure consists of coral reef and other marine organism fragments. This review is focused on the significance of studying coral reef engineering, composition of coral reefs, the physico-mechanical properties of calcareous sands, pile foundation engineering in coral reefs, and coral concrete. Particle crushing is the most important property of calcareous sands and affects other mechanical properties directly; and in turn, it is mainly affected by confining pressure, effective stress, grain composition, initial void ratio, particle strength and particle shape. Pile foundation bearing capacity in calcareous sands is lower than that in common silica sands due to particle crushing and disturbance of calcareous sand structure by the pile-forming process. In coral concrete engineering, concrete made with sulfate-resistant cement has good strength and durability. Future research should be focused on the mechanisms and modeling of particle crushing, new types of coral reinforced concrete and pile foundation, disaster prevention and management and later maintenance of coral reef projects.
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    A Review of Recent Research on Cold-Water Coral Reefs
    ZHAO Meixia,YU Kefu.
    2016, 36 (1):  94-100.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002802
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    Coral reefs are generally associated with shallow tropical seas; however, there are widespread and diverse coral ecosystems in deep waters on continental shelves, slopes, seamounts and ridges around the world. Cold-water corals have been known since the 18th century, but much fewer studies have been performed on deep-sea coral reefs compared with on tropical coral reefs. Along with the applications of modern submersibles and remotely operated vehicles (ROVs) to deep ocean exploration activities, more and more studies have been conducted and deep-sea coral reefs have become a research hotspot recently. This review includes: 1) the diversity and biogeographical distribution of cold-water corals; 2) the growth characteristics of corals and related environmental controls; 3) the initiation and development of deep-sea coral reefs; 4) the response of corals to ocean acidification; 5) corals as valuable archives for paleoceanographic reconstructions. It also highlights the future research directions of cold-water coral reefs in the South China Sea.
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    Spatial Variability in Summer Phytoplankton Community from Offshore to Coastal Surface Waters of the Northwestern South China Sea
    LI Gang,NI Guangyan,SHEN Pingping,YI Rong,HUANG Liangmin,TAN Yehui
    2016, 36 (1):  101-107.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002811
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    Results are mainly presented about the spatial changes in phytoplankton chlorophyll a (chl a) concentration, community structure and picoplankton abundance (i.e. Synechococcus and pico- eucaryotes) from offshore to coastal surface waters of the South China Sea in the summer period of 2013. Total chl a concentration increased from 0.024 to 19.1 μg·L-1 from offshore to coastal waters. Coinciding well with chl a, the proportion of microplankton (>20 μm) increased from 6.0%-81%, while that of picoplankton (<3 μm) decreased from 85% to 5.1%; and the proportion of nanoplankton (3-20 μm) ranged during 9%-24% and showed no clear spatial change. There was a positive correlation of Synechococcus and pico-eucaryote abundances that increased towards the coastal waters from (2.58±0.21)×106 to (2.29±0.10)×108 cells·L-1 and from (1.62±0.91)×105 to (1.83±0.46)×107 cells·L-1, respectively. In addition, our results indicated that the spatial variability of total surface phytoplankton biomass was mainly regulated by picoplankton abundance in the surveyed waters.
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    Diversity of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea in the Surface Sediments of the Northern Continental Slope of the South China Sea
    LIU Guohui,WU Houbo
    2016, 36 (1):  108-113.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002801
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    Surface sediment samples were taken from three sites of different water depths at the northern continental slope of the South China Sea to investigate the community structure of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was employed to amplify the archaeal ammonia monooxygenase α subunit (amoA) gene of AOA. Amplicons of the amoA gene sequences were used to understand the diversity and phylogenetic relationship of AOA. The main results were as follows: 1) All of the archaeal amoA gene sequences from the three locations were affiliated to Group I.1a Thaumarchaeota; 2) all of the archaeal amoA gene sequences from the three locations were phylogenetically closely related; and 3) the 16S rRNA gene and amoA gene phylogenetic trees were of congruent topology. Thaumarchaeota accounted for 40% of the total archaea, indicating that AOA might play an important role in the nitrogen biogeochemical cycling in the surface sediments of the northern continental slope of the South China Sea.
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    He Devotes Himself to the Marine Research and Never Slacks:Celebrating the 80th Birthday of Professor Zhao Huanting and 60th Anniversary Being Engaged in Scientific Research on Marine Geology and Geomorphology
    WANG Lirong
    2016, 36 (1):  114-121.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002798
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    Research Professor Zhao Huanting has been engaged in scientific researches on earth science and marine science for 60 years. Being a college student, he learned from Prof. Zeng Zhaoxuan about the knowledge of geology and geomorphology and the methods of field investigation. As a researcher, he is diligent in field work and committed to innovation. In recent years, Zhao Huanting continues to participate in several national key science consulting projects and science-technology research. He published the books of Coral reefs in the west bank of Xuwen in Guangdong Province and served as the editor in chief of Receiving the Nansha Islands-the papers of Zhuo Zhenxiong and Mai Yunyu, while writing some academic papers and books. He also finished some research papers about coral reefs on the formation mechanism, the morphological model, the fresh-water lens in lime-sand islands and building of artificial islands. Zhao was awarded the Guangdong Provincial and National Prizes for progress in Science and Technology, respectively, in 2012 and 2014.
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    Progress in Domestic and Foreign Study on Spatial Layout of Public Service Facilities
    CHENG Shunqi,QI Xinhua,JIN Xingxing,LI Damou,LIN Han
    2016, 36 (1):  122-131.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002795
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    One of the important reasons for the recent divergence in and outside our country is the gap among the levels of public service. As the carriers of the public service, the scientific and effective space layout of public service facilities is significant to realize the equalization of public service. This paper is a review of public service facilities spatial layout research at home and abroad. According to the time sequence, we discuss the progress in spatial layout studies from the research perspective, method and topics. The results show that: the theme of the foreign research experiences an evolution from layout pattern, space layout of the equality, and accessibility to spatial layout of the social differentiation and its formation mechanism; the perspective of foreign research develops from pure quantitative geography to multi-interdisciplinary subject crossing other subjects such as economics and sociology; the method develops from model establishment to integration of GIS and other methods. There exist significant gaps between the research in China and that in foreign countries. In China, the interdisciplinary mixture is insufficient. The methods are mainly derived from abroad on the whole. The theme of the study is narrow. We put forward some suggestions for future research: expand the connotation of accessibility and the connotation of fairness metrics to measure the equality, integrate multiple facilities layout based on the people-oriented idea, pay more attention to the promptness and variability of facilities, make full use of big data to carry out empirical research on small scale, realize equalization of public service facilities under the background of balancing the urban and rural areas.
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    Spatial-Temporal Distribution and Influence Factors of Population Migration in Typical Mountainous Area,Chongqing
    KANG Weina,SHAO Jing’an,GUO Yue
    2016, 36 (1):  132-141.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002793
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    The township population migration coefficient and the intensity of the rural population migration coefficient of Shizhu County in 2004 and 2014 are set as measurement indexes. By using GIS-ESDA spatial analysis method, the spatial correlation index, variation function and the dual Logistic regression model, we explore the characters of the spatial patterns of the population migration and its influence factors of the county between 2004 and 2014. The results show that: 1) During recent decade, the overall spatial pattern of population migration shows strong spatial positive correlation and the spatial aggregation degree increases. 2) Regarding to the hotspot, the concentration of population migration is obvious in the high value area, while that just happens in some places in the low value area. Looking at the revolution of the hotspot, the hotspot area of the population migration coefficient is expanded from agglomeration into the belt-shaped distribution along the river, while cold spot area is not changed significantly. The evolution of the intensity coefficient of rural population transfer in the hot zone has experienced development of “discrete-multi core”, and cold spot transition area tends to shrink. 3) The significant differences of randomness and the structure in the total variation of apparent indicate the imbalance of population migration and the increase of concentration year by year. 4) Internal factors drive population migration differently. Among them, the effects of the migration experience, the total income of the family, the number of labor force and the degree of road connection are most significant. Both of the family burdens and the topography of the area are characterized by their uniqueness and complexity.
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    Morphology Development and Optimization of Huangzhou Urban Area Based on Space Syntax
    HE Fei,HUANG Yongqi
    2016, 36 (1):  142-149.  doi: 10.13284/j.cnki.rddl.002799
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    Based on the urban road network of Huangzhou in 1995, 2005 and 2013, through axis map analysis of space syntax and embedding Axwoman 6.0 system into GIS general technical platform, this paper establishes spatial synergy degree of city in different periods from global integration values and local integration values and discusses the relationship between the road network pattern and urban morphology. The results show that: The high diagram of global integration region of Huangzhou urban area extends continuously from “axis” to “area”; The urban space has a high synergy degree as a whole, with a downward trend; urban morphology shows core-expanding, space- complicating and form-disordering characteristics. We argue that Huangzhou’s problems are: single-center structure and increasingly chaotic urban morphology. Therefore, we put forward some suggestions for the development of the city as follows: 1) More centers should be built to release the function of urban core; 2) Traffic system should be planned more reasonably to promote the development of surrounding districts; 3) Urban land use should be planned more scientifically to reverse the chaotic development trend.
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